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Chemicals under review by the Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee (POPRC)

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Dicofol, PFOA, SCCPs, c-decaBDE, HCBD

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Chemicals under review by the Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee (POPRC)

  1. 1. Chemicals under review by the POPRC Intersessional work between POPRC-11 and POPRC-12 Kei Ohno 12 and 14 July 2016
  2. 2. Overview Chemicals under review by the POPRC • Dicofol • PFOA, its salts and PFOA-related compounds • Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) • Decabromodiphenyl ether (c-decaBDE) • Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD)
  3. 3. Dicofol Dicofol • Decision POPRC-10/3: Annex D criteria fulfilled for dicofol • Decision POPRC-11/2: – Decided to defer its decision on the draft risk profile for dicofol to POPRC-12 – Agreed that members who consider that additional information may be available shall submit to the Committee such additional information by 11 December 2015 – Established an intersessional working group to revise the draft risk profile for dicofol
  4. 4. Dicofol Draft risk profile for dicofol • Manufactured from technical DDT by hydroxylation of DDT • Used as miticidal pesticide in many countries around the world and reported to be applied to food, feed, and cash crops including apple, citrus, lichi, longan, pear, leafy vegetables, tea, and cotton
  5. 5. Dicofol Draft risk profile for dicofol • Persistence: e.g. Half-life of dicofol’s main p,p’-isomer: 85 days at pH 5 • Bioaccumulation: e.g. Study with p,p’-dicofol in bluegill sunfish: Bioconcentration factor 10,000 • Long-range environmental transport: e.g. Estimated atmospheric half-life: 3 to 10.5 days • Adverse effects: e.g. Adverse effects on human liver, kidney, adrenal gland and urinary bladder; Lowest LC50 for fish: 0.053 mg/l; for crustaceans: 0.06 mg/l.
  6. 6. PFOA, its salts and PFOA-related compounds • Decision POPRC-11/4: – Annex D criteria fulfilled for PFOA (CAS No: 335-67-1) – Decided that issues related to the inclusion of PFOA-related compounds that potentially degrade to PFOA and the inclusion of PFOA salts should be dealt with in developing the draft risk profile – Established an intersessional working group to prepare a draft risk profile for PFOA, its salts and PFOA-related compounds – Invited Parties and observers to submit Annex E informaiton PFOA
  7. 7. Draft risk profile for PFOA, its salts and PFOA related compounds PFOA • Used as processing aids in the production of fluoroelastomers and fluoropolymers (e.g. PTFE); surfactants and surface treatment agents (e.g. in textiles, paper and paints, fire-fighting foams), and for manufacture of side-chain fluorinated polymers • Important properties: High friction resistance, dielectrical properties, resistance to heat/chemical agents, low surface energy, water/grease/oil/soil repellency
  8. 8. PFOA • Persistence: e.g. PFOA is very persistent and does not undergo any abiotic or biotic degradation under relevant environmental conditions • Bioaccumulation: e.g. PFOA in polar bear tissue and blood indicated bioaccumulation • Long-range environmental transport: e.g. PFOA detected in sediment, water and pooled soil samples and various biota sample from Norwegian Arctic • Adverse effects: e.g. kidney and testicular cancer, disruption of thyroid function and endocrine disruption Draft risk profile for PFOA, its salts and PFOA related compounds
  9. 9. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins • Decision POPRC-2/8: Annex D criteria fulfilled for SCCPs • Decision POPRC-11/3: – Adopted risk profile for SCCPs (UNEP/POPS/POPRC.11/10/Add.2) – Established an intersessional working group to prepare a draft risk management evaluation for SCCPs – Invited Parties and observers to submit Annex F information SCCPs
  10. 10. Draft risk management evaluation for SCCPs SCCPs • Produced in Brazil, China and the Russian Federation, and are imported by Albania, Australia, Republic of Korea, Croatia, Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador and Mexico • Used in metal working applications, polyvinyl chloride plastics, paints, adhesives, sealants, leather fat liquors, rubber, flame retardants and textiles and polymeric materials
  11. 11. Draft risk management evaluation for SCCPs • Technically feasible alternatives are commercially available for all known uses of SCCPs • Information provided by most parties and observers does not indicate that negative economic impacts are anticipated if SCCPs are listed to the Convention • A number of parties indicated that listing SCCPs is expected to increase costs and result in negative impacts to the chlorinated paraffin industry, as well as to the manufacturers of the raw materials and the downstream products industry SCCPs
  12. 12. Draft risk management evaluation for SCCPs • SCCPs may be unintentionally produced during the manufacture of other CP mixtures, and thereby contained within other products and in articles. • MCCPs and other CP mixtures are often used as alternatives to SCCPs in many applications; therefore, as the use of SCCPs is phased out the production and use of MCCPs and other CP mixtures could increase. • Need to minimize the amount of SCCPs contained in other CP mixtures, which would reduce both human and environmental exposures. SCCPs
  13. 13. Draft risk management evaluation for SCCPs • Conclusion: Recommend that the COP consider listing and specifying the related control measures for SCCPs in Annex A without specific exemptions and consider control measures for unintentional production SCCPs
