Pulse Detonation Propulsion Options

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Review of aerospace propulsion options that may include detonation combustion for increased applicability.

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Pulse Detonation Propulsion Options

  1. 1. PDE Options: From Air Breathing to Rocket Propulsion Aerospace Engineering Consulting Arlington, TX Dora Musielak, Ph.D. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted, unless for course participation, in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the Author. Contact D. Musielak dmusielak@uta.edu
  2. 2. • Overview of CPC and CVC Options • Constant Volume Combustion (CVC) • Hybrid Jet Engines • PDRE • Hybrid Propulsion for Space Planes • Continuous Detonation Wave Engine (CDWE) • Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE) • Pressure Gain Cycle (PGC) • Pulsejet as PGC PDE Propulsion Options AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 2
  3. 3. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak CPC and CVC Cycle Concepts Air Breathing (Brayton Cycle) Rockets (Brayton Cycle) Detonation Engines (Humphrey Cycle) Gas Turbine Engines No Rotor Engines Turbo- fan Turbo- jet Pulse- jet Ram and Scramjet All Rockets AB PDE PDRE Turbofan + AB Turbojet + AB Hybrid Cycle Engine Hybrid Cycle Engine Turbofan + Ramjet Turbojet + Ramjet Turbo- Rocket Ram- Rocket Rocket- Scramjet Turbofan- PDE PDE- Ramjet PDE- Scramjet- Rocket 3
  4. 4. Detonation for PropulsionDetonationwave(DW) propagationtocreatethrust Oblique Detonation Wave Engine (ODWE) • Combustible gas mixture injection velocity equals or exceeds detonation Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) velocity. • Detonation waves (DWs) or oblique detonation waves (ODWs) are positioned to combust injected combustible mixture. Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) • Cyclically detonates fuel and atmospheric air mixtures to generate thrust. •  PDE differs from conventional propulsion systems in two primary ways: generates thrust intermittently, and produces a high pressure rise in combustor. • Detonation-generated pressure rise represents primary benefits of a PDE: it may reduce engine compression requirements. Continuous Detonation Engine (CDE) • Combustible gas mixture is injected along axial direction, and DWs propagate in azimuthal direction. • Two directions are independent, DWs can continuously propagate with range of combustible gas injection velocities and do not require multi-time ignition. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 4
  5. 5. Pure PDE Cycle 1: Fuel-Oxidizer Injected and Mixed 2: Detonation Initiated 3: Detonation wave moves through gas mixture 4: High pressure gas fills detonation chamber 5: Detonation wave exits chamber and air is drawn in by reduced pressure Thrust is directly proportional to detonation frequency FILL DETONATE EXHAUST Repeat AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 5
  6. 6. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak Constant Volume Combustion (CVC) Cycle •  Engines operating on constant–volume cycle (CVC) offer a means of improving performance of jet propulsion. •  CVC possesses theoretical advantages over constant-pressure cycle including higher ideal efficiency and output per pound of air handled per unit time. •  Actual performance of a CVC jet engine depends upon extent to which constant-volume combustion is approached and resulting pressure developed in combustion chamber. Can we augment gas turbine performance with PDEs or any other form of constant volume combustion (CVC) cycle to extend supersonic flight regime? 6
  7. 7. PDE as CVC in Turbine AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak PDE as mixed flow afterburner PDE as combustor PDE as afterburner Possible configurations may require multi-tube PDEs 7
  8. 8. Hybrid PDE-Turbine Engine •  A hybrid turbofan-PDE would combine both systems: central core engine would still turn large fan in front, but bypass would flow into a ring of PDEs. •  Hybrid turbofan-PDE system would produce significantly more thrust without requiring additional fuel. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 8
  9. 9. A Turbofan augmented with PDE? AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak PDE PDE PDE 9 Pulse detonation augmenter replaces core of turbofan (GE Patent 6550235)
  10. 10. A Turbofan augmented with PDE AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 10 • Rasheed et al. tested multitube PDC with eight tubes arranged in a can-annular configuration integrated with a single-stage axial turbine nominally rated for 10 lbm/s, 25,000 rpm, and 1000 hp. • High frequency pressure transducers installed revealed complex wave interactions with significant downstream tube-to-tube interactions affecting operability when using sequential firing pattern. • Study suggests that noise may not be a significant barrier to commercial applications of PDC-turbine hybrid engines J. Propulsion & Power (2009)
  11. 11. GE GR Hybrid PDC-Turbine AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak M. Baptista,A. Rasheed, , et al., AIAA 2006-1234 • An 8-tube, can-annular multi-tube PDE operated in several firing patterns using stoichiometric C2H4-air detonations. • Turbine mechanical response measurements made with strain gages operating system for over 5 minutes, allowing rig to achieve thermal steady state conditions to characterize mechanical response of turbine stator 11 292 mm circle PDC length: 1.5 m
  12. 12. GE GR Hybrid PDC-Turbine AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak A. Rasheed, , et al., J. P&P (2009) 12 • Each 49.3 mm (1.939 in.) diameter tube has 800.1 mm (31.5 in) length measured from downstream face of fuel–air mixing element to tube exit. • Length represents distance in which C2H4-air detonation is achieved. • Spark plug mounted ~ one diameter downstream of fuel–air mixing element to allow mixing before detonation initiated
  13. 13. PDE in Bypass Duct of Turbofan AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak Ref: Mawid, et al., Application of PDC to Turbofan Engines, J. Eng. Gas Turbines and Power (2003) 13 • Thrust, SFC and specific thrust of conventional afterburner turbofan and pulse detonation turbofan engine concept were calculated and compared, using multidimensional CFD analysis. • Results showed significant performance gain can be obtained using PD turbofan engine as compared to AB turbofan engine. • Demonstrated that for a PD bypass duct operating at 100 Hz or higher, thrust, SFC and specific thrust of PD turbofan can nearly be twice as much as those of conventional AB turbofan engine. • Effects of fuel-air mixture equivalence ratio and partial filling on performance were also predicted.
