Psychology- Memory


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Psychology- Memory for Unit 1. AS Level. First Year

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  • Psychology- Memory

    1. 1. Unit 1
    2. 2. Rehearsal Loop Decays Attention Rehearsal Sensory Short-Term Long-Term System Memory MemoryEnvironmental Stimulus Haptic Displacement Interference  (Forget) (Forget) Echoic Iconic Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) Multi-Store Model
    3. 3.  The memory stores are different, and therefore have different qualities. Here are some of the qualities that it consists of Capacity: How much information it can store Duration: How long the information stays in the store for Encoding: The way we store that particular information Multi-Store Model
    4. 4.  This is where the information gets hold of The memory goes in very rapidly & it enters the next stage Multi-Store Model
    5. 5.  Duration: Small Capacity: Small Encoding:  Haptic: Encodes info through touch  Iconic: Encodes what you see  Echoic: Encodes things by soundEvidence: Sperling (1960). High, medium & low tonewas played. This shows that we cannot control whatenters our sensory memory. Multi-Store Model
    6. 6.  Duration: 2-30 secondsPeterson & Peterson concluded that info disappears veryrapidly, when rehearsal is prevented Capacity: Avg 7±2Miller believed that 7±2 was average pieces of info forindividuals with the help of Digital Span Technique, which iswhere someone will read something in a sequence either by:Serial Recall: Same orderFree Recall: Any order Encoding: EchoicConrad concluded that we must convert visual presentedmaterial to an acoustic code Multi-Store Model
    7. 7.  Duration: Unlimited Capacity: Unlimited Encoding: Mainly semantic (by meaning)Baddeley 1966 Multi-Store Model
    8. 8.  HM had operation to remove parts of the brain in attempt to control his epileptic fitsIQ above Average, Recall events in early life, Remembers 6 no in orderlearn or recall new info, unable to remember 10 years ago Clive W suffered a viral infection which attacked his brainLearning things by repetitionUnable to store new memories, unable to control emotions KF had an motorbike accident that left him brain damage in the back of his brainLearn new info, recall stored infoCould only recall 1 item Multi-Store Model
    9. 9.  Case Studies of HM & Clive show how STM can function relatively normally whilst retrieval from LTM is impossible Free recall test shows STM & LTM functioning differently Laboratory Evidence for duration, capacity * acoustic encoding Multi-Store Model
    10. 10.  KF could learn new information into LTM even though his STM was not working properly, suggesting that there is another route to the LTM Shocking events of memories get stuck in the LTM without rehearsal Many techniques on how to improve memory without rehearsal Miller suggested digital span was 7, although Baddeley suggest we can remember as many items as we can Multi-Store Model
    11. 11. Central ExecutivePhonological Loop Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad PhonologicalArticulatory Process Store Inner Scribe VisualThis is a modification of Short-Term Memory Cache Working Memory Model
    12. 12.  Has overall control  Responsible fro setting targets  Preventing errors from occurring  Rehearsing information  Dividing attention  Preventing unnecessary information  Has got 2 slave systems, which have their own responsibilities & independentWorking Memory Model
    13. 13.  Deals with verbal information/speech  Which places it in the phonological store by processing it through the articulatory process & then it goes around in a loop, as rehearsal  Takes the role in the capacity of the STM  Holds information you say in 2 seconds  Independent but rely on each other  Cannot do so much at once  If they get overloaded, Central Executive helps inWorking Memory Model
    14. 14.  Deals with visual information  Inner scribe deals with it & also spatial information, to see where things are in relation to each other  Goes through the visual cache & goes into a loop again  IndependentWorking Memory Model
    15. 15. Baddeley 1975:  Aim: investigate the existence of phonological loop in the STM  Procedure: participants saw words displayed everyday very quickly one after another. Then they had to write them down, in serial order.  Findings: participants recalled monosyllabic words better than polysyllabic words.  Aim: investigate the existence of Visuo-spatial sketchpad in STM  Procedure: participants had to complete a visual tracking task the same time as describing angels on a letter  Findings: they found it hard to complete it both at the same time  Conclusion: different tasks have different resources  WWM can easily hold shorter words than longer wordsWorking Memory Model
    16. 16.  Influential model, stimulated research & the model has been modified to account for new findings  Supported by Baddeley’s experiments  Explains research findings better than the MSM  It can account fro individual differences in memory abilitiesWorking Memory Model
    17. 17.  The central executive, which is the most important component is the least researched  The validity of some research findings, where critics say we assume things instead  The model does not make it clear how we deal with information from the smell and touch senseWorking Memory Model
    18. 18.  This is the evidence given by an eyewitness in a court or to a police officer about a crime or accident that they have seen themselves. Post Events: After the incidentEyewitness Testimony
    19. 19.  Loftus (1979) Participants had to sit outside a lab where they heard a friendly discussion & then saw a man some out of the room with greasy hands holding a pen, then they heard a hostile discussion & saw a man with a blood-stained knife coming out, then they were asked to identify the man from 50 photos They found out that participants who had witnessed the more violent scene were less accurate in identifying the man They concluded that the heightened anxiety of the witnesses in the violent scene caused them to focus on the weapon & not take in other detailsEyewitness Testimony
    20. 20.  Yarmey (1984) They showed young & elderly adults a film of an event & were asked questions about what they had seen They found out that 80% of elderly adults failed to mention a key detail It might not reflect how people react to a real life situationEyewitness Testimony
    21. 21.  Loftus & Palmer (1974) The way we speak may lead to misleading information. Where they had to explain a car crash by either: Bumped, Contacted or Smashed Conclusion: ‘Smashed’ was found to be the highest speed Evaluation: it isn’t always accurate, unreliable, ethical-harmful To prevent distress he had to change the signsEyewitness Testimony
    22. 22.  Research Design: how you allocate your participant to each condition of an experiment Open Question: allows participant to give detailed answers Leading Question: may given to unleading answers, where misleadEyewitness Testimony
    23. 23.  Main factor was the accuracy of memory for an event Memory can be fragile & disturbing People accept misleading info after event & take it in with the actual info False info given, could change the original memory by removing some things & inserting others. Methodological Issue: participants know what’s going to happen, whereas in real life it would appear much shockingEyewitness Testimony
    24. 24.  Geiselman (1985) developed this technique Context Reinstatement (CR): recall the scene, the weather, thinking & feeling at that event Report Everything (RE): report every detail even if it seems trivial Recall from changed perspective (CP): Putting yourself in that situation at the scene & describe it from their point of view Recall in Reverse Order (RO): Report detail back to front Eyewitness Testimony
    25. 25.  Fisher et al (1990) Trained real detectives to use enhanced cognitive interview with real crime witnesses They found out that cognitive interview was considerably increased the amount of info recalled compared to standard interviewEyewitness Testimony
    26. 26.  Roles of Organisation Mnemonics: techniques which help to improve memory Peg-Word System: uses rhymes Method of Loci: Uses places Visual Imagery Key-Word System: use for remembering vocabulary Face-Name System: used to remember names & facesEyewitness Testimony
    27. 27.  Roles of Organisation: making associations & links Active Processing: process semantically (makes link with LTM) Dual coding hypothesis: explained by Baddeley & hitch’s WMMEyewitness Testimony