Smart Traffic Congestion Control System

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The goal of this project is to optimize traffic light controller in a Metropolitan City by varying the time of Traffic signal lights. The system tries to reduce possibilities of traffic jams, caused by traffic lights, to an extent and give ease to drivers to avoid congested path.

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Smart Traffic Congestion Control System

  1. 1. Smart Tr affic Signal & Congestion Control System Waqas Ahmed, Syed Hasnain Ali, Muzzamil Shaikh, Zeeshan Shabir Sukkur IBA, PakistanAbstract: Nowadays congestion in traffic is a serious issue. The traffic congestion can also be caused by large Redlight delays, etc. The delay of respective light is hard coded in the traffic light and it is not dependent ontraffic. Therefore for simulating and optimizing traffic control to better accommodate this increasingdemand is arises. In this project we discussed the optimization of traffic light controller in a MetropolitanCity using microcontroller and Digital Display. The system tries to reduce possibilities of traffic jams,caused by traffic lights, to an extent and give ease to drivers to avoid congested path. The system is basedon microcontroller, Zigbee, IR sensors and Digital Display. The microcontroller used in the system is8051 Micro. Microcontroller also store vehicles count in its memory. Based on different vehicles count,the microcontroller takes decision and updates the traffic light delays as a result. If there is a trafficjamming on one road of the city. The traffic light will decide itself the timing based on the current trafficdensity. Also the driver will be informed through the Digital Display (installed at in the city fewkilometers beyond the traffic light) to choose another way and avoid the congestion.Keywords— IR (infrared ) sensor, Microcontroller, ZigBee, Digital Display(LCD).Introduction:Studies have estimated that on a daily basis most of traffic congestion is because of the traffics lightsystem. And Additional waste of time for public as a result of traffic congestion. The most of thecongestion occur during early in the morning and late afternoon. Because the students and employers aregoing to their works and Universities so they also be late at traffic light spot. As the number of road usersconstantly increases, and resources provided by current infrastructures are limited, intelligent control oftraffic will become a very important issue in the future. Avoiding traffic jams for example is thought to bebeneficial to both environment and economy.Our smart traffic light and congestion control system is designed to solve the traffic congestion problemin metropolitan cities of the country which will result in minimizing the economic and physiology costassociated with the traffic congestion problem in terms of the waste of energy (fuel) and time .As acountry(Pakistan) whose GDP is 2.5% and whose most of the foreign reserves are spend on the importingthe oil, can’t afford to waste such an important resources , there is a need to manage the things so that wecan utilize our resources in a proper manner effective and efficient , so that we can save our people moneyand time and let them use it in a fruitful manner.
  2. 2. Our new “Smart Traffic light & Density ControlSystem” Project:We propose a new traffic Control System that will control the congestion problem of traffic throughtraffic signals on the basis of current traffic density.The current traffic light system is fixed. It has fixed time interval to pass the traffic from either side of theroad, which creates the congestion problem. Our Smart traffic control system solves this problem on realtime basis. It will observe the traffic condition on let’s say three different road connected with each otherthen it will take decision that which road is to open for certain period of time and which one is for shortertime.We installed the IR transmitter on the opposite side of the road. The transmitter will be operated by theDC power source so we will convert the AC 110V to DC current hardly 5 volt.That is continuously sending the signal to the IR receiver hang on the other side. The IR receiver isconnected to Microcontroller Rx pin. So Microcontroller is getting high signal continuously asvehicle passes between the IR transmitter and receiver the receiver will detect it and send a low signalto Microcontroller. The Microcontroller will count this in memory.
  3. 3. We have defined three different conditions and based of these condition the Microcontroller will providedelay to the traffic signal. TimeDensity of Number of Vehicle Time Interval Interval Time Interval (inVehicles (in Seconds) Seconds) (in Seconds) Red Yellow GreenLow 10 30 05 30Medium 20 20 05 40High 30 10 05 50So as the vehicle density increases on the road the interval of green signal and red will change.