  14. 14. PDE in Bypass Duct of Turbofan AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak Ref: Mawid, et al., Application of PDC to Turbofan Engines, J. Eng. Gas Turbines and Power (2003) 14
  15. 15. PDE better than Ramjet •  System-level performance analyses of PDE, based on specific impulse, compared to that of a ramjet Mach 1.2 to 3.5. •  Using a constant-volume analytical model, event timing, geometric and injection parameters providing optimal performance were determined. These were then used as input to a one-dimensional model, based on method of characteristics, and a two-dimensional model, based on CFD. •  Effect of partial fill and nozzle expansion ratio on Isp was also evaluated. •  For all models and over range of Mach numbers considered, PDE’s Isp was consistently greater than that of a ramjet. •  Partial fill and nozzle expansion ratio were also identified as important factors influencing performance. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak Harris, et. al., Pulse detonation engine as a ramjet replacement, J. of Propulsion and Power, 2006, vol. 22, no2, pp. 462-473 15
  16. 16. PDE better than Turbo-Ramjet •  Study screened a large matrix of possible applications for advanced design analysis è best suited to PDE: –  supersonic tactical aircraft, –  a supersonic strike missile, and –  hypersonic single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. •  Supersonic tactical aircraft was focus of paper, envisioned as a Mach 3.5 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft with possible strike capability. •  Relative to a turbo-ramjet powered vehicle, study identified an 11% to 21% takeoff gross weight (TOGW) benefit on baseline 700 n.mi. radius mission. •  TOGW benefits predicted resulted from PDE lower cruise SFC and lower vehicle supersonic drag. Lower vehicle drag resulted from better aft vehicle shaping, which was a result of better distribution of the PDE cross-sectional area. •  Reduction in TOGW and fuel usage produced an estimated 4% reduction in life cycle cost for the PDE vehicle. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak Ref: Kaemming, T., Integrated Vehicle Comparison of Turbo-Ramjet Engine and Pulsed Detonation Engine J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power -- January 2003 16
  17. 17. Turbo-ramjet vs PDE Comparison AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak Ref: Kaemming, T., Integrated Vehicle Comparison of Turbo-ramjet engine and PDE (2001-GT-451) 17
  18. 18. Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE) •  PDREs use fuel and oxidant carried onboard a flying vehicle. •  Pulse detonation technology can in principle be applied to PDREs. •  Bussing patented in 1999 a PDRE with six cylindrical DCs each having inlet end and outlet end. •  Outlet ends are in fluid communication with nozzle that directs thrust vector produced from detonation products expelled from chambers. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 18
  19. 19. Todorki Japan’s PDRE AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak Ref: Kashara, et al. J. P&P (2009) 19 Stability of PDRE operation depends on ratio between purge-gas thickness and tube diameter.
