SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 21
Download to read offline
CRISPR - A New Tool inCRISPR - A New Tool in
Molecular BiologyMolecular Biology
Presented by-
Musharraf Ali
M.Tech- 2 sem
Roll No.-15012006
School of BCE , IIT-BHU
CRISPR-
• Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats
• found in PK DNA as repeats followed by a short spacer
DNA segment
• spacer DNA segment could contain previously exposured
bacterial plasmid or virus
• contributed as an adaptive/acquired immunity in PK
system.
• common in archae bacteria
Kind of Repeats observed-
• Regularly Spaced Repeats
• Direct Repeats in Mycobacteria
• TREPs in Haloarchaea
• short repeat (SR) arrays
Later, Jansen and Mojica proposed replacing SRSR with the
more explicit, elegant and now widely adopted acronym
CRISPR, for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short
Palindromic Repeats .
Distribution of CRISPR Arrays Amongst
Archaea and Bacteria
CRISPR-Cas Function Revealed
• Early Hypotheses-
- modulating gene expression
- binding sites for regulatory proteins
- regulation of neighbouring genes
- role in recombination
- role in replicon partitioning
- chromosomal rearrangement
• The Link to Invading Genetic Elements
- Two reports in 2005 revealed the presence of spacer
- analyses of isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and
Yersina pestis
- BLAST searches s revealed that 2 % of
analysed spacers showed close similarities to viral DNA or
plasmid DNA
- CRISPR-Cas system in immunity was demonstratedCRISPR-Cas system in immunity was demonstrated
experimentally forexperimentally for S.thermophilus in 2007
Functional Components of CRISPR-Based
Systems
• composed of -
- regularly alternating repeats and spacers
- a leader sequence at one end of the array
- a set of cas genes
these components participate in different stages
of the CRISPR-Cas pathway, generating CRISPR-RNAs
(crRNAs) and Cas proteins
Fig- Schematic representation of CRISPR-Cas systems and the main steps of
CRISPRmediated interference
Identification of CRISPR-associated
Proteins
• Four cas (CRISPR-associated) genes, cas1–cas4, were originally
identified
• Cas1 and Cas2, the Cas3 and Cas4 protein families were
proposed to be homologous to DNA-helicases and
exonucleases, respectively
• CRISPR-Cas systems into three main types (I, II and III) on
the presence of particular signature cas genes
APPLICATION
1- Resistance Against Viruses
Dairy fermentations using Streptococcus thermophilus.
3 approaches are-
a)-‘‘CRISPerization’’: Phage Resistance Improvement
b)-Artificial Spacer Engineering
c)-Transfer Between Microorganisms
2- Immunity Against Non-Viral Nucleic Acids-
-provides immunity against nucleic acids through base pairing between
spacer-derived crRNAs and complementary target sequences
Beside immunity it also confer-
a)-Plasmid Interference-
In Staphylococcus epidermidis where CRISPR-encoded spacers lowered
efficiency of plasmid uptake.
b)-Interference Against Other Mobile Elements –
CRISPR-mediated interference against antibiotic resistance genes.
ability of S. thermophilus to naturally acquire spacers that target an
antibiotic resistance gene
3- CRISPR-Based Gene Regulation –
•potential to use CRISPR-Cas systems for the regulation, transcriptional
control, or regulation of transcript levels within a cell (patent
application WO/2010/075424)
•ability of CRISPR spacers to lower transcript levels, showing that a
spacer homologous to the histidyl-tRNA synthetase sequence lowers
His-tRNA levels (Aklujkar and Lovley 2010)
•Analogies between CRISPR-mediated interference and RNA
interference
•to harness the flexibility and modularity of CRISPR-Cas systems for RNA
interference in bacteria and archaea(patent applications WO/
2010/011961 and WO/2010/054108)
4- CRISPR-Based Strain Typing –
-CRISPR loci comprise of two main elements, the CRISPR spacer array
and a group of CRISPR-associated (cas) genes
-CRISPR applications existed long before their function was elucidated.
The first use of spacer information for subtyping was in spacer-
oligonucleotide typing, or “spoligotyping,” of Mycobacterium
tuberculosis strains.
-principle of spoligotyping is PCR amplification of the CRISPR array with
labeled primers that recognize the DR sequences
Patent applications related to various uses of
CRISPR-Cas systems
Publication number Title Inventor Publication Date
WO/2006/073445 Detection and typing
of bacterial strains
Russell et al. 13.07.2006
WO/2007/025097 Use of CRISPR-
associated genes (cas)
Horvath et al. 01.03.2007
WO/2007/136815 Tagged
microorganisms and
methods of tagging
Barrangou et al. 29.11.2007
WO/2008/108989 Cultures with
improved phage
resistance
Barrangou et al. 12.09.2008
CONCLUSION & FUTURE PERSPECTIVE
• CRISPR-based typing techniques have been well established
for some bacterial species such as Mycobacterium and are
currently being developed and studied extensively,
especially for human pathogens but also for some
agriculturally important species
• strain-specific portions of a CRISPR allele using spacer-
specific primers or third-generation long-read sequencing
• Harnessing CRISPR biology, specifically, identifying the
presence/ absence of spacer sequences for subtyping
purposes
REFRENCES
• Deveau, H., Garneau, J. E. & Moineau, S. CRISPR/Cas system and its
role in phage-bacteria interactions. Annu. Rev. Microbio.
• Horvath, P. & Barrangou, R. CRISPR/Cas, the immune system of
bacteria and archaea. Science.
• Mojica, F. J., Diez-Villasenor, C., Soria, E. & Juez, G. Biological
significance of a family of regularly spaced repeats in the