Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Spirochataceae • The spirochetes are a large, heterogenous group of spiral motile bacteria. • Family: Spirochataceae • Order: Spirochaetales • Genera: Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira Treponema – causes Syphilis Borrelia spp – causes Relapsing fever Leptospira – causes Leptospirosis
  2. 2. General Characteristics. * Long * Slender * helically coiled, spiral or corkscrew shaped * Gram (-) bacilli * Motile
  3. 3. Treponema The genus treponema includes T. pallidum subspecies pallidum, which causes Syphilis; T. pallidum subspecies pertenue which causes yaws; T. pallidum subspecies which endemicum, which causes endemic syphilis (also called bejel); and Treponema carateum which causes pinta.
  4. 4. Pallidum Yaws Pallidum Yaws
  5. 5. • endemicum Syphilis
  6. 6. Treponema pallidum and syphilis Slender spirals measuring about 0.2um in width and 5-15um in length. The spiral coils are regularly spaced at a distance of 1um from one another. The organisms are actively motile, rotating steadily around their endoflagella even after attaching to cells by their tapered ends. The spirals are so thin that they are not readily seen unless immunofluorescent stain or dark-field illumination is employed. They do not stain well with aniline dyes, but they can be seen in tissues when stained by a silver impregnation method.
  7. 7. Culture Pathogenic T. pallidum has never been cultured continuously on artificial media, in fertile eggs, or in tissue culture. Non pathogenic treponemes (Reiter strain) can be cultured anaerobically in vitro. They are saprophytes antigenically related to T. pallidum.
  8. 8. Growth characteristics T. Pallidum is a microaerophilic organism; it survives best in 1-4% oxygen. The saprophytic Reiter strain grows on a defined medium of 11 amino acids, vitamins, salts, minerals, and serum albumin. In proper suspending fluids and in the presence of reducing substances, T. pallidum may remain motile for 3-6 days at 25 °C. In whole blood or plasma stored at
  9. 9. Reaction to Physical and Chemical agents Drying kills the spirochete rapidly, as does elevation of the temperature to 42 °C. Treponemes are rapidly immobilized and killed by trivalent arsenical, mercury, and bismuth (contained in drugs of historical interest in the treatment of syphilis). Penicillin is the treponomicidal in minute concentrations, but the rate of killing is slow, presumably because of the metabolic inactivity and slow multiplication rate of T. pallidum (estimated division 30 hours). Resistance to penicillin has no been demonstrated in syphilis Genome The T. pallidum genome is circular chromosome of approximately 1,138,000 base pairs, which is small for bacteria. Most pathogenic bacteria have transposable elements, but T. pallidum does not, which suggests that the genome is highly conserved and may explain its continued susceptibility to penicillin. There are few genes involved in energy production and synthesis of nutrients, indicating that T. pallidum obtains these from the host.
  10. 10. Diagnostic Laboratory Tests Specimen include tissue fluid expressed from early surface lesions for demonstration of spirochetes; blood serum for serologic tests.
  11. 11. Dark field examination A drop of tissue fluid or exudate is placed on a slide and a coverslip pressed over it to make a thin layer. The preparation is then examined under oil immersion with a dark- field illumination for typical motile spirochetes. Treponemes disappear from lesions within a few hours after beginning of antibiotic treatment.
  12. 12. Immunofluorescence Tissue fluid or exudate is spread on a glass slide, air dried, and sent to the laboratory. It is fixed, stained with a fluoresceinlabaled antireponeme serum, and examined by means of immunofluorescence microscopy for typical fluorescent spirochetes.
  13. 13. Treatment Penicillin in concentration of 0.003 U/mL has definite treponemicidal activity and penicillin is the treatment of choice.
  14. 14. Treponema subspp. endemicum • Also known as Bejel occurs chiefly in Africa but also in the Middle East, in Southeast Asia, and elsewhere, particularly among children, and produces highly infectious skin lesions; late visceral complications are rare (Penicillin is the drug of choice).
  15. 15. Treponema subspp. pertenu Yaw is endemic, particularly among children , in many humid, hot tropical countries. The primary lesion, an ulcerating papule occurs usually on the arms or legs. Transmission is by person to person contact in children under age 15. Transplacental, congenital infection does not occur. Scar formation of skin lesions and bone destruction are common, but visceral or nervous system complications are very rare. It has been debated whether yaws represents a variant of syphilis adapted to transmission by nonsexual means in hot
  16. 16. Treponema carateum Pinta is caused by T. carateum occurs endemically in all age groups in Mexico, Central and South America, the Philippines, and some areas of the pacific. The disease appears to be restricted to dark-skinned races. The primary lesion, a nonulcerating papule, occurs on exposed areas. Some months later, flat, hyperpigmented lesions appear on the skin; depigmentation and hyperkeratosis take place years afterward. Late cardiovascular and nervous system
  17. 17. Borrelia spp and Relapsing fever Transmitted by ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. The species name of the Borrelia genus is often the same as that of the tick. Borrelia hermsii, e.g. the cause of relapsing fever in the western United states, is transmitted by Ornithodoros hermsii
  18. 18. Morphology and Identification The borreliae form irregular spirals 10-30um long and 0.3um wide. The distance between turns varies from 2 um to 4um. The organism are highly flexible and move both by rotation and by twisting. Borreliae stain readily with bacteriologic dyes as well as with blood stains such as Giemsa’s stain or Wright’s stain.
  19. 19. Culture The organism can be cultured in fluid media containing blood serum or tissue but it rapidly loses its pathogenecity for animals when transferred repeatedly in vitro. Multiplication is rapid in chick embryos when blood from patients is inoculated onto the chorioallantic membrane.
  20. 20. Growth Characteristics Little is known of the metabolic requirements or activity of borreliae. At 4 °C, the organisms survive for several moths in infected blood or in culture. In some ticks (but not in lice), spirochetes are passed from generation to generation.
  21. 21. Borrelia Burgdorferi and Lyme disease Lyme disease is named after the town of Lyme, Connecticut, where clusters of cases in children were identified. Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete B. burgdorferi and is transmitter to humans by the bite of a small ixodes tick. The disease has early manifestations with a characteristic skin lesion, erythrema migrans, along with flu-like symptoms, and late manifestations often with
  22. 22. Morphology and Identification B. burgdorferi is a spiral organism 20-30um long and 0.2um wide. The distance between turns varies from 2 to 4um. The organism have variable numbers (7-11) of endoflagella and are highly motile. B. burgdorferi stains readily with acid and aniline dyes and by silver impregnation techniques.
  23. 23. Culture and Growth characteristics B burgdorferi most readily in a complex liquid medium, Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium (BSK II). Rifampin, fosfomycin (phosphonomycin), and amphotericin B can be added to BSK II to reduce the rate of culture contamination by other bacteria and fungi. B burgdorferi has been most easily isolated from erythrema migrans skin lesions; isolation of the organism from other sites has been difficult. The organism can also be cultured from ticks. Because culture of the organism is a
  24. 24. Pathogenesis and Clinical findings The transmission of B. burgdorferi to humans is by injection of the organism in tick saliva or by regurgitation of the ticks midgut contents. The organism adheres to proteoglycans on host cells; this is mediated by a borrelial glycosaminoglycan receptor. After injection by the tick, the organism migrates out from the site, producing the characteristic lesion. Dissemination occurs by lymphatics or
  25. 25. Lyme disease, like other spirochetal diseases, occurs in stages with early and late manifestations. A unique skin lesion begins 3 days to 4 weeks after a tick bite often marks Stage 1. The lesion erythrema migrans, begins as a flat red dened area near the tick bit and slowly expands, with central clearing. With the skin lesion there is often a flu-like illness with fever, chills, myalagia, and headache. Stage 2 occurs 2 weeks to months later and includes arthralgia and arthritis; neuro logic manifestations with meningitis, facial nerve palsy, and painful radiculopathy; and cardiac disease with conduction defects and myopericarditis. Stage 3 begins months
  26. 26. Diagnostic Laboratory Test In some symptomatic patients, the diagnosis of early Lyme disease can be established clinically by observing the unique skin lesion. When this skin lesion is not present and at later stages of the disease, which must be differentiated from many other diseases, it is necessary to perform diagnostic laboratory tests. There is, however, no one test that it both sensitive and specific
  27. 27. A. Specimens Blood is obtained for serologic tests. CSF or joint fluid can be obtained, but culture usually is not recommended these specimens and other can be used to detect B burgdorferi DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. B. Smears B Burgdorferi has been found in sections of biopsy specimens, but examination of stained smears is an insensitive method for diagnosis of Lyme disease. B.
  28. 28. Treatment Early infection, either local or disseminated, should be treated with doxycycline or amoxicillin – or alternative – for 14 – 21 days.
  29. 29. Leptospira and Leptospirosis Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. It is caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The traditional classification system is based on biochemical and serologic specificity to differentiate between the pathogenic species, Leptospira interrogans, and the free-living nonpathogenic species, Leptospira biflexa. The species are further broken down to more than 200 serovars of L interrogans and more than 60 serovars of L biflexa. The serovars
  30. 30. Morphology and Identification A. Typical Organisms Leptospirae are tightly coiled, thin, flexible spirochetes 5-15um long, with very fine spirals 0.1-0.2um wide; one end is often bent, forming a hook. They are actively motile, which is best seen using a dark- field microscope. Electron micrographs show a thin axial filament and a delicate membrane. The spirochete is so delicate that in the dark-field view it may appear
  31. 31. Culture Leptospirae grow best under aerobic conditions at 28-30 °C in semisolid medium (EMJH, others) in 10ml test tubes with 0.1% agar and 5-fluorouracil. Diagnostic Laboratory Test A. Specimens Specimens consist of aseptically collected blood in a heparin tube, CSF, or tissues for microscopic examination and culture. Urine should be collected using
  32. 32. Microscopic Examination Dark-field examination or thick smears stained by the Giemsa technique occasionally show Leptospirae in fresh blood from early infections. Dark-filed examination of centrifuged urine may also be positive. Fluorescein-conjugated antibodies or other immuno histochemical techniques can be used also.
  33. 33. Treatment Treatment of mild Leptospirosis should be with oral doxycycline, amicillin, or amoxicillin. Treatment of moderate pr severe disease should be with intravenous penicillin pr ampicillin.
  34. 34. Other spirochetal Diseases Spirillum Minor (Spirillum Morsus Muris) S minor causes one form of rat- bite fever (sodoku). This very small (3-5um) and rigid spiral organism is carried by rats all over the world. The organism is inoculated into humans through the bite of rat and results in a local lesion, regional gland swelling, skin rashes, and fever of he relapsing type. The frequency of this illness depends upon the degree of contact between humans and rats.
  35. 35. Spirochetes of the normal mouth and Mucous membranes A number of spirochetes occur in every normal mouth. Some of them have been named (e.g., Borreliga buccalis), but neither their morphology nor their physiologic activity permits definitive classification. On normal genitalia, a spirochete called Borrelia refringens is occasionally found that may be confused with T pallidum. These organism are harmless saprophytes under ordinary