2. Meaning of
The search for answers to research questions is called collection of
Data or facts and other relevant materials past and present serving as
bases for study and analysis.
Some examples of data are:
The items of raw materials required for a product line
The gender age social class religion income level of respondents in a
consumer behavior study
The opinion of people on voting in the general election
3. Types of data
The data needed for social science research may be broadly classified
(a) data pertaining to human beings
Data relating to organizations
Data pertaining to territorial areas.
Personal data or data relating to human beings consisting of:
Democratic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals
4. Importance of
The data serve as a basis or raw materials for analysis. Without an
analysis of factual data no specific inferences can be drawn on the
questions under study.
the relevance and accuracy and reliability of data determine the
quality of the findings of a study.
Date of forms the basis for testing the hypothesis formulated in a
study. data also provide the facts and figures required for constructing
measurement scale and tables which are analysed with statistical
inferences on the result of statistical analysis and tests of significance
provide the answers to research questions.
does the scientific process of measurements analysis testing and
inferences depends on the availability of relevant data and their
5. Sources of
The sources of data may be classified into primary sources and
the primary sources are original source from which the researcher
directly collects data that have not been previously collected, e.g.,
collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness brand
preference brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behaviour
from a sample of consumers by interviewing them.
primary data or first-hand information collected through various
methods such as observation interviewing mailing etc.
These are sources containing data which have been collected and
complied for another purpose.
The secondary sources consist of readily available compendia and
already compiled statistical statements and reports whose data
may be used by researchers for their studies. e.g., census reports
annual reports and financial statements of companies statistical
statements reports of government departments annual reports on
currency and finance published by the reserve Bank of India
statistical statements relating to cooperative and regional rural
banks published by NABARD, reports of the national sample
survey organisation reports of trade associations publications of
international organisations such as UNO, IMF, world Bank, I L O, W
H O, etc.
Secondary sources consist of not only published records and
reports but also unpublished records
7. Choice of
The nature of study of the subject matter
Unit of enquiry
The spice and spread of the sample
Scale of the survey
The educational level of respondents
The type and depth of information to be collected.
The availability of skilled and trained manpower
The rate of accuracy and representative nature of the data required
Observation may be defined as a systematic viewing of specific
phenomenon in its proper setting for the specific purpose of
gathering data for a particular study
Observation as a method includes both seeing and hearing
A researcher silently watching a city council or trade union committee
or a departmental meeting or a conference of politicians pics of hills
that help him to formulate a new hypothesis
10. Observation s
Observation become scientific when it
1. Serves a formulated research purpose
2. Is planned deliberately
3. Is recorded systematically
4. Is subjected to checks and controls on validity and reliability.
5. Types of observation
Non participant observation
Interviewing is one of the prominent methods of data collection
It may be defined as a systematic conversation between an
investigator and an informant initiated to obtain information relevant
to a specific study.
It involves not only conversation but also learning from the
respondents’ gestures facial expressions and pauses and it
Interviewing occurs face-to-face contact or contact over the
telephone and calls for interviewing skills. It is done by a structured
schedule for an unstructured guide.
12. Types of
The interviews may be classified into
1. Structured or directive interview
2. Unstructured or non directive interview
3. Focused interview
4. Clinical interview
5. Depth interview
6. Telephone interview
7. Group interview
13. Mail survey
This method involves sending questionnaires to the respondents with
the request to complete them and return them by post
This can be used in the case of educated respondents only
The mail questionnaire should be simple so that the respondents can
easily understand the questions and answer them
It should preferably contain mostly closed-ended and multiple choice
questions so that it could be completed within a few minutes
14. Procedure for
the researcher should prepare a mailing list of the selected
respondents by collecting the addresses from the telephone
directory of the association or organization to which they belong.
Covering letter should accompany a copy of the questionnaire
It must explain to the respondent the purpose of the study and the
importance of his cooperation to the success of the project.
Experimentation is a research process used to study the causal relationship variables.
It aims at studying the effect of an independent variable on dependent a variable
keeping the other independent variable constant through some type of control.
Procedure for experimentation
1. Determine the hypothesis to be tested and the independent and dependent
variables involved in it
2. Operationalize variables by identifying their measurable dimensions
3. Select the type of experimental plan
4. Choose the setting.The setting may be a field or laboratory
5. Make the experimental condition nearly the same as expected real-life conditions.
6. Make a record of pre-experimental conditions.
7. Introduce appropriate methods for controlling extraneous variables that are not
manipulated in the experiment
Types of experiment
1. Laboratory experiment
2. Field experiments
Simulation is a process of conducting experiments in a symbolic model
representing a phenomenon.
In other words simulation is a theoretical model of the elements’ relations
and the processes that symbolize some referent system. e.g., the flow of
money in the economic system may be simulated in an operating model
consisting of a set of pipes through which liquid moves.
Experiments are done on the model instead of the real system because the
latter would be too inconvenient and expensive.
Types of simulation
1. Man simulation
2. Computer simulation
3. Man computer simulation
Applications of simulation
1. Political problems
2. Economic problems
3. Business problems
4. What strategies and tactics
Projective techniques involve presentation of ambiguous stimuli to
the respondents for the interpretation. In doing so the respondents
reveal their inner characteristics
The stimuli maybe picture a photograph an ink blot or an incomplete
the basic assumption of projective techniques is that the person
project his own thoughts ideas and attributes when he perceives and
response to ambiguous or unstructured stimulus materials.
Does a person unconscious operations of the mind or brought to a
conscious level in a disguised and protected form and the person
projects his inner characteristics.