Consumer CultureConsumer CultureDr. E G. Ong,Esq., Ph.D., DBA, DPADr. E G. Ong,Esq., Ph.D., DBA, DPAReporter: Mylene M. Salem-BacaniReporter: Mylene M. Salem-Bacani
What Is ConsumerCulture? refers to a theory that human society is strongly influenced,even predominantly influenced, by consumerism. Thisconcept states that economic and social cultures are basedon the purchasing of commodities and services and thatsocial functioning and behaviour is bound up with thefostering a desire for these goods. It is also intricately bound up with notions of advertising andglobalization. Is closely to tied capitalism, because it is driven by money.What distinguishes it, though, is that it is not focused somuch on the power of money as it is on the happiness thatcan be attained through buying and owning personalproperty.
Brief HistoryBrief HistoryThe concept of "consumer cultures" is generally consideredto have originated in the early twentieth century, during theperiod known as Modernism.This was a time when advancements in productionmethods and communication, which had begun during theIndustrial Revolution at the end of the nineteenth century,led to a great deal of questioning about the ordering ofsociety.Mass migration to work in new factories producing suchitems as automobiles created a more fluid, less provincialsociety, less defined by rigid class structures, that becamedefined by increasing prosperity and thus the ability to buymore and more goods.Advertising and free market politics were developed toexploit this ability.
Aspects Of CultureAspects Of Culture Culture is not static.Culture is not static. 1. Ecology1. EcologyThe way in which a system is adapted to its habitat.The way in which a system is adapted to its habitat.Ex: The Japanese, greatly value products that are designedEx: The Japanese, greatly value products that are designedfor efficient use of space.for efficient use of space.2. Social Structure2. Social StructureThe way in which orderly social life is maintainedThe way in which orderly social life is maintainedEx: nuclear family VS extended familyEx: nuclear family VS extended family3. Ideology3. IdeologyThe mental characteristics of a people and the way in whichThe mental characteristics of a people and the way in whichthey relate to their environment and social group.they relate to their environment and social group.Ex: nuclear family VS extended familyEx: nuclear family VS extended family
Reality EngineeringReality EngineeringReality EngineeringReality Engineering Occurs as Elements of PopularCulture are Appropriated by Marketers and Converted toVehicles for Promotional Strategies.Reality Engineering is Accelerating dueto the Popularity of Product Placement.Reality Engineering is Accelerating dueto the Popularity of Product Placement.Product Placement is the Insertion ofSpecific Products/ Brand Names in Movies & TV.Product Placement is the Insertion ofSpecific Products/ Brand Names in Movies & TV.Media Images Appear to SignificantlyInfluence Consumers’ Perceptions of Reality.Media Images Appear to SignificantlyInfluence Consumers’ Perceptions of Reality.
77Cultural Categories:Cultural Categories: Age?Age? Genders?Genders? Sexual Preferences?Sexual Preferences? Regional/Demographics?Regional/Demographics? Social Classes?Social Classes?In aconsumer culture,you dontsellproducts,butpromisesof alifestyle.
Age trends in the USAAge trends in the USA– The median age of US consumers was 32.9 inThe median age of US consumers was 32.9 in1990 and was 35.3 in 2000.1990 and was 35.3 in 2000.– American adults (18+) make up more than 74American adults (18+) make up more than 74percent of the overall population.percent of the overall population.– The senior market is a growing segment withThe senior market is a growing segment withsignificant buying power.significant buying power.– Younger adults age 20-34 is shrinking.Younger adults age 20-34 is shrinking.Age and ConsumerAge and ConsumerIdentityIdentity
Age and ConsumerAge and ConsumerIdentityIdentity TeensTeens– Look to develop a distinct identity and self-image.Look to develop a distinct identity and self-image. Rock, hip-hop and rap music symbolizing rebellion are veryRock, hip-hop and rap music symbolizing rebellion are verypopular.popular. Clothing establishes an identity, a way of labelingClothing establishes an identity, a way of labelingindividuals.individuals.– Have a need to gain acceptance from peers.Have a need to gain acceptance from peers. Want independence but will not deviate from a group for fearWant independence but will not deviate from a group for fearof rejection.of rejection.– Have sophisticated decision making skills because they comeHave sophisticated decision making skills because they comefrom two career families or single parent families and they arefrom two career families or single parent families and they arerequired to make more decisions for themselves.required to make more decisions for themselves.– Are very tech savvy, using internet, cell phones, computers andAre very tech savvy, using internet, cell phones, computers andother digital devices to communicate, play games, do homeworkother digital devices to communicate, play games, do homeworkand shop.and shop.– Many earn their own money gaining financial independenceMany earn their own money gaining financial independenceearlier than previous generations.earlier than previous generations.
