Jeff Forester: How Humans Shaped the North Woods

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Slideshow of a presentation delivered by Jeff Forester at the Mill City Museum in Minneapolis on June 3, 2010. Unfortunately a couple of video clips from the presentation will not render properly in Slideshare, but audio is fine.

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  • What I thought I knew when I began this book: Steady state ecosystem –
  • What I thought I knew when I began this book: Steady state ecosystem –
  • What I thought I knew when I began this book: Steady state ecosystem –
  • What I thought I knew when I began this book: Steady state ecosystem –
  • Forest patches (polygons on the map) of pine, oak, and northern mesic forest units are on average less than half of their presettlement sizes. In contrast, aspen-birch forest units and nonforested areas have more than doubled in patch size. These changes in patch size influence the distribution and migration of plant and animal species and may influence other processes, such as fire. http://biology.usgs.gov/luhna/images/fig6_1a.gifHow did tree species migrate? By disturbance – fire.Today more acres have been disturbed by logging than by fire – but the regeneration is not the same. White pine seed must be exposed directly to soil – it cannot come up in areas dominated by brush. Dr. Lee Frelich in “Migration of native and invasive species through landscapes” reports that 25 years after logging, seedlings have dispursed 20 meters from seed source. 25 years after a fire, the seedlings have dipersed 80 meters from the seed source. distrubed by logging
  • Scientists report that about 25 to 30 Thunderstorm Days occur annually in the region, but the heavy rain that accompanies these storms puts out most of the fires
  • Fire Experiements in Boreal Forests in Canada. Plots 500 feet on a side
  • Fire set by USFS Employee Terry Lynn Barton137,760 acres and 600 structures lost. $40 million in fire and post fire expensesSchoonover Burn – lightening caused – may 21st 2002.
  • Edge of the Polhemus prescribed burn (October 2001) and the Hayman Fire, June, 2002.
  • Jeff Forester: How Humans Shaped the North Woods

    1. 1.
    2. 2.
    3. 3.
    4. 4.
    5. 5. CornwallWheal Kitty Mine, St. Agnes Cornwall<br />
    6. 6. CornwallWheal Kitty Mine, St. Agnes Cornwall<br />
    7. 7.
    8. 8. Soudan Mine<br />
    9. 9.
    10. 10.
    11. 11.
    12. 12.
    13. 13.
    14. 14.
    15. 15.
    16. 16. Minnesota is only area in North America where 4 Continental Biomes overlap.<br /><ul><li> Key Climate Change Study area.
    17. 17. End of White Pine Cut
    18. 18. End of Big Woods burning
    19. 19. End of Frontier
    20. 20. Beginning of logging north of the Laurentian Divide.</li></li></ul><li>Courtesy Minnesota Historical Society<br />
    21. 21. Michigan History Magazine. Randall Schaetls@msu.edu/ http://www.geo.msu.edu/geogmich/whitepine-logging.html<br />
    22. 22. Michigan History Magazine. Randall Schaetls@msu.edu/ http://www.geo.msu.edu/geogmich/whitepine-logging.html<br />
    23. 23. Michigan History Magazine. Randall Schaetls@msu.edu/ http://www.geo.msu.edu/geogmich/whitepine-logging.html<br />
    24. 24. Courtesy Minnesota Historical Society<br />
    25. 25. Cole, Davis, Stearns, Walker, Guntenspergen, Historic Landcover Changes in the Great Lakes Region, USGS, http://biology.usgs.gov/luhna/chap6.html<br />
    26. 26. Cole, Davis, Stearns, Walker, Guntenspergen, Historic Landcover Changes in the Great Lakes Region, USGS, http://biology.usgs.gov/luhna/chap6.html<br />
    27. 27.
    28. 28. Peshtigo, WI<br />October 8, 1871<br /><ul><li>1,200 to 2,500 lives lost
    29. 29. 1,875 square miles consumed</li></li></ul><li>Hinckley, MinnesotaSept. 1, 1894- 800 lives lost- 420 square miles consumed<br />
    30. 30. Civilian Conservation Corps Labor helped create a Fire Service Infrastructure<br />
    31. 31. How Did Europeans Change the North Woods by the 1960s?<br />Removed the pine.<br />Reduced the number of forest fires and acres burned.<br />Fires are hotter and more intense.<br />Increased grazing through introducing deer to the area.<br />Turned the area into designated wilderness.<br />
    32. 32.
    33. 33. Bud Heinselman used fire scars and tree rings to estimate fires since 1595<br />
    34. 34.
    35. 35. Heinselman BWCAW area burn maps 1610-1692<br />
    36. 36. Heinselman BWCAW area burn maps 1712 1747<br />
    37. 37. Heinselman BWCAW area burn maps 1755 - 1759<br />
    38. 38. Heinselman BWCAW area burn maps 1784-1796<br />
    39. 39. Heinselman BWCAW area burn maps 1801 - 1803<br />
    40. 40. Heinselman area burn maps 1815 - 1827<br />
    41. 41. Heinselman BWCAW area burn maps 1834 - 1854<br />
    42. 42. Heinselman BWCAW area burn maps 1863 - 1864<br />
    43. 43. Heinselman BWCAW area burn maps 1871 - 1875<br />
    44. 44. Heinselman BWCAW area burn maps 1880 - 1890<br />
    45. 45. Heinselman BWCAW area burn maps 1894<br />
    46. 46. Heinselman BWCAW area burn maps 1900 - 1920<br />
    47. 47. July 4, 1999 Derecho<br />From Frelich, 2002, Forest Dynamics and Disturbance Regimes, Cambridge University Press<br />
    48. 48. Photo Courtesy of Eli Sagor<br />
    49. 49. Gunflint Blowdown<br />Photo Courtesy of Eli Sagor<br />
    50. 50. Our Policy to Extinguish all fires has led to a build up of fuel Load<br />Bitteroot National Forest, Montana, 1909<br />
    51. 51. 1948<br />
    52. 52. 1989<br />Forest Development on the Bitteroot National Forest, Montana – Graham, McCaffrey, Jain, USDA FS, 2004<br />
    53. 53.
    54. 54. Fire Statistics 1960 to 2010<br />
    55. 55.
    56. 56.
    57. 57.
    58. 58.
    59. 59.
    60. 60. How a Wildfire Advances<br />[Video not visible on Slideshare]<br />
    61. 61. Home Ignition Mechanics<br />[Video not visible on Slideshare]<br />
    62. 62. Fuel Managed and Untreated Plot<br />Stand Characteristics, pre-treatment<br />Schroeder, FERIC, Effectiveness of Forest Fuel Management, November 2006<br />
    63. 63. Fire passing through untreated plot<br />Transition from untreated to treated plots.<br />
    64. 64. Surface fires in the fuel managed plot following the transition from a crown fire. Flames on the right of photo are from the main fire front. Flames in the center of the photo are from fire brands.<br />
    65. 65. Impact of Prescribed burn on public safety – Hayman Fire, CO - 2002<br />
    66. 66. Graham, Finner, Cohen, Robichaud, Romme, Kent, Hayman Fire Impacts, 2004 - http://www.wildfirelessons.net/documents/Hayman_Fire_Impacts_FMT_Vol65_1.pdf<br />
    67. 67. Sources<br />Bunk S: World on Fire. PLoS Biol 2/2/2004: e54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0020054<br />Cole, Davis, Stearns, Walker, Guntenspergen, Historic Landcover Changes in the Great Lakes Region, USGS, http://biology.usgs.gov/luhna/chap6.html<br />Cohen, The wildland-urban interface fire problem, 2008 – http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/33787<br />Environmental Defense Fund, “Wildfires on the Rise,” 2007 - http://www.edf.org/article.cfm?contentID=6559<br />Finney, Effects on Treatments, 2010 - http://ucanr.org/sites/Prepostwildfire/files/2657.pdf<br />Frelich, Fire, Wind and Natural Range of Variability, 2010 – <br />http://www.forestry.umn.edu/courses/FR3204/Lecture%2010b-RNV-modeling-ECCB.pdf<br />Frelich, Forest Fire and Disturbance Ecology, 2003 - http://www.forestry.umn.edu/courses/FR3203/Courseintro2010.pdf<br />Frelich, Forest Dynamics and Disturbance Regimes, 2002<br />Frelich, Reich, Rich, Fire in northern Minnesota forests – <br />http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/forests/superior/documents/Frelich_000.pdf<br />Graham, McCaffrey, Jain, USDA FS, 2004 - http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs/rmrs_gtr120.pdf<br />Heinselman, the Boundary Waters Wilderness Ecosystem, 1999<br />Mangan, Wildfire Today, 2010 - http://wildfiretoday.com/documents/2007_2009_Fatalities_Report.pdf<br />Mangan, USDA FS, 1999 - http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/downloads/pdf/wildff90-98.pdf<br />National Interagency Fire Center – Wildland Fire Statistics - http://www.nifc.gov/fire_info/fire_stats.htm<br />NOAA, “State of the Climate U.S. Wildfire, 2010 - http://lwf.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/?report=fire<br />U.S. Fire Administration, Fires in the Wildland/Urban Interface, 2002 – <br />http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/downloads/pdf/tfrs/v2i16-508.pdf<br />Photographs provided by Eli Sagor, Lee Frelich, Bud Heinselman. Marschner Map courtesy of MHS. Video of<br /> Northwest Territories Fire Experiments courtesy of Jack Cohen, National Fire Sciences lab, Missoula, MT, additional fire pictures from USDA Forest Service<br />

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