  4. 4. Now if there is very high traffic congestion on some roads. So we are also installing the Digital Display(LCD) at the distance of 1km away from the traffic light signal. SO the LCD will display the alternativebest possible way to move. So the driver can avoid the congestion and take another possible road tomove. So we have to main advantage for installing the Digital Display (i) Ease for driver to avoid thecongested path and choose another possible path (ii) No more traffic will be on that congested path untilthe congestion problem is solved.The LCD is directly connected to Microcontroller (this Microcontroller will only serve for LCD not forany more purpose). The Microcontroller is directly connected to the main server Microcontroller throughwireless media. We prefer Zigbee to be used for wireless communication because Zigbee is so cheap, andit works on ISM band. So we don’t need to buy the bandwidth from any third party (which is too costly).The main Server microcontroller will communicate with the other microcontroller (Driving the DigitalDisplay) and transmit the information of current traffic situation. As the traffic congestion occur so theLCD will display the another best possible path for other driver to avoid the congestion.Innovative elements -- We highlight the innovative elements of our “Smart traffic light& Density control system” relative to the state of the art: (i) The system automatically decide that whichtraffic signal should be ‘GREEN’ for certain time defined by the density of traffic. (ii) The systemcontinuously seeks to upgrade the assigned traffic light based on the latest data collected from IR sensors. (iii)The system ensures that which traffic light will be ‘GREEN’ & ‘RED’, on the basis of density (Low,Medium, High) defined by the user (iv)The system will inform the drivers (through Digital Display),using the road about the road clarity (v)The system will automatically choose another alternative pathfor drivers to avoid the congestion .
  5. 5. Team Members and Audience: We are 4 persons team, working on this project. Detailed of team members are as followsName Tel Email Major Year InstituteWaqas NonAhmed +92- waqas.ahmed@iba Telecommunicati IEEE Third Sukkur 334- -suk.edu.pk on Engineering Member year IBA 264954 1 SukkurHasnain Ali +92- hasnain.ali@iba- Telecommunicati IEEE Final IBA 342- suk.edu.pk on Engineering Member Year 314375 2Muzzamil +92- muzzamil.shaikh@i Telecommunicati IEEE Final SukkurShaikh 333- ba-suk.edu.pk on Engineering Member Year IBA 295521 0 NonZeeshan +92- zeeshanshabbir10 Finance IEEE Final Sukkurshabbir 333- @gmail.com Member Year IBA 395047 0 Project Audience – Junior or Senior College students, Graduate students, Public. Project Implementation Details: The implementation of this “Smart Traffic Signal and congestion control system” relies on four require- ments: (i) Real time traffic road conditions will be stored in the Microcontroller memory. (ii) Effective wireless communication between IR transceiver modules through ZigBee. (iii) Solve congestion problem by varying the time of traffic light signal on the basis of road density. (iv)Digital Display will display the current traffic condition of that road after some kilometer, and also display the alternative way for driver so the driver can easily choose the alternative path and avoid the traffic congestion. The implementation details for each of these requirements are described in the following table.
  6. 6. RequireTask Activity Material Time Major Skill
  7. 7. Deploy IR receiver and transmitter 1Vehicle on IR receiver and week InstallationDetection the both side of roads transmitter Microcontroller will count on basisVehicle of Microcontroller 4-5 Assembly, CCountdown detection in its memory weeks programming 1Traffic signal Install the traffic light signal and Poll, Bulbs, etc week Practical work connect it with microcontroller Install the digital display few Digital Display, 3-4 InterfacingDigital kilometers beyond from trafficDisplay signal Microcontroller, Weeks which is keep on updating drivers Power supply about the current traffic condition. 3 OutdoorWireless Wireless communication between Zigbee Module weeks wirelessCommunication Digital Display and main server communication Microcontroller modelsSystem analysisIn Pakistan road transport accounts for 91 percent of passenger traffic and 96 per-cent of freight traffic. Thecountry has a road network covering 259,758 km, with around 4.2 million on-road vehicles, and a road densityof 0.32 km/sq km which is lower than the average density of 0.50 km per sq km in developing countries(Pakistan needs to develop 157,115 kms of roads to meet this deficiency). Pakistan’s economy had beengrowing at an average rate of 6-7% in last few years. The growth in the economy, increase in the population,expanding urban boundaries and markets for goods and services, and rising incomes of the middle class bothin urban and rural areas; have contributed to an unprecedented increase in the road transport. The transportsector in Pakistan is dominated by the road transport as it carries 90% of the national passenger traffic and96% of the freight movement. Over the past few years road transport has grown much faster than the country’seconomic growth. In 1990, the total number of registered vehicles in Pakistan was 27,12,837. In 2006, thisfigure was recorded to be 62,10,769, an increase of 129%. According to National Transport Research Centre(NTRC), in 1991-92, the total number of vehicles on road was 20,95,500 and by 2006-07 the number hadreached to 80,63,6000. This means a 285% increase in the number of vehicles during last 16 years comparedto 52% increase in the road length during the same period.
