Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Psychology- Memory

34,216 views

Published on

Psychology- Memory for Unit 1. AS Level. First Year

Published in: Education, Technology
  • How can I improve my memory book? How can I improve my memory recall? visit to learn...♥♥♥ https://bit.ly/2GEWG9T
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Secrets To Making Up These secrets will help you get back together with your ex. ■■■ http://ishbv.com/exback123/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL. BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Njce! Thanks for sharing.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Psychology- Memory

  1. 1. Unit 1
  2. 2. Rehearsal Loop Decays Attention Rehearsal Sensory Short-Term Long-Term System Memory MemoryEnvironmental Stimulus Haptic Displacement Interference  (Forget) (Forget) Echoic Iconic Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) Multi-Store Model
  3. 3.  The memory stores are different, and therefore have different qualities. Here are some of the qualities that it consists of Capacity: How much information it can store Duration: How long the information stays in the store for Encoding: The way we store that particular information Multi-Store Model
  4. 4.  This is where the information gets hold of The memory goes in very rapidly & it enters the next stage Multi-Store Model
  5. 5.  Duration: Small Capacity: Small Encoding:  Haptic: Encodes info through touch  Iconic: Encodes what you see  Echoic: Encodes things by soundEvidence: Sperling (1960). High, medium & low tonewas played. This shows that we cannot control whatenters our sensory memory. Multi-Store Model
  6. 6.  Duration: 2-30 secondsPeterson & Peterson concluded that info disappears veryrapidly, when rehearsal is prevented Capacity: Avg 7±2Miller believed that 7±2 was average pieces of info forindividuals with the help of Digital Span Technique, which iswhere someone will read something in a sequence either by:Serial Recall: Same orderFree Recall: Any order Encoding: EchoicConrad concluded that we must convert visual presentedmaterial to an acoustic code Multi-Store Model
  7. 7.  Duration: Unlimited Capacity: Unlimited Encoding: Mainly semantic (by meaning)Baddeley 1966 Multi-Store Model
  8. 8.  HM had operation to remove parts of the brain in attempt to control his epileptic fitsIQ above Average, Recall events in early life, Remembers 6 no in orderlearn or recall new info, unable to remember 10 years ago Clive W suffered a viral infection which attacked his brainLearning things by repetitionUnable to store new memories, unable to control emotions KF had an motorbike accident that left him brain damage in the back of his brainLearn new info, recall stored infoCould only recall 1 item Multi-Store Model
  9. 9.  Case Studies of HM & Clive show how STM can function relatively normally whilst retrieval from LTM is impossible Free recall test shows STM & LTM functioning differently Laboratory Evidence for duration, capacity * acoustic encoding Multi-Store Model
  10. 10.  KF could learn new information into LTM even though his STM was not working properly, suggesting that there is another route to the LTM Shocking events of memories get stuck in the LTM without rehearsal Many techniques on how to improve memory without rehearsal Miller suggested digital span was 7, although Baddeley suggest we can remember as many items as we can Multi-Store Model
  11. 11. Central ExecutivePhonological Loop Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad PhonologicalArticulatory Process Store Inner Scribe VisualThis is a modification of Short-Term Memory Cache Working Memory Model
  12. 12.  Has overall control  Responsible fro setting targets  Preventing errors from occurring  Rehearsing information  Dividing attention  Preventing unnecessary information  Has got 2 slave systems, which have their own responsibilities & independentWorking Memory Model
  13. 13.  Deals with verbal information/speech  Which places it in the phonological store by processing it through the articulatory process & then it goes around in a loop, as rehearsal  Takes the role in the capacity of the STM  Holds information you say in 2 seconds  Independent but rely on each other  Cannot do so much at once  If they get overloaded, Central Executive helps inWorking Memory Model
  14. 14.  Deals with visual information  Inner scribe deals with it & also spatial information, to see where things are in relation to each other  Goes through the visual cache & goes into a loop again  IndependentWorking Memory Model
  15. 15. Baddeley 1975:  Aim: investigate the existence of phonological loop in the STM  Procedure: participants saw words displayed everyday very quickly one after another. Then they had to write them down, in serial order.  Findings: participants recalled monosyllabic words better than polysyllabic words.  Aim: investigate the existence of Visuo-spatial sketchpad in STM  Procedure: participants had to complete a visual tracking task the same time as describing angels on a letter  Findings: they found it hard to complete it both at the same time  Conclusion: different tasks have different resources  WWM can easily hold shorter words than longer wordsWorking Memory Model
  16. 16.  Influential model, stimulated research & the model has been modified to account for new findings  Supported by Baddeley’s experiments  Explains research findings better than the MSM  It can account fro individual differences in memory abilitiesWorking Memory Model
  17. 17.  The central executive, which is the most important component is the least researched  The validity of some research findings, where critics say we assume things instead  The model does not make it clear how we deal with information from the smell and touch senseWorking Memory Model
  18. 18.  This is the evidence given by an eyewitness in a court or to a police officer about a crime or accident that they have seen themselves. Post Events: After the incidentEyewitness Testimony
  19. 19.  Loftus (1979) Participants had to sit outside a lab where they heard a friendly discussion & then saw a man some out of the room with greasy hands holding a pen, then they heard a hostile discussion & saw a man with a blood-stained knife coming out, then they were asked to identify the man from 50 photos They found out that participants who had witnessed the more violent scene were less accurate in identifying the man They concluded that the heightened anxiety of the witnesses in the violent scene caused them to focus on the weapon & not take in other detailsEyewitness Testimony
  20. 20.  Yarmey (1984) They showed young & elderly adults a film of an event & were asked questions about what they had seen They found out that 80% of elderly adults failed to mention a key detail It might not reflect how people react to a real life situationEyewitness Testimony
  21. 21.  Loftus & Palmer (1974) The way we speak may lead to misleading information. Where they had to explain a car crash by either: Bumped, Contacted or Smashed Conclusion: ‘Smashed’ was found to be the highest speed Evaluation: it isn’t always accurate, unreliable, ethical-harmful To prevent distress he had to change the signsEyewitness Testimony
  22. 22.  Research Design: how you allocate your participant to each condition of an experiment Open Question: allows participant to give detailed answers Leading Question: may given to unleading answers, where misleadEyewitness Testimony
  23. 23.  Main factor was the accuracy of memory for an event Memory can be fragile & disturbing People accept misleading info after event & take it in with the actual info False info given, could change the original memory by removing some things & inserting others. Methodological Issue: participants know what’s going to happen, whereas in real life it would appear much shockingEyewitness Testimony
  24. 24.  Geiselman (1985) developed this technique Context Reinstatement (CR): recall the scene, the weather, thinking & feeling at that event Report Everything (RE): report every detail even if it seems trivial Recall from changed perspective (CP): Putting yourself in that situation at the scene & describe it from their point of view Recall in Reverse Order (RO): Report detail back to front Eyewitness Testimony
  25. 25.  Fisher et al (1990) Trained real detectives to use enhanced cognitive interview with real crime witnesses They found out that cognitive interview was considerably increased the amount of info recalled compared to standard interviewEyewitness Testimony
  26. 26.  Roles of Organisation Mnemonics: techniques which help to improve memory Peg-Word System: uses rhymes Method of Loci: Uses places Visual Imagery Key-Word System: use for remembering vocabulary Face-Name System: used to remember names & facesEyewitness Testimony
  27. 27.  Roles of Organisation: making associations & links Active Processing: process semantically (makes link with LTM) Dual coding hypothesis: explained by Baddeley & hitch’s WMMEyewitness Testimony

×