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The Smug Mug Tale


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The Smug Mug Tale

  1. 1. The SmugMug Tale
  2. 2. Who are we? Premium photo & video sharing. Bootstrapped in ’02. $10M+ as of ’07. Profitable. No debt. Top 400 website. Doubling yearly.
  3. 3. Our challenge Premium means “more” and “better”. Unlimited storage. Unlimited bandwidth. Big photos (48Mpix). 500M+ of them. Big video (1920x180p). Lots of photos per page. Super fast.
  4. 4. Architecture overview LAMP(hp). x86 (mostly AMD) on Linux (~300 4+ core hosts?) 4 datacenters: 2 x SV, 1 x VA, 1 x SEA 2 Ops guys. :) Majority of boxes are diskless. Consume lots of cloud services (S3, EC2, etc).
  5. 5. Storage Binary data (photos, video, etc): Stored in Amazon’s S3. PBs. Akamai fronts for caching and acceleration. Structured data (Database, etc): MySQL (InnoDB mostly). 4+ cores, 64GB, >2TB storage Memcached fronts for caching.
  6. 6. Compute Photo & video processing / encoding: Handled in Amazon EC2. Totally autonomous scaling (SkyNet) Customer facing: Diskless web boxes (PXE boot) Scaled up *and* out MySQL Memcached ~1TB
  7. 7. Secret Weapon: Akamai Super-fast CDN: Reads often already close to customer. More than just a CDN: HTML/AJAX/etc inspection for pre-fetch Anticipate requests and get data to within low ms Optimal data path to SmugMug DNS latency reduction $$$ but worth it. Get what you pay for.
  8. 8. Secret Weapon: memcached Screaming fast. ~1TB of data stored. >96% hit rate Contains MySQL row data, avoid SELECTs Misc other data cached, but MySQL biggest win Fall back on MySQL for cold data
  9. 9. Secret Weapon: MySQL Most important technology at SmugMug. Super dependent on replication: Performance Reliability / High Availability No MySQL data loss in >7 years. No JOINs. (Or lots of 4.x+ features, either) Vertically partitioned, not horizontally (no shards)
  10. 10. Secret Weapon: InnoDB Most important technology at SmugMug. Huge thanks to Heikki, Oracle, Percona and Google! Running 1.0.3+patches in production. Big performance gains with recent releases.
  11. 11. Secret Weapon: Percona Crazy concentration of talent under one roof. Best MySQL dollars we’ve ever spent. Helped us out of a major bind Have you heard of the ‘back_log’ mysqld setting? Me neither. Hope you never do. Percona had. Helped build, integrate, and test InnoDB patches.
  12. 12. MySQL details We care about write latency above all. Well, ok, maybe data integrity. ;) Scaling reads “easy”: replication and memcached. Replication needs to stay current (<1 sec). MySQL concurrency problems. (Much improved!) Parallel I/O - lots of cores. Large storage (TBs). Big RAM (64GB+) to keep indexes hot.
  13. 13. MySQL query details Mostly SELECT pkey FROM table WHERE index; On cache miss, SELECT * FROM table WHERE pkey; UPDATEs/DELETEs mostly on single rows by pkey Easy memcached expiration. Easy slave-delay tracking. Very denormalized. No JOINs or complex SELECTs. OLTP benchmark imperfect. Time for sysbench-web?
  14. 14. MySQL Issues: Filesystems Better filesystem: CentOS Linux shop (lots of expertise). MySQL is storage intensive (iops, size, etc). ext3 old and busted. fsck, well, sucks. ext4 already old and busted. :( Want good volume management. Serialized writes (non-parallel). Ugh.
  15. 15. Filesystem Solution - ZFS! Transactional. Copy-on-write. End-to-end data integrity. On-the-fly corruption detection & repair. Integrated volume management. Snapshots & clones. Open source software.
  16. 16. The REAL Issue We run Linux. ZFS doesn’t run on Linux. Crap.
  17. 17. MySQL Issues: Replication Unknown state on crash: Did *.info get written at commit? Or is it *2 months* out of date? Bringing TB+ slaves online quickly. Backups using LVM/ZFS a pain. Keeping up with master. Single thread for replication SQL. Master promotion cludgy.
