• Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that
deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to
attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or
morally dangerous and harmful.
• It is the work that exceeds a minimum number of hours
depending on the age of a child and on the type of work.
• Economically active children are involved in any kind of work, legal
or illegal, paid or unpaid.
• For example, a 15-year-old who delivers papers is not a child labour
(but is economically active) but a 14-year-old working in a factory
for more than 14 hours a week is a child labour.
•Tradition of making children learn the family skills
•Absence of universal compulsory Primary education
•Social apathy and tolerance of child labor
•Ignorance of the parents about the adverse consequences of Child
•Ineffective enforcement of the legal provisions pertaining to child labor
•Non-availability of and non-accessibility to schools
•Irrelevant and non-attractive school curriculum
•Employers prefer children as they constitute cheap labor and they are
not able to organize themselves against exploitation.
• 61% in Asia, 32% in Africa, and 7% in Latin America, 1% in US, Canada, Europe
and other wealthy nations.
• In Asia, 22% of the workforce is children. In Latin America, 17% of the
workforce is children.
• 246 million child workers aged 5 and 17 were involved in child labor.
• Out of which 171 million were involved in work that by its nature is
Grey -No data
Cream - 0,01 to 10% children at work
Green - 10 to 20% children at work
Orange - 20 to 30% children at work
Red - 30 to 40% children at work
Black - More than 40% children at work
1948: The Factories Act raised the minimum age for employment in factories to
1949: The Employment of Children (Amendment)Act. 1949 Raised the minimum
age to 14 years for employment in establishments governed by that act.
1951: The Employment of Children (Amendment)Act. 1951 Prohibited the
employment of children between 15 and 17 years at night in railways and ports and
also provided for requirement of maintaining register for children under 17 years.
1951: The Plantations Labour Act, 1951 Prohibited the employment of children
under 12 years in plantations.
1952: The Mines Act 1952 Prohibited the employment of children under 15 years
in mines.The act stipulates two conditions for underground work.
(i) Requirement to have completed 16 years of age and
(ii) Required to obtain a certificate of physical fitness from a surgeon.
1954: The Factories (Amendment)Act, 1954 Included the prohibition of the
employment of persons under 17 years between of 10 p.m. and 7.a.m.
1958: The Merchant Shipping Act, 1958 Prohibits children under 15 to be engaged
to work in any capacity in any ship except in certain specified cases.
1961:The MotorTransportWorkersAct, 1961 Prohibits the employment of children
under 15 years in any motor transport undertaking.
1961: TheApprenticesAct, 1961 Prohibits the apprenticeship/ training of a person
under 14 years
1966: The Beedi and CigarWorkers (Conditions ofWork) Act, 1966 Prohibits
a) the employment of children under 14 years in beedi and cigar making
b) persons between 14 and 18 years to work at night between 7 p.m and 6 p.m
1978: Employment of Children(Amendment ) Act, 1978 Prohibits the employment
of children below 15 years in occupations in railway premises such as cinder-picking
or clearing of ash pit or building operations, in catering establishment nd in any
other work which is carried on in close proximity to or between the railway lines.