Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
 Energy flow and chemical
recycling in ecosystems.
Energy flows into an
ecosystem as sunlight
and ultimately.
CATABOLIC PATHWAYS
 metabolic pathways that release stored energy by
breaking down complex molecules are called catabolic...
Redox Reactions: Oxidation and
Reduction
These electron transfers are called oxidation-reduction
reactions, or redox react...
The Stages of Cellular Respiration
1.Glycolysis
2.Pyruvate oxidation and the citric
acid cycle
3.Oxidative phosphorylation...
AN OVERVIEW OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION
SUBSTRATE-LEVEL
PHOSPHORYLATION
A smaller amount of ATP is formed directly in a few reactions
of glycolysis and the citric...
Glycolysis can be divided
into two phases: energy
investment and energy
payoff. During the energy
investment phase, the ce...
GLYCOLYSIS
GLYCOLYSIS
Oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, the step
before the citric acid cycle
THE CITRIC ACID
CYCLE
The citric acid
cycle is also
called the
tricarboxylic acid
cycle or the
Krebs cycle
An
introduction
to electron
transport
chains
Electron Transport
The H+ gradient that results is referred to as a
proton-motive force, emphasizing the capacity
of the gradient to perform ...
ATP yield per molecule of glucose at each stage of
cellular respiration
+ about 32 or 34
ATP
About
36 or
38 ATP
FERMENTATION AND ANAEROBIC
RESPIRATION
There are two general mechanisms by which
certain cells can oxidize organic fuel an...
FERMENTATION
 Fermentation is a way of harvesting chemical
energy without using either oxygen or any electron
transport c...
Types of Fermentation
 In fermentation, the final electron acceptor is an
organic molecule such as pyruvate (lactic acid
fermentation) or acetal...
Respirasi Sell
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Respirasi Sell

259 views

Published on

Respirasi Cell, Mata Kuliah BIOLOGI

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Respirasi Sell

  1. 1.  Energy flow and chemical recycling in ecosystems. Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and ultimately.
  2. 2. CATABOLIC PATHWAYS  metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules are called catabolic pathways.  catabolic process is aerobic respiration and fermentation  some prokaryotes use substances other than oxygen as reactants in a similar process that harvests chemical energy without oxygen; this process is called anaerobic respiration  Technically, the term cellular respiration includes both aerobic and anaerobic processes.
  3. 3. Redox Reactions: Oxidation and Reduction These electron transfers are called oxidation-reduction reactions, or redox reactions for short. redox reaction, the loss of electrons from one substance is called oxidation, and the addition of electrons to another substance is known as reduction.
  4. 4. The Stages of Cellular Respiration 1.Glycolysis 2.Pyruvate oxidation and the citric acid cycle 3.Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis
  5. 5. AN OVERVIEW OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION
  6. 6. SUBSTRATE-LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION A smaller amount of ATP is formed directly in a few reactions of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle by a mechanism called substrate-level phosphorylation
  7. 7. Glycolysis can be divided into two phases: energy investment and energy payoff. During the energy investment phase, the cell actually spends ATP.
  8. 8. GLYCOLYSIS
  9. 9. GLYCOLYSIS
  10. 10. Oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, the step before the citric acid cycle
  11. 11. THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE The citric acid cycle is also called the tricarboxylic acid cycle or the Krebs cycle
  12. 12. An introduction to electron transport chains
  13. 13. Electron Transport
  14. 14. The H+ gradient that results is referred to as a proton-motive force, emphasizing the capacity of the gradient to perform work. Chemiosmosis is an energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of an H + gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work. ATP synthesis uses Chemiosmosis
  15. 15. ATP yield per molecule of glucose at each stage of cellular respiration + about 32 or 34 ATP About 36 or 38 ATP
  16. 16. FERMENTATION AND ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION There are two general mechanisms by which certain cells can oxidize organic fuel and generate ATP without the use of oxygen: anaerobic respiration and fermentation. The distinction between these two is that an electron transport chain is used in anaerobic respiration but not in fermentation. (The electron transport chain is also called the respiratory chain because of its role in both types of cellular respiration.)
  17. 17. FERMENTATION  Fermentation is a way of harvesting chemical energy without using either oxygen or any electron transport chain in other words, without cellular respiration.  Fermentation is an extension of glycolysis that allows continuous generation of ATP by the substrate-level phosphorylation of glycolysis.
  18. 18. Types of Fermentation
  19. 19.  In fermentation, the final electron acceptor is an organic molecule such as pyruvate (lactic acid fermentation) or acetaldehyde (alcohol fermentation).  In cellular respiration, by contrast, electrons carried by NADH is an oxygen

×