Frp today biocomposites in automotive applications

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Biocomposites in Automotive Applications

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Frp today biocomposites in automotive applications

  1. 1. APPLICATION TRENDS 01. FRP TODAY NEWS. VOL. 13. ISSUE 08 . AUGUST 2013 Biocomposites in Automotive Applications Introduction The recent forecasts indicate that the Crude oil price will reach $100 dollar per barrel in 2015, $120 price in 2020, $130 in 2025, and $150 per barrel in 2035.Now we all in a situation of lack of crude oil and not sure of its availability for long term. Research sources say that we have only crude oil at least for 45 to 60 years maximum. The shortage of crude oil will hit entire world and the businesses. Latest discoveries of bioplastics, natural bers and natural gas and hydrogen gives hope to the sustainability. Companies in many industries have started their research and development projects on to produce chemicals, monomers; polymers commercially by using renewable feed stocks which are consume less energy and produce fewer green house gas emissions. This progress in Green Chemistry is affecting the supply chains of many manufacturers in the recent years. It is considered, 2010 as golden year for bioplastics market where lots of developments taken place and few succeeded bio-based materials are introduced in the market. Thus drives the industry to focus on agricultural waste and its related projects.The It seems that the Crude oil price will rise up to 100 dollarperbarrel in 2015, $120 price in 2020, $130 in 2025, and $150 per barrel in 2035.Now we all in a situation of lack of crude oil and not sure of its availability for long term. The research sources say that we have only crude oil at least for 45 to 60 years maximum. The shortage of crude oil will hit entire world and the businesses. Latest discoveries of bioplastics, natural bers and natural gas and hydrogen gives hope tothe sustainability. rapid growth of bioplastics which is accounted as 1% of total fossil based plastics in the world market today. The newly introduced bioplastics not only help the industry but also makes us not dependant on crude oil anymore. In addition to bioplastics market, Natural bres use in various applications is going to increase in the coming years. All giants are taking part in Green chemistry now and there are lots of biobased materials will replace conventional materials in the next 3-5 years period. Countries like Thailand, Brazil are becoming leaders in production of monomers and biopolymers. There is some scope for the countries like India, china and South Korea to get expand their production capacity of bio based monomer and bio-polymer facilities in the next 3 years. Europe and USAare leaders in consumption of bioplastics at the moment. The natural bre use is very limited so far but the automotive sector adopts natural bre in various parts in recent years.The Japanese government has set a goal that 20% of all plastics consumed in Japan will be renewably sourcedby 2020. POEMA system by Mercedes Benz from1992 Mercedes Benz started the production of headrests of the car using coconut ber and natural rubber as POEMA system in Amazon area in Brazil from 1991.This activity became the rst start to use natural ber, and many NFRP parts are used for German car now.(Source;MiyukiTomari) Arkema is the rst company which produces bio-based Polyamide (PA) decades ago. Now DSM and few more started offering PA with improved properties which can well suited for automotive applications. Toyota Motor Corp has plans to add bio-PET in their new car series. Bio based PP also will nd its place when it is been offered to the market commercially. Toyota's new electric hybrid also has bioplastics in their interiors. Toyota ,Ford and few others use soy based seat cushion and they have started adding various bioplastics in all their passenger cars. Fiat also use castor oil derived polyamide and soy derived poly urethanes lately. Thus make all car manufacturers are not dependent on Fossil based plastics anymore. Fiat Automobiles has Muthuramalingam Krishnan Gruntech Polymer Consultants, India E mail: muthu@gruntech.com Muthuramalingam Krishnan