  20. 20. Kashara, et al. PDRE (2009) AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 20
  21. 21. A PDE Rocket Plane to Space? AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 21 Ref: Ulf Olsson, Aerospace Propulsion – Stockholm (2006)
  22. 22. PDREs for Spaceplanes •  There are various ways of incorporating pulse detonation devices into a propulsion system, with much interest centering on space access. •  J.-L. Cambier: Preliminary modeling of pulse detonation rocket engines. AIAA 99-2659 (1999) •  D. Mueller, T. Bratkovich, K. Lupkes, S. Henderson, J. Williams, T. Bussing: Recent ASI progress in pulse detonation rocket engine hardware development. AIAA 99-2886 (1999) •  P.A. Czysz, C.P. Rahaim: `Comparison of SSTO launchers powered by an RBCC propulsion system and a pulse detonation wave propulsion system'. In: Proc 6th Int Symp Propulsion Space Transportation XXIst Century, Versailles, May 1416, 2002, Paper S19-2 •  F. Lu and D. Wilson, Some perspectives on pulse detonation propulsion systems, 1051-ISSW24 (University of Texas – Arlington) AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 22
  23. 23. PDR-based Single-Path, Multi-Mode Spaceplane AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 1.  An ejector-augmented PDR for take off to moderate supersonic Mach 2.  A pulsed normal detonation wave mode at combustion chamber Mach number Mcc < MCJ 3.  An oblique detonation wave mode of operation when Mcc > MCJ 4.  A pure PDR mode of operation at high altitude. Ref: F. Lu and D. Wilson (2004) 23
  24. 24. UTA Spaceplane Patent AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak US Patent 6857261 – Wilson and Lu (2005) 24
  25. 25. Continuous Detonation Wave Engine (CDWE) •  B.V. Voitsekhovskii proposed in 1959 alternative method to realize continuous detonation. •  He used analogy with process of running wave occurring in case of spin-detonation propagation in a round tube. In both cases burning of mixture is achieved in a transversal detonation wave (TDW) moving normally from main direction of combustion products. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak Ref. Falempin (2008) RTO-EN-AVT-150 During ordinary spin detonation, transversal detonation wave propagates along forward shock front in a spiraling trajectory relatively to tube and burns a shock-compressed mixture. 25 Continuous Detonation Wave Engine (CDWE): a CDE with a generally annular combustion chamber dimensioned to allow a fuel mixture to detonate continuously.
  26. 26. CDWE •  Main feature of CDWE is an annular combustion chamber closed on one side (where fuel injection takes place) and opened at other end. •  Inside chamber, one or more detonation waves propagate normal to direction of injection. •  CDWE is close to an infinite number of small PDEs globally running at high frequency (several kHz) and dephased, so mean pressure inside chamber is higher than for a typical PDE. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak Falempin, F. (2008) Continuous Detonation Wave Engine. In Advances on Propulsion Technology for High-Speed Aircraft (pp. 8-1 – 8-16). MBDA France designed an actual size CDWE demonstration engine to be manufactured and tested in next years. Actively-cooled combustion chamber is 350 mm (external inner diameter) and 280 mm (internal inner diameter) and will operate with GH2 / GO2 or GH2 / LO2. 26
  27. 27. CDWRE •  CDWE rocket mode (CDWRE) for which continuous detonation process can lead to a compact and very efficient system enabling lower feeding pressure and thrust vectoring with integration capability for axi-symmetrical vehicles. •  CDWE could also be applied to simplified Ramjet Engine with short ram-combustor and possible operating from Mach 0+ without integral booster or to Turbojet with improved performances or simplified compression system (lower compression ratio required). •  Wolanski , Bykovskii, et al., and Daniau et al. are among researchers studying Rotating Detonation Engines (RDEs) and considering applications of RDEs in turbojet, ramjet, and rocket propulsion. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak Falempin, F. (2008) Continuous Detonation Wave Engine. In Advances on Propulsion Technology for High-Speed Aircraft. 27
  28. 28. Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE) •  Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE) is a form of CDE propulsion concept that involves a continuous detonation process, i.e., not pulsed, and for which only one detonation initiation is required. •  In a Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE) a combustible gas mixture is injected along the axial direction, but DWs propagate in azimuthal direction. •  Because two directions are independent, detonation waves can continuously propagate with a wide range of combustible gas injection velocities and do not naturally require multi-time ignition. •  In recent years, RDEs extensively studied experimentally by Bykovskii et al. (2006). Their experiments achieved both liquid and gas fuel detonation in combustors with different shapes and with supersonic or subsonic injection flow. •  Kindracki et al.(2009) experimentally achieved significant propulsive performance from an RDE. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 28
  29. 29. RDE AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 29Ref: Toshi Fujiwara, FF Laboratory, Nagoya (Japan) RDE uses a detonation wave rotating in a toroidal area in a coaxial cylinder
  30. 30. RDE Principle of Operation •  Principle of RDE based on creation of high centrifugal force, resulting from a detonation propagating in a disk-like combustion chamber (toroidal or ring-like shape). •  In a typical detonation, flow velocity immediately behind CJ point is equal to about ½ of CJ propagation velocity, which is highly supersonic. Thus, after detonation has propagated in toroidal chamber, burnt products of detonation will be subjected to a strong centrifugal force and be forced to approach outer wall of chamber, creating a significant pressure/density gradient across radial direction. •  Because if this pressure gradient (low pressure on inner wall), low pressure over inner wall will stimulate self-sustaining (sucking) supply of fresh mixture into combustion chamber. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 30 Ref: Wolanski, et al.