  8. 8. This rapid growth in the total number of vehicles on the road needs a system which can manage the things to copup with the problems that arises because of deficiency of roads. This Smart Traffic Signal And Congestion ControlSystem is designed to overcome this problem keeping in the view the limits of the affordability, to solve theproblem with minimum cost associated with the project. Market Analysis SummaryAs a result in increase in population, an increasing trend of migration from rural to urban areas, increasing growthin number of vehicles, and deficiency of roads triggers the need for a comprehensive solution which can managethe traffic problems in the metropolitan cities of Pakistan.Investment costThe investment cost of Traffic Signal And Congestion Control System is $500 for one square which can controlthe traffic of four interconnected road as compare the cost of conventional traffic system which cost $600.Easy of user adoptionThe sole purpose of this Traffic Signal And Congestion Control System is to save people from the hazardsof traffic congestion. People can be benefited from this system by simply follow the signals reflected by thesystem while they are on the move.Market size and revenue for implementationThe market size of this system comprises of the 20 metropolitan cities of Pakistan which can install this systemand effectively can manage the traffic of the cities. The revenues can be generated by this system is $800 for onesquare consisting of four roads.Target customersThe target customers for this traffic system are the local district government of metropolitan cities ofPakistan. The city district government can recover their cost through the advertisement which can be carriedon this system.Sukkur IBA Approved & Time Period:The proposed project is approved by Sukkur IBA. And Sukkur IBA gives us permission to implement in SukkurCity.The total estimated development time is within one semester (5 months).
  9. 9. Reference: [1] Sinhmar, Promila. “Intelligent Traffic Light And Density Control Using IR Sensors And Microcontroller”. RawalInstitute of Engineering And Technology Zakopur. Vol. 2, Issue 2, March 2012, pp. 1-6http://www.ijater.com/Files/IJATER_03_06.pdf[2] XBee® Family Features Comparison datasheet [online] availablehttp://www.digi.com/pdf/chart_xbee_rf_features.pdf[3] Rijkswaterstaat “Digital signage as solution to traffic jam problems”, Koninklijk Horeca Nederland[4] Sabya sanchi kanojia. “Real –time Traffic light control and Congestion avoidance system:” Electronics andCommunication, Dev Bhoomi Institute of Technology, Uttrakhand Technical University. Vol. 2, Issue 2,Mar-Apr 2012,pp.928-929[5] “Modren Traffic Signal System Installed at 21 Intersection”. Nations,03 Oct 2011. Web. 25 Oct. 2012. < http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/national/03-Oct-2011/Modern-
  10. 10. traffic-signal-system-installed-at-21-intersections>
  11. 11. Reference: [1] Sinhmar, Promila. “Intelligent Traffic Light And Density Control Using IR Sensors And Microcontroller”. RawalInstitute of Engineering And Technology Zakopur. Vol. 2, Issue 2, March 2012, pp. 1-6http://www.ijater.com/Files/IJATER_03_06.pdf[2] XBee® Family Features Comparison datasheet [online] availablehttp://www.digi.com/pdf/chart_xbee_rf_features.pdf[3] Rijkswaterstaat “Digital signage as solution to traffic jam problems”, Koninklijk Horeca Nederland[4] Sabya sanchi kanojia. “Real –time Traffic light control and Congestion avoidance system:” Electronics andCommunication, Dev Bhoomi Institute of Technology, Uttrakhand Technical University. Vol. 2, Issue 2,Mar-Apr 2012,pp.928-929[5] “Modren Traffic Signal System Installed at 21 Intersection”. Nations,03 Oct 2011. Web. 25 Oct. 2012. < http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/national/03-Oct-2011/Modern-

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