  2. 2. APPLICATION TRENDS 02. FRP TODAY NEWS. VOL. 13. ISSUE 08 . AUGUST 2013 reduced its average emissions by 14%, from 137.3 to 118.2 g/km of CO , signicantly lower2 than the target set out by the European Union for 2015, which has been xed at 130 g/ km.For example to say about Renewable resources benets to human life, with biogas produce from 10 banana skin, can able to drive a car for about 1 km.The agricultural chemistries are the one which going to help out the world demands inallsectorsinthecomingdecades. Other leading car manufacturers are focused on bioplastics use in interiors and working on to make lighter parts for exterior parts. Lexus also uses KENAF-the Natural in their cars.The main factors which are focused by the car manufacturers are Load bearing Structures, light weight, cost, and exibility to all moulding processes and resistance to UV, chemical, re. University Nothingam has made 3.5 metre blade by using Flax with polyester which is suitable for an 11kW wind turbine. Flax has got anti fungus property and Hemp fabric was tested against two bacteria strains, Staphylococcus Aureus (staph) and Klebsiella Pneumoniae (pneumonia). The fabric tested was a hemp blend, 60% hemp and 40% rayon. The staph test sample was already 98.5% bacteria free during the rst measurement of the testing. This shows that the Hemp has got great potential in the usage of many applications. When compare with 100% PLA resin with PLA+Kenaf, the biocomposites of PLA/Kenaf results higher heat deection temperature, exural strength, exural modulus and impact strength which is almost as equal as PC/Glass ber composite properties. This PLA/Kenaf biocomposites is being used by NEC and Unitika Ltd for producing mobile phone housings. In recent days, Nano cellulose ber has got great scope of use in many applications. Now biocomposites industry has started focus on Nano cellulose ber for its outstanding properties .In recent years, the new discovery that intensive processing of wood releases ultra-small, or "nano" cellulose bres, so tiny that 50,000 could t inside across the width of a single strand of human hair.Nano-cellulose bres can be added to raw material where it can replace glass/aramid, carbon biocomposites that are stronger and more durable. These bres are from banana and pineapple which are s u p e r s t r o n g  b r e s ( a s s t i f f a s Kevlar),sustainable, lighter and more eco- friendly thus leads them to nd their use in automotive applications in future. In the next 3 years, there will be more usage of this ber in armourandbulletproofvests. It's a good sign in the automotive industry to add more bioplastics in their parts and can reduce vehicle weight and also less GHG emissionwhichmakesthemnamedGreen. The world itself is focusing on renewable and sustainability. The automobile industry is already focused on so many alternate to fossil based plastics and metals. It's been witnessed by polymer composites with its natural bre composites which has been imparted with thermoplastic or thermoset resins to make lighter parts when compare to thick metal parts.Thus has proved the car manufacturers to reduce 1 ton of total vehicle weight in the recent years. Auto manufacturers are not concern about prices of fossil based plastics. They want to have good mechanical properties and aesthetic look and exible to manufacture various machinery processes. Even the thermoset Epoxy resin chemistry can be bio sourced. Solvay group is producing bio-based epichlorohydrin in Thailand and also bio sourced corn byproduct Isosorbide to create a derivative that can be used to replace bisphenol A (BPA) in epoxy resins. These developments will boost the theromoset plastic market in a big way. The recycling also improved over the years by using vegetable oil to separate natural bre from the biocomposites parts.EVONIK's Vestamid Terra Grade with Rayon bre reinforced with Bio Poly Amide for automobileapplications. Source: Miyuki Tomari History of natural ber composite in Japan  1955-;Sound insulatorandseatmaterialofclothewaste's cottonber.  2000;Door innerofkenaf/PPcompositebyLexus.  2003;Roofliningofcarbon/sisalcompositebyTOYOTA.  2003;Sparetirecoverof kenaf/PLA(PolylacticAcid)byTOYOTA.  2006;Tailgate trim of bamboo/ PBS (Polybutylenesuccinate) composite by Mitsubishi.  2007;Carspeakerconeusingbambooberby Panasonic.  2009;SeatcushionusingpolyolfromcastoroilbyToyotaBoshoku.  2011;Seatfabricof cottonandPETcombinationbyMitsubishiMotors.  2012;Kenafber compositeof injectionmoldingbyToyotaBoshoku.  2012;Steeringwheel&interiorpartsofbamboocompositebyLexus.  Future:PersonalmobilitydeviceusingnaturalmaterialsbyTOYOTA.