  31. 31. RDE 3-D Simulations •  Numerical simulation based on a one-step chemical reaction model to investigate changes in mode of H2-Air detonation wave propagation from rotating detonation wave (RDW) mode to standing detonation wave mode. •  Physical characteristics of RDW with injection velocity of 500 m/s were analyzed to investigate physical mechanisms involved. •  With increasing injection velocity, detonation wave gradually changes from perpendicular to head wall to parallel to head wall. •  When injection velocity exceeds Chapman–Jouguet velocity 𝑉CJ (~ 1984 m/s), detonation wave changes orientation to become perpendicular to fuel injection direction, and rotating mode changes accordingly to standing mode. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 31Ref: Shao, et al., CHIN. PHYS. LETT. Vol. 27, No. 3 (2010) 034705
  32. 32. Continuous Detonation Propulsion http://arc.uta.edu/research/cde.htm First RDWE during beginning of testing where ignition sequencing is critical First RDWE towards end of a test where burning is deflagration RDWE at UTA was able to produce a rotating wave although only for a few rotations New RDWE version uses hydrogen and air/oxygen to initiate the detonation wave in annular chamber. Smaller and lighter, new RDWE uses fuel/oxidizer premixing with new injection approach. It is currently awaiting thrust stand testing. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 32
  33. 33. Wave Rotor as Pressure Gain Combustor •  Wave rotor technology offers a method of sequencing non-steady confined combustion in multiple chambers to generate pressure gain with relatively steady inflow and outflow suitable for integration with inlets, nozzles, or turbomachinery. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak Ref: Akbari and Nalim, J. P&P, Vol. 25 (2009) 33
  34. 34. Pulsejet AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak • Deflagration Combustion occurs in pulses. • Few or no moving parts, and capable of running statically. •A Valveless pulse jet does not require forward motion to run continuously and are low in cost, lightweight 34
  35. 35. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak PGC and Pulsejets Pressure gain combustion (PGC): method to increase pressure across combustion chamber, resulting in higher efficiency engines. PGC can be achieved via a high frequency, resonant, pulsed combustion process such as that in pulsejets. 35
  36. 36. Summary •  Numerous engine concepts that rely on detonation combustion have been studied and evaluated at preliminary design level, for both space launcher and missile applications. •  Some advances made to date è must prove that advantages of PDE/PDRE and hybrid turbine/PDE concepts are not superseded by difficulties to design real engine and integrate it with an operational vehicle. •  Controlling detonation to generate thrust can be challenging! •  Need to understand physics of detonation combustion, and get a strong theoretical foundation to develop this promising propulsion technology. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 36
  37. 37. References •  Kailasanath, K., “Review of Propulsion Applications of Detonation Waves,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 38, No. 9, 2000, pp. 1698–1708. •  Kailasanath, K., “Recent Developments in the Research on Pulse Detonation Engines,” AIAA Journal,Vol. 41, No. 2, 2003, pp. 145– 159. •  Bazhenova, T. V., and Golub, V. V., “Use of Gas Detonation in a Controlled Frequency Mode (Review),” Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2003, pp. 365–381. •  Roy, G. D., Frolov, S. M., Borisov, A. A., and Netzer, D. W., “Pulse Detonation Propulsion: Challenges, Current Status, and Future Perspective,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 30, No. 6, 2004, pp. 545–672. •  Kasahara, J., Hasegawa, A., Nemoto, T., Yamaguchi, H.,Yajima, T., and Kojima, T., Performance Validation of a Single-Tube Pulse Detonation Rocket System, J. of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 25(2009), pp.173-180. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 37
  38. 38. References •  Schauer, F., Stutrud, J., and Bradley, R., Detonation initiation studies and performance results for pulsed detonation engine, AIAA Paper 2001-1129 (2001). •  Talley, D. G., and Coy E. B., Constant volume limit of pulsed propulsion for a constant ideal gas, J. Propulsion and Power, Vol. 18 (2002), pp.400-406. •  Harris, P. G., Stowe, R. A. Ripley, R. C., and Guzik, S. M., Pulse detonation engine as a ramjet replacement, J. Propulsion and Power, Vol.22 (2006), pp.462-473. •  Ma, F., Choi, J.-Y., and Yang, V., Propulsive performance of airbreathing pulse detonation engines, J. Propulsion and Power, Vol.22 (2006), pp.1188-1203. •  Kasahara, J., Hirano, M., Matsuo, A., Daimon, Y., and Endo, T., Thrust Measurement of a Multi-Cycle Partially Filled Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine, J. of Propulsion and Power, Vol.25(2009), pp.1281-1290. AIAA Pulse Detonation Engine Technology – D. Musielak 38

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