TeensTeens– Are considered thrifty and savvy shoppers.Are considered thrifty and savvy shoppers.– Are particular about how they spend their moneyAre particular about how they spend their money– Shop mostly on weekends with the females shoppingShop mostly on weekends with the females shoppingmore than males.more than males.– Find friends as a major source of information aboutFind friends as a major source of information aboutproducts.products.– Advertising often incorporates symbols, issues andAdvertising often incorporates symbols, issues andlanguage which they can relate.language which they can relate.– Music and sports are commonly used because they fallMusic and sports are commonly used because they fallinto the universal language of teenagers.into the universal language of teenagers.– Process information faster than earlier generations andProcess information faster than earlier generations andprefer short, snappy, phrases to long-winded explanations.prefer short, snappy, phrases to long-winded explanations.Age and ConsumerAge and ConsumerIdentityIdentity
Generation XGeneration X– Individuals born form 1965-1976Individuals born form 1965-1976– Stereotyped as feeling alienated andStereotyped as feeling alienated andresentful due to difficulties in careerresentful due to difficulties in careerplacement and advancement.placement and advancement.– Many believe in “status panic”.Many believe in “status panic”.– Called Boomerang kidsCalled Boomerang kidsAge and ConsumerAge and ConsumerIdentityIdentity
Generation Xer’sGeneration Xer’s– $120 plus billion in spending$120 plus billion in spending– Prefers customized offeringsPrefers customized offerings– Key segment for music, movies, travel, alcohol, fastKey segment for music, movies, travel, alcohol, fastfood, clothing, cosmeticsfood, clothing, cosmetics– Twenty-four percent of budget spend on eating out.Twenty-four percent of budget spend on eating out.– Cynical about obvious marketing techniquesCynical about obvious marketing techniques– Objectionable ads may contain: exaggerated claims,Objectionable ads may contain: exaggerated claims,stereotypes, cigarettes , alcohol, sexually explicitstereotypes, cigarettes , alcohol, sexually explicitcontent and political, religious or social messages.content and political, religious or social messages.Age and ConsumerAge and ConsumerIdentityIdentity
Baby BoomersBaby Boomers– Born between 1946-1964Born between 1946-1964– Largest demographic segment 78 millionLargest demographic segment 78 million– Heavy consumers of financial servicesHeavy consumers of financial services– Delayed child rearing (parents of someDelayed child rearing (parents of someXer’s and most Gen Y)Xer’s and most Gen Y)– Focus on staying youngFocus on staying youngAge and ConsumerAge and ConsumerIdentityIdentity
BoomersBoomers– Young AgainYoung Again: Individuals from age 50: Individuals from age 50to 65 tend to think of themselves as aboutto 65 tend to think of themselves as about15 years younger than they really are in15 years younger than they really are interms of cognitive age.terms of cognitive age.– Gray marketGray market: consumers over 65: consumers over 65Age and ConsumerAge and ConsumerIdentityIdentity
Boomers represent a critical growing marketing forBoomers represent a critical growing marketing forhealth-related and medical products and services,health-related and medical products and services, Already spend more than twice the nationalAlready spend more than twice the nationalaverage on prescription drugs, accounting for moreaverage on prescription drugs, accounting for morethan 40 percent of all pharmaceutical sales.than 40 percent of all pharmaceutical sales. Boomers have an active lifestyle, they buy leisureBoomers have an active lifestyle, they buy leisurebased products and services such as educationalbased products and services such as educationalseminars, travel and sporting goods.seminars, travel and sporting goods. Grandparents spend as much as $30 billion onGrandparents spend as much as $30 billion onclothing, toys and other goods and services for theirclothing, toys and other goods and services for theirgrandchildren.grandchildren.Age and ConsumerAge and ConsumerIdentityIdentity
How Gender and SexualHow Gender and SexualOrientation affect ConsumerOrientation affect ConsumerBehaviorBehavior Men and Women behave based on sex-Men and Women behave based on sex-roles learned early in childhood and definedroles learned early in childhood and definedby their culture.by their culture.– In Western Societies men previously wereIn Western Societies men previously wereguided byguided by agentic goalsagentic goals that stress mastery,that stress mastery,self-efficacy, strength, and assertiveness;self-efficacy, strength, and assertiveness;characterized as being emotionless.characterized as being emotionless.– Women, in western societies have been guidedWomen, in western societies have been guidedbyby communal goalscommunal goals that stress affiliation andthat stress affiliation andfostering harmonious relations with others;fostering harmonious relations with others;characterized as being submissive, emotionalcharacterized as being submissive, emotionaland home oriented.and home oriented.
