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  1. 1. Purposes:For this task we are working in pairs. I will be writing about the purposesof film editing and some of the conventions and techniques used. Editingand cutting is used in all films some break the rules for a purpose andsome use too many it looks messy. On this blog I will show the technicalconventions used by editors to connect with the audience.StorytellingThis is the main purpose of a film I think because the audience has to beable to understand and follow a film by using some kind of storysequence. Storytelling gives the film motives, a reason for doingsomething. The main motive is to entertain, thats what the audiencewant to see. Some movies have a motive but go of track and the film getsconfused so when editing, editors have to make sure everything makessense in every edit. When storytelling in obvious in a film it’s usuallybecause there is a clear message in the film, this is to enlighten theaudience and learn something from this film however small or stupid it is.Engaging the audience is a key point because in the end they are yourreal critics. It appeals to all audiences even though when you think of theword story you think of children, a plot can be told in so many ways, andit’s all up to the editor how things are shown and implied to the audience.For example reality TV shows are all edited to how the editor wants theaudience to see it. Each films motive is aimed at different audiences. Afamous editor called Alfred Hitchcock used his skill in editing to createsuspense in most of his films. This will engage the viewer;Hitchcock’sfilms were horror/thriller based which is harder to show a good storyin but good editors can use the technique in whatever genre.Development of DramaDrama is a genre that can turned into comedy, horror,thriller,actionbasically can be combined with all other genres to develop it. They areplot driven, this is what holds the film together because the audiencewant to know what happens next. Some dramas end of cliff hangers, thisis a technique used to keep the audience guessing after the film. Howevermost dramas round up at the end but use a lot of suspense and try tomake the audience think. Alfred Hitchcock’s type of editing is good fordramas because he was known as the master of suspense. One quotefrom Hitchcock was always make the audience suffer as much aspossible. Now dramas are back on screens in films and TV series muchmore this quote is used again when editors are putting shots together.It’s a big selling point if people are excited to know what happens.Trailers give enough for people to want to watch the films, they are a bigpart of films and so is the editing for them. This is what gets the audience
  2. 2. interested. In most trailers for drama genre the type of suspense to beexpected in the film is shown through the trailer so the audience knowstyle and techniques are coming. In drama there is a lot that can bedeveloped; life, settings,characters,plot.. Editors can do all this by theway they cut shots or spend longer on suspense than the climax. The waythe editors manipulate footage together can determine the intensity ofthe clip, also using different camera shots from the same clips can benefita film and develop the drama. For editors to do a good job on a dramaone of the main things they have to remember is to develop realisticcharacters this is because most films aim to tell an honest human story.Relationship to genreWhen editing a film, they use all different techniques to illustrate andmake the genre clear. The genre of a film is important to show throughfirst the trailer to target the right audience and get people wanting to seeit and then carrying it on through the film making it stronger. The wayfilms are edited make people’s emotions stronger and captures theaudience to draw them in. Romance films are quite easy to edit to showthe genre clear because of how editors can make characters seem realtogether and make the audience believe everything. It takes a good scriptdirector and editor to really make the audience feel a connection to themain characters in the film. A lot of mid-shots are used in romance filmsto show the body language of the characters towards each other andmake us feel closer to know more connected. They also use close ups sowe can see facial expressions and how the characters are feeling in acertain scene which in romance films its usually always happy and lustful.The notebook is a good example of old fashioned film love where thingsare always romantic or the complete opposite. The humour in Romancefilms is usually just shared between the characters it’s not specifically forthe audience to laugh at more to ‘aww’ at. In this scene from thenotebook we see the romance at its height then they argue and then theyare back in love again. This genre is used to play with the viewer’semotions. We see the close up and mid shot in this scene. Comedies are a newer way of showing romance, we see a lotmore funny scenes this is a typical part of the films. They meet fall in lovesomething happens they break up go out with friends do somethingstupid and then get back together. There is usually a sad scene to makethe audience feel emotion for the characters or a certain one too. Theyalways end emotional weather there happy or sad; in the end it’s just assoppy as an old school proper romance just with a few morelaughs. Because this is such a popular genre used and people usuallyknow what’s going to happen at the end editors have to try and make it abit different to keep people wanting to want to watch them. In this otherclip of the last scene of a film called The Break Up we see the couple who