  14. 14. Decabromodiphenyl ether (c-decaBDE) • Decision POPRC-9/4: Annex D criteria fulfilled for decaBDE • Decision POPRC-10/2: Adopted risk profile for decaBDE (UNEP/POPS/POPRC.10/10/Add.2) • Decision POPRC-11/1: – Adopted risk management evaluation for decaBDE (UNEP/POPS/POPRC.11/10/Add.1) – Recommended listing of decaBDE (BDE-209) of c-decaBDE in Annex A with specific exemptions for some critical spare parts, to be defined, for the automotive and aerospace industries – Established an intersessional working group to strengthen the recommendation c-decaBDE
  15. 15. Decabromodiphenyl ether (c-decaBDE) c-decaBDE • Used as an additive flame retardant in plastics, textiles, adhesives, sealants, coatings and inks. • Plastics: electrical and electronic equipment, wires and cables, pipes and carpets; Textiles: upholstery, window blinds, curtains, mattresses, transportation sector.
  16. 16. • For the automotive industry, the production and use of c-decaBDE could be limited to parts for use in legacy vehicles, defined as vehicles that have ceased mass production prior to July 2018, and be in one or more of the following categories: – Powertrain & under hood applications for example: battery mass wire, battery interconnection wire, mobile air-conditioning (MAC) pipe, powertrain, exhaust manifolds bushings, under hood insulation, wiring and harness under hood (engine wiring etc.), speed sensors, hoses, fan modules, knock sensors; – Fuel System applications for example: fuel hoses, fuel tank, fuel tank under body; – Pyrotechnical devices and applications affected by pyrotechnical devices for example: air bag ignition cable, seat cover/ fabric (only if airbag relevant), airbags (front and side). c-decaBDE Assessment of additional information on decaBDE
  17. 17. • For the aerospace industry, possible phase-out of all parts of new air craft, or possible continued use of c-decaBDE in all spare parts for existing aircraft types for the remainder of their product lives • The available information does not indicate any use of c-decaBDE in the textile production in small and medium size enterprises in developing countries • A key obstacle towards a complete phase-out of c-decaBDE within 2018 in vehicles and in aircrafts appears to be the costs. In addition, the industry have concerns regarding technical- and practical challenges related to the substitution including the testing and certification scheme that has to be applied • Labelling of newly produced articles containing c-decaBDE could be useful when articles become waste, noting the implementation challenges. c-decaBDE Assessment of additional information on decaBDE
  18. 18. Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) • Risk profile: UNEP/POPS/POPRC.8/16/Add.2 • Risk management evaluation: UNEP/POPS/POPRC.9/13/Add.2 • Decision SC-7/12: Decided to list HCBD in Annex A without specific exemptions • Decision SC-7/11: Requested POPRC to further evaluate HCBD on the basis of the newly available information in relation to its listing in Annex C and make recommendation to the COP • Decision POPRC-11/5: – Established an intersessional working group to further evaluate HCBD for listing in Annex C – Invited parties and observers to submit information HCBD
  19. 19. Evaluation of new information for the addition of HCBD to Annex C HCBD • Currently, there is no known intentional use or production. • Historically used as a solvent for rubber and other polymers, as a scrubber to recover chlorine-containing gas or to remove volatile organic components from gas, etc.
  20. 20. Evaluation of new information for the addition of HCBD to Annex C HCBD • HCBD is unintentionally formed and released from industrial processes and other sources. • Relevant sources are: a) Production of certain chlorinated hydrocarbons, b) Production of magnesium, and c) Incineration processes e.g. motor vehicle emissions, incineration processes of acetylene, uncontrolled incineration of chlorine residues, incineration of hazardous waste and plastic containing waste
  21. 21. Evaluation of new information for the addition of HCBD to Annex C HCBD • Currently, important releases of HCBD originate from the production of certain chlorinated chemicals particularly trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. • In many countries, production and use of those chemicals have been phased out or strictly controlled. In some countries, carbon tetrachloride remains of interest due to its use as an intermediate feedstock in the manufacture of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) compounds. • Continued use of carbon tetrachloride, without appropriate management, may represent a significant emission of HCBD.
  22. 22. Evaluation of new information for the addition of HCBD to Annex C HCBD • Releases can be minimised by alternative production processes, improved process control, emission control measures, or by substitution of the relevant chlorinated chemicals. • Listing of HCBD in Annex C would subject this substance to the measures under Article 5 and establish the goal of continuing minimization and, where feasible, ultimate elimination of HCBD releases, including by promoting BAT/BEP.
  23. 23. Evaluation of new information for the addition of HCBD to Annex C HCBD • Although incineration of HCBD containing waste may be utilized in some developed countries, it may not be the most cost- effective option in all countries. • It is important to ensure monitoring capacity for HCBD in developing countries and countries with economies in transition. • Application of BAT and BEP have strong beneficial effects to further control and reduce emissions. Listing of HCBD in Annex C would help to further manage this issue at a global level.
  24. 24. Other technical work Other technical work • Consolidated guidance on alternatives to PFOS and its related chemicals • Process for the evaluation and review of BDEs purusant to para 2 of parts IV and V of Annex A
  25. 25. Please contact the Secretariat for more information: Kei Ohno E-mail: kei.ohno-woodall@brsmeas.org Tel: +41 22 917 8201 Thank you

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