  3. 3. APPLICATION TRENDS 03. FRP TODAY NEWS. VOL. 13. ISSUE 08 . AUGUST 2013 Natural Fibres can be reinforced with biopolymer resin to obtain the optimum strength in the car exterior parts. As bio based PP (Polypropylene) and bio-PVC are not yet reached commercial production yet.At present Long Fibre reinforced with fossil based Polypropylene material for producing Car Battery support trays and brake uid reservoir. These parts are going to be replaced by bioplastics in coming years. The same way, car bumpers and door panels expected to have Natural bre reinforced bioplastics in exterior parts such as lighting,mirror,grills,chassis pillars ,fenders and wipers)and interior parts (seats,dashboardconsoles,airbag,moldings,ex pansion tank, window encaps,engine support and engine cover,pedal,ABS,o-rings and wires, radiatorsupport)intheautomotive. Use ofNFRPinGermanCar Mercedes Benz S class offering 27 parts which are used by Natural Fiber Reinforced Plastics with the weight of 42.7 kg.There are possibilities of introducing Natural ber in many of the parts by German car makers at the moment. Some parts, carbon and glass bers have been used to have better strength on certain parts in the vehicle segment. The NFRP is low damage to environment because natural ber is carbon neutral and renewable resources. The NFRP waste can be recycled with thermal recovery. The applications of NFRP are increasing gradually in automotive industry.In the next 4 years; there will be many parts which can be used with Biocomposites. Europe is 10 years ahead of USA and other Automotive parts using natural cotton ber wastes Toyota Camry since 2006 Instrumental panel using ax & PP by Faurecia SA S-class :27 parts countries in biocomposites market.The countries such as Japan,Germany,Italy,France Canada are becoming more active in biocompositesmarket.
  4. 4. APPLICATION TRENDS 04. FRP TODAY NEWS. VOL. 13. ISSUE 08 . AUGUST 2013 DevelopmentofNFRPinJapan The Japanese government has set a goal that 20% of all plastics consumed in Japan will be renewablysourcedby 2020. The door inner board using NFRP of Kenaf PP In Toyota Lexus and Camry, Mark X, the composite material of kenaf ber and polypropylene (PP) is used for the inner board of door panel from 2000.It reduces approx 20% weight reduction of door panel board. Toyota produces kenaf board in Indon esia at its own plantation and plans to mold kenaf products in Japan, Thailand, China and the USA. Concept CarbyTOYOTA Concept of EV using banana ber by SUZUKI SUZUKI exhibited concept EV using banana ber. In this EV, composite of banana ber mat colored for green and epoxy resin is used for NFRP Kenaf / PP Kenaf Fiber with PLA Kenaf Fiber with PLA Lexus GS from 2012 banana ber (green color) / epoxy Made from Flax ber
  5. 5. APPLICATION TRENDS 05. FRP TODAY NEWS. VOL. 13. ISSUE 08 . AUGUST 2013 body outer. We can see the green ber through transparent epoxy resin. And yarn mixed with colored banana ber and cotton was used for seat fabric. Furthermore, mat of colored banana ber which molded by binder was set on theoor. Natural bres absorb vibrations better than an articial bre and are easier to handle during production. Natural bre properties are lower than glass bre and the density is also lower. Natural bres need to be processed to obtain a bre length range, generally 1-5mm with low particulate level. Surface treatments such as plasma,corona,surfacebrillation,Acetylation, Silane,isocyanate reactions, Alkaline swelling need to improve bonding to matrix. The BioMobile project was launched in Freiburg using a technology developed by Bcomp. It challengesthetraditionalconceptofthecar. Car speaker cone using bamboo ber by Panasonic Panasonic developed speaker cone using paper from bamboo ber on 2007. The company utilizes bamboo ber because it grows faster than soft wood. And it is lighter and harder than wood. In this cone, short ber and long ber of bamboo are mixed. The surface of short ber is opened rag to make rigid cone. Hence, bamboo cone speaker has a wider sound and good treble than conventional wooden papercone.

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