  3. 3. have been on and off through this rom com and gone through a lot, seeeach other again after a long time and they say hi and walk away. This isa different ending to a film and leaves the viewer after the film to makeup their mind on what they think happened, did they get back together ornot? The scene shots a lot of close ups as we see how the characters lookso happy after bumping into each other again. MotivationThis is important when editing and making a film because the story needsto have stability and the edit needs to influence and have effect on theaudience. To create a motivation edit you need to make the continuitylook smooth making sure nothing looks jumpy and the position for theshot must be the same each time unless the angle or anything is meantto be changed. This is a challenging job for editors to try and showthrough the editing what the director and production team wanted toshow. It’s all about keeping the audience interested motivated basicallyso they enjoy the film and dont notice the editing, if they do it couldmake them distracted and not enjoy the film. Editing together montagesis a good way to create motivation because it can make audiences get afeel about someone in a quicker amount of time so this can make themfeel like they understand more because you’re letting them know littlethings that important. Lots of cuts in a certain scene will createmotivation too, not all the time but if there is a conversation going onthen maybe one person’s face to a mid-shot and a long shot of wherethey are back to their faces again rather than having one long shot.Cutting from one scene to another or one character to another willpersuade how the audience feel they will react positively or negatively tothe film. For example the clip below from the film Harry Potter and theDeathly Hallows part 2 shows characters all concentrating on Harry Potterwhich persuades the audience to feel scared and anxious for the safety ofHarry Potter. is also important to cut at the correct time to enable the narrative ofthe story progress and develop further. DW Griffith introduced narrativeand it is very heavily used in the Harry Potters films because of thecomplex story and plots. It is also important to choose the correct pace ofthe cut depending of the genre of the film and also particular characters.For example; a romantic comedy genre film the audience are made to feelsympathy and emotion for the main character so the cuts of thischaracter will be slow so that the audience are able to learn more aboutthem.Combining Shots into Sequences
  4. 4. This is getting loads of shots together that relate and get put together toexplain something, whetherit’s a present shot and then a flashback theyrelate and are put into a sequence of shots. If shots aren’t put into asequence then it can get confusing and the story becomes confusing andmixed up and the audience can’t relate or connect to anything. Combiningspecific shots into a sequence is done to help create a smooth flowingscene. Once all the individual shots have been corrected such as colourcorrecting so that they all match, they are able to be successfully editedtogether to merge one scene.By picking the right shots the editor is able to help the audienceunderstand where the sympathy needs to be given. I believe thistechnique have been successfully used in the 2008 film Changelingstarring Angelina Jolie; the narrative of this film is based upon a griefstricken mother who takes upon the LAPD when they stubbornly try topass of an obvious impostor as her missing child. The audience are awarethat this impostor isnt her child and the camera shots andediting techniques fully allow the audience to gain sympathy for Jolie. film is just lots of shots combined together to create a final edit andmake it look how the film is intended. Majority of films are shot with thecamera still however others like for example Cloverfiled is shot with ahand held camera style the shots are still put together in a smoothsequence but the shots are visibly shaky because of the movement of thecamera. These kind of films I would imagine are harder to cut together toavoid less shake and jerk than is needed for the audience to still beinterested and be able to watch it. scene from Cloverfiled shows exactly how the shots are hard tocombine because it has to look like the camera is just cutting out or beingturned off because it’s meant to be the people just filming continuously.So in this scene when the camera blacks out this is good editing becauseit looks as if the camera is breaking up and the image is being distorted.There is a lot of close ups a zooms as well this is so we can see facialexpressions and stress the point that the film is using hand held camera.Creating PaceWhen creating pace its usually a slow build up to a big scene. Scenes likethis usually start with a chase scene or running scene then the big climaxhappens after the big chase. Pace is usually created using music or slowcamera movement. It keeps the film even and makes sure the audience
  5. 5. doesnt feel like they missed anything when it gets to the end. It help tomake sure everything that the audience need to know is included and thatit doesnt get confusing or become pointless because the story gets lost.It’s used to speed up or slow down a film in certain parts for example ifthere is a romance scene or it’s a romance film usually they will slow itdown so the audience can connect and understand and feel part of thecharacters relationship. In Disney films the pace starts of slow we get toknow the characters and connect with them, but then there is always asad part where the pace speeds up because it’s getting more emotionaland its building up to the big happy ending. Action films are the maingenre for creating pace in though, it’s usually always fast paced it’s shownthrough short fast cuts from one to another. Drama films use slower pacethis is for the audience to understand the scene; they use longer shots inscenes. this scene from the hunger games the shots are all fast paced this is atense scene. At the start we see a long shot of Katniss in the tree then assoon as she sees the fire and starts running the shots are seconds apartwhich is a perfect example for fast paced editing. Its key to this scenebecause it builds tension for the audience and puts them on edge as soonas she jumps from the tree.