Men vs. WomenMen vs. Women MenMen– CompetitiveCompetitive– IndependentIndependent– Externally motivatesExternally motivates– Risk takersRisk takers– SportsSports– HuntingHunting– FishingFishing– Mechanical tasksMechanical tasks WomenWomen– CooperativeCooperative– InterdependentInterdependent– IntrinsicallyIntrinsicallymotivatedmotivated– ArtsArts– Activities fosteringActivities fosteringsocial tiessocial ties
Changing Sex RolesChanging Sex Roles Women delay marriage and child-bearing in favor ofWomen delay marriage and child-bearing in favor ofbuilding a career and working in fields that werebuilding a career and working in fields that weretraditionally male dominated, such a management,traditionally male dominated, such a management,engineering and law.engineering and law. In dual-career families, some husbands areIn dual-career families, some husbands areassuming greater responsibility for household tasksassuming greater responsibility for household tasksand child rearing, although a significant number stilland child rearing, although a significant number stillfail to do their share.fail to do their share. Men express emotions, be more sensitive and moreMen express emotions, be more sensitive and morecaring and loving fathers.caring and loving fathers.
Gender and SexualGender and SexualOrientationOrientation GenderGender refers to a biological state (male or female).refers to a biological state (male or female). Sexual orientationSexual orientation reflects a person’s preferencereflects a person’s preferencetoward certain masculine or feminine behaviors.toward certain masculine or feminine behaviors. Masculine individualsMasculine individuals whether male or femalewhether male or femaledisplay male oriented traits.display male oriented traits. Feminine individuals display female oriented traits.display female oriented traits. Androgynous individualsAndrogynous individuals display both male anddisplay both male andfemale traits.female traits.
Gender and SexualGender and SexualOrientationOrientation According to Census Bureaus statistics the US hasAccording to Census Bureaus statistics the US hasmore than 601,000 same sex households (304,000more than 601,000 same sex households (304,000gay male couples and 297,000 lesbian couples).gay male couples and 297,000 lesbian couples). Gay and lesbian consumers are likely to distrust adGay and lesbian consumers are likely to distrust admessages more than heterosexual consumers.messages more than heterosexual consumers. They respond well to sexual orientation symbolsThey respond well to sexual orientation symbolsand ads that reflect their lives and culture.and ads that reflect their lives and culture.
Men vs. Women Differences inMen vs. Women Differences inAcquisition & ConsumptionAcquisition & ConsumptionBehaviorsBehaviors MenMen– Selective examination ofSelective examination ofad messagesad messages– Decisions based onDecisions based onheuristicsheuristics– Agentic goalsAgentic goals– Pay attention to positivePay attention to positiveemotions in purchaseemotions in purchasedecisionsdecisions WomenWomen– Detailed examination ofDetailed examination ofad messagesad messages– Decisions based onDecisions based onattributesattributes– Communal goalsCommunal goals– Pay attention toPay attention tonegative emotions innegative emotions inpurchase decisionspurchase decisions– Compensatory eatingCompensatory eating
Word of mouth influenceWord of mouth influence(Percent of men and women who seek adviceregarding selected products and services)Men50%40%30%20%10%MenWomenMenWomenMenWomenWomenMenWomenCarmechanicWhere toeat outWhat moviesto seeWhat carto buyWhere to gethair cut40%49%39% 38%26%28%15%22%10%24%
Marketing ImplicationsMarketing ImplicationsBased on Gender & SexualBased on Gender & SexualOrientationOrientation Products are becoming less sex-typed asProducts are becoming less sex-typed assex roles evolve.sex roles evolve. Marketers still target particular gendersMarketers still target particular genders Ads are depicting more modern images forAds are depicting more modern images forboth men and women.both men and women. Cause Marketing is an effective way toCause Marketing is an effective way toreach women.reach women.
How HouseholdHow HouseholdInfluence ConsumerInfluence ConsumerBehaviorBehavior Households are the most importantHouseholds are the most importantunit of analysis for consumer behaviorunit of analysis for consumer behaviorbecause most decisions forbecause most decisions foracquisition, usage and disposition areacquisition, usage and disposition aremade by households rather thanmade by households rather thanindividuals.individuals.
Types of HouseholdsTypes of Households HouseholdHousehold is a single person living alone or ais a single person living alone or agroup of individuals who live together in a commongroup of individuals who live together in a commondwelling, regardless of whether they are related.dwelling, regardless of whether they are related. This term include cohabitating couples: unmarriedThis term include cohabitating couples: unmarriedopposite sex, same sex or roommates.opposite sex, same sex or roommates. The traditional stereotype of the family consisted ofThe traditional stereotype of the family consisted ofa husband a the primary wage earner, a wife whoa husband a the primary wage earner, a wife whowas a non-wage earner at home, and two childrenwas a non-wage earner at home, and two childrenunder the age of 18.under the age of 18. Female single head of households have increasedFemale single head of households have increasedthree times the number of two-parent households.three times the number of two-parent households.
Types of HouseholdsTypes of Households FamilyFamily is usually defined as a group ofis usually defined as a group ofindividuals living together who are related byindividuals living together who are related bymarriage, blood, or adoption.marriage, blood, or adoption. Nuclear familyNuclear family is a father, mother andis a father, mother andchildren (traditional family unit).children (traditional family unit). Extended familyExtended family is the nuclear family plusis the nuclear family plusrelatives such as a grandparents, aunts,relatives such as a grandparents, aunts,uncles and cousins.uncles and cousins.
Types of HouseholdsTypes of Households Households are also termed based on family lifeHouseholds are also termed based on family lifecycle:cycle: SinglesSingles Young marriedYoung married ParentsParents Empty nestersEmpty nesters Many households consider pets to be familyMany households consider pets to be familymembersmembers 60% of American families own pets60% of American families own pets– 59 million dogs59 million dogs– 75 millions cats75 millions cats– 25 million birds25 million birds– 250 million fish250 million fish– 125 million other animals125 million other animals
Changing Trends inChanging Trends inHouseholdsHouseholds Five factors have altered the basicFive factors have altered the basicstructure and characteristics ofstructure and characteristics ofhouseholds:households:1.1. Delayed marriageDelayed marriage2.2. CohabitationCohabitation3.3. Dual careersDual careers4.4. DivorceDivorce5.5. Smaller familiesSmaller families
Changing Trends inChanging Trends inHouseholdsHouseholds Delayed marriageDelayed marriage– Many individuals are delaying marriage or not marrying at allMany individuals are delaying marriage or not marrying at all– Never married individuals age 30-34 has risen 9.4% for menNever married individuals age 30-34 has risen 9.4% for men6.2% for women.6.2% for women.– Married couple under the age of 25 has decreased by 1/3Married couple under the age of 25 has decreased by 1/3since 1980.since 1980. CohabitationCohabitation– More individuals live with one another outside the bonds ofMore individuals live with one another outside the bonds ofmarriage.marriage.– Defining aspect is that they view personal possessions asDefining aspect is that they view personal possessions aspersonal property and leave the possibility of the relationshippersonal property and leave the possibility of the relationshipnot lasting.not lasting.– Leads to greater discretionary incomeLeads to greater discretionary income
Changing Trends inChanging Trends inHouseholdsHouseholds Dual Career Families – 2 typesDual Career Families – 2 types1.1. The woman is concerned about careerThe woman is concerned about careeradvancement and personal fulfillmentadvancement and personal fulfillment2.2. Woman works out of financial necessity andWoman works out of financial necessity andconsiders her employment “just a job”.considers her employment “just a job”.– Increased discretionary incomeIncreased discretionary income– Increased burden of family and career (roleIncreased burden of family and career (roleoverload)overload)– Husbands are taking on more nontraditionalHusbands are taking on more nontraditionalroles in the family.roles in the family.
Changing Trends inChanging Trends inHouseholdsHouseholds DivorceDivorce– Divorce rate have more than doubled sinceDivorce rate have more than doubled since1960.1960.– Four out of ten marriages end in divorce.Four out of ten marriages end in divorce.– Influences household structure/ creates singleInfluences household structure/ creates singleparent familiesparent families– One out of three families in the USA are oneOne out of three families in the USA are oneparent households.parent households.– Remarry with greater frequency creatingRemarry with greater frequency creatingstepfamilies which ½ end up in divorce as well.stepfamilies which ½ end up in divorce as well.
Changing Trends inChanging Trends inHouseholdsHouseholds Smaller familiesSmaller families– Boomers and Xer’s are having fewerBoomers and Xer’s are having fewerchildrenchildren– Average family size is 3.14Average family size is 3.14– Childless families are one of the fastestChildless families are one of the fastestgrowing types of householdsgrowing types of households
Roles that HouseholdRoles that HouseholdMembers PlayMembers Play Household decision rolesHousehold decision roles refers to the rolesrefers to the rolesthat different members play in householdthat different members play in householddecisions.decisions.1.1. GatekeeperGatekeeper2.2. InfluencerInfluencer3.3. DeciderDecider4.4. BuyerBuyer5.5. UserUser– Each role can be performed by differentEach role can be performed by differenthousehold members and by a single individual,household members and by a single individual,subset of individuals or the entire household.subset of individuals or the entire household.
Roles that HouseholdRoles that HouseholdMembers PlayMembers Play Household decision roles can beHousehold decision roles can be instrumentalinstrumentalmeaning that they are related to tasks affectingmeaning that they are related to tasks affectingthe buying decision.the buying decision. Roles are alsoRoles are also expressiveexpressive which means theywhich means theyindicate family norms such as choice of color orindicate family norms such as choice of color orstyle.style. The process ofThe process of bargainingbargaining which involves awhich involves afair exchange of preferences orfair exchange of preferences or concessionconcession ininwhich the spouse gives in on some points towhich the spouse gives in on some points toget what her or she wants in other areasget what her or she wants in other areascouples tend to make equitable decisions thatcouples tend to make equitable decisions thatresult from compromises.result from compromises.
Roles that HouseholdRoles that HouseholdMembers PlayMembers Play Household decision roles can create conflict:Household decision roles can create conflict:1.1. Reason for buyingReason for buying2.2. Who should make the decisionWho should make the decision3.3. Which option to chooseWhich option to choose4.4. Who gets to use the product or serviceWho gets to use the product or service– Households can resolve conflicts through problemHouseholds can resolve conflicts through problemsolving, persuasion, bargaining, and politicssolving, persuasion, bargaining, and politics(persuasion and problem solving are used most(persuasion and problem solving are used mostfrequently).frequently). Joint decisions are most likely to be made when:Joint decisions are most likely to be made when:– Perceive risk is highPerceive risk is high– The decision is an important oneThe decision is an important one– Time is not limitedTime is not limited– Household is youngHousehold is young
Roles that HouseholdRoles that HouseholdMembers PlayMembers Play The role of spouses:The role of spouses:– Husband dominant decisionsHusband dominant decisions– Wife dominant decisionsWife dominant decisions– Autonomic decisionsAutonomic decisions– Syncratic decisionsSyncratic decisions SpousesSpouses– As spouses get nearer a final decision theAs spouses get nearer a final decision theprocess moves towards syncratic (two decidingprocess moves towards syncratic (two decidingtogether) decision making.together) decision making.– If the family has strong traditional sex-roleIf the family has strong traditional sex-roleorientation, tasks are stereotypical in nature andorientation, tasks are stereotypical in nature andmore husband-dominate decisions are made.more husband-dominate decisions are made.
Roles that HouseholdRoles that HouseholdMembers PlayMembers Play ChildrenChildren– Children nag parents.Children nag parents. More likely to influence parents on child-related products i.e.More likely to influence parents on child-related products i.e.cereal, cookies, snacks, ice cream, pizza, vacations etc.cereal, cookies, snacks, ice cream, pizza, vacations etc. Less likely to influence families who are more traditional andLess likely to influence families who are more traditional andconservative.conservative. Parents are more likely to give in to children if both work.Parents are more likely to give in to children if both work.– The more TV children watch the more they try to influenceThe more TV children watch the more they try to influenceparents.parents.– The older the child the more influence he or she will exert.The older the child the more influence he or she will exert.– Older children generate income on their own creatingOlder children generate income on their own creatingpower.power.– Children use techniques such as bargaining, persuasion,Children use techniques such as bargaining, persuasion,emotional appeals and requests.emotional appeals and requests.
Where children between the ages of 4 and 12Where children between the ages of 4 and 12spend their moneyspend their money27%Play items33%Food andbeverages15%Clothes6%Videoarcades8%Movies&sports11%Other
Electronic Media HaveElectronic Media HaveChangedChangedBehavior & ConsumptionBehavior & Consumption Amount of time spentAmount of time spent– Listening to the radio, watching television, onListening to the radio, watching television, onthe computerthe computer– Engaged in physical activityEngaged in physical activity Purchasing predilectionsPurchasing predilections– More money spent in restaurants than groceriesMore money spent in restaurants than groceries– $600 jeans, $100,000 cars$600 jeans, $100,000 cars Ratio between doing & watchingRatio between doing & watching Activities we actually performActivities we actually perform
4040Myths:Myths: That define the cultureThat define the culture A myth:A myth:is a story containing symbolicis a story containing symbolicelements that expresses the sharedelements that expresses the sharedemotions and ideals of a culture.emotions and ideals of a culture.Ex: M for McDonald’sEx: M for McDonald’s
4141Myths:Myths: Serve four interrelated functions:Serve four interrelated functions:1. Metaphysical1. MetaphysicalHelp explain the origins of existence.Help explain the origins of existence.2. Cosmological2. CosmologicalEmphasize that all components of theEmphasize that all components of theuniverse are part of a single picture.universe are part of a single picture.3. Sociological3. SociologicalMaintain social order by authorizing a socialMaintain social order by authorizing a socialcode.code.4. Psychological4. PsychologicalProvide models for personal conduct.Provide models for personal conduct.
4242Rituals:Rituals: Is a set of multiple, symbolic behaviorsIs a set of multiple, symbolic behaviorsthat occur in a fixed sequence and thatthat occur in a fixed sequence and thattend to be repeated periodically.tend to be repeated periodically.Ex: wear prom dressEx: wear prom dresstuxedostuxedosgraduation gownsgraduation gownswedding gownswedding gownsHalloween gownsHalloween gowns
4343Sacred Consumption:Sacred Consumption: Involves objects and events that areInvolves objects and events that are“set apart” from normal activities, and“set apart” from normal activities, andare treated with some degree ofare treated with some degree ofrespect or awe.respect or awe.Ex: - Sacred place (Bethlehem;Ex: - Sacred place (Bethlehem;Mecca;Mecca;Stonehenge)Stonehenge)- Sacred people (Princess Di;- Sacred people (Princess Di;John Lennon; ElvisJohn Lennon; Elvis
4444Race And EthnicRace And EthnicSubculturesSubcultures A group of consumers who are heldA group of consumers who are heldtogether by common cultural and/ortogether by common cultural and/orgenetic ties.genetic ties. Marketers can no longer ignore theMarketers can no longer ignore thestunning diversity of cultures.stunning diversity of cultures. Recently, several minority groupsRecently, several minority groupshave caught the attention ofhave caught the attention ofmarketers.marketers.
4545Consumer Spending AndConsumer Spending AndEconomic BehaviorEconomic Behavior Social class (status symbol).Social class (status symbol). Money and how consumption (incomeMoney and how consumption (incomepattern).pattern).
4646Individual AttitudesIndividual AttitudesToward MoneyToward MoneyProfiles:1.1. Takes risks to get a headTakes risks to get a head2.2. Is better safe than sorry (thrifty, and tries to minimizeIs better safe than sorry (thrifty, and tries to minimizeborrowing).borrowing).3.3. Puts others first (money is a means of protectingPuts others first (money is a means of protectingloved ones).loved ones).4.4. Travels first class or not at all (buy luxury items)Travels first class or not at all (buy luxury items)5.5. Is controlled by money (equates money with power).Is controlled by money (equates money with power).6.6. Needs just enough to take care of self (is not veryNeeds just enough to take care of self (is not veryinterested in money).interested in money).7.7. Believe there’s more to life than money.Believe there’s more to life than money.
4747Social ClassSocial Class Economic conditions and social status oftenEconomic conditions and social status oftendetermine the type of clothing we select.determine the type of clothing we select. Social class, determined by a complex set ofSocial class, determined by a complex set ofvariables including:variables including:- income- income- family background- family background- occupation- occupation
Components Of SocialComponents Of SocialClassClassThree major ones are:Three major ones are:1.1. Occupational prestigeOccupational prestige2.2. IncomeIncome3.3. Educational achievement.Educational achievement.Fashion is often used as a status symbolsto communicate real or desired social class.Fashion is often used as a status symbolsto communicate real or desired social class.
The Fashion SystemThe Fashion SystemFashion is the Process of Social Diffusion by Which aNew Style is Adopted by Some Group(s) of Consumers.CulturalCategoriesAffect ManyDifferent Productsand StylesCostumes Worn byCelebrities CanAffect FashionCulturalCategoriesAffect ManyDifferent Productsand StylesCostumes Worn byCelebrities CanAffect FashionCollectiveSelectionProcess by WhichCertain SymbolicAlternatives areChosen Over OthersGroup Products byCategoriesCollectiveSelectionProcess by WhichCertain SymbolicAlternatives areChosen Over OthersGroup Products byCategories
CommodificationCommodification Professional sports became big after WWIIProfessional sports became big after WWII TV has had a tremendous recent influenceTV has had a tremendous recent influence US sport seen most broadly across the world:US sport seen most broadly across the world:WWFWWF Childhood opportunities or regimentation?Childhood opportunities or regimentation?Cultural Quirks•Cultures can find some advertisements offensive to their nation.For example: China found an advertisement that showed a U.S. basketball starbattling two cartoon kung fu warriors offensive and banned thecommercial.Cultural Quirks•Cultures can find some advertisements offensive to their nation.For example: China found an advertisement that showed a U.S. basketball starbattling two cartoon kung fu warriors offensive and banned thecommercial.
Popular Culture & ValuesPopular Culture & Values More tolerant world?More tolerant world? More profane world?More profane world? More politically correct world?More politically correct world? More profit-oriented world?More profit-oriented world?
Return to FragmegrationReturn to Fragmegration Globalization and its effectsGlobalization and its effects– How are we more alike? Integrated?How are we more alike? Integrated?– How do we continue to be different?How do we continue to be different?Fragmented?Fragmented?
The Diffusion of WesternThe Diffusion of WesternConsumer CultureConsumer CultureCreolization Occurs When Foreign Influencesare Absorbed and Integrated With Local MeaningsCreolization Occurs When Foreign Influencesare Absorbed and Integrated With Local MeaningsThe West is a Net Exporter of Popular CultureThe West is a Net Exporter of Popular CultureThe U.S. Invades AsiaThe U.S. Invades AsiaSigns That the Western Culture Invasion is SlowingSigns That the Western Culture Invasion is SlowingEmerging Consumer Cultures in Transitional EconomiesEmerging Consumer Cultures in Transitional Economies