  18. 18. Replication solutions Transactional replication patches: Slave always in known state. Either ok to bring back up or CHANGE MASTER. Safe to take snapshots anytime, no effort. Safe to use innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit=2 InnoDB only. Stopgap. Global trx IDs better. Using in pre-production. Production next week?
  19. 19. Secret Weapon: Sushi Toro aka S7410. NAS storage with a few twists. 2 x Quad-Core Opteron + 64GB RAM 100MB Readzilla SSD 2 x 18GB Writezilla SSD. 20K write iops. 22 x 1TB 7200rpm HDD Clustered HA configuration.
  20. 20. Mmm, Toro tastes good. ZFS on Linux! SSD is here! SSD performance is cheap! Consume via NFS, iSCSI, CIFS, HTTP, FTP, etc. Massive flexibility - no more DAS. Fishworks interface is a dream. Analytics is a game changer.
  21. 21. Sushi’s quite reasonable Initial sticker shock - $80K?! $142K clustered?! No one pays list price. Whew. Startup Essentials. Double-whew. Paradigm shift. Biggest whew! DAS -> NAS So much IO, in theory, can “stack” lots of clients. In practice, can stack *lots* of clients. We now have 5 clustered configs. :)
  22. 22. Sushi served fast Crazy fast. 9.6K iops, 4.5K under 43us, 8K under 166us
  23. 23. Sushi served fast Scalable. 15K 4k write iops w/16 threads. Low latency. ~250us @ 3K iops, ~700us @ 10K fio write benchmark 20000 15000 4K write iops 10000 5000 0 1 2 4 8 16 32 threads
  24. 24. Sushi today So fast, we’re stacking like crazy. 5 different MySQL workloads on single clustered Toro. 8 slaves on single Toro. Each used to have 15K disks + write cache. Lots of excess io and space capacity still. Compression “for free” (no client CPU usage) Crazy fast ~1.5X ratio across TBs of InnoDB
  25. 25. Sushi today Backups a breeze. Automatic snapshots every n minutes / hours / days. No need to LOCK / shutdown / STOP SLAVE / etc Rollback anytime. Skip bad SQL statements. New slave? Click snapshot. Click clone. Done. Slaves share unchanged data on disk and in RAM. Future bright: clone + de-dupe = insanely efficient.
  26. 26. Analyzing sushi DTrace on Linux! Never had analytics on storage before. Vendor used to say: “Um, we dunno. Buy more spindles?” Now I know all. Vendor now says: “What does Analytics say?” Drill down on everything. Correlate anything. God-like power.
  27. 27. MySQL on Toro so far NFSv3 (rather than v4) 16KB record size in ZFS (InnoDB) Mirrored (RAID1+0) disks w/striped Logzilla MySQL concurrency bound - can’t use all the I/O If compressing, use LZJB. In theory, can optimize InnoDB: doublewrite = 0, checksums = 0. ZFS does these. In practice, no big gain with our workload.
  28. 28. MySQL on Toro problems Replication *.info files not sync’d over NFS Found a slave with *2 month old* info files Transactional replication to the rescue! NFS locking and InnoDB Warnings on the Net. No hard data. Actively researching. What’s the problem?
  29. 29. Even faster? 10GbE for reduced latency? Actively testing this. Driver tuning required. Defaults for throughput. Cards (Intel) & switches (Arista) cheap & fast Less than $500/port. Copper twinax SFP+ cables cheap. Optical XFP not. $50 vs $1000+ Toro doesn’t support SFP+ cards yet. :(
  30. 30. Kitchen sink on Toro Everything runs better on Toro. :) Revision control. Stateless Linux mounts. Email. Developer home directories. Built-in, automatic replication for multi-site backups. Photo and video serving?
  31. 31. The future? 100% SSD. Still too $$ for TB+ installs. Even better InnoDB. Community on fire. Oracle/MySQL accepting patches! Multi-threaded replication. Preview release is out. Yes! New storage engines PBXT, Falcon, Maria, oh my!
  32. 32. Oracle wishlist MySQL is a crown jewel. Not a gateway drug to Oracle. Different customers. Kill btrfs. GPL ZFS. MySQL and InnoDB under one roof = opportunity. OpenStorage is game changer. Don’t kill it. Listen to your new communities. I’m busy. I’m up here because this is important.
  33. 33. Thanks! Blog: Twitter: DonMacAskill Email: Percona Conference: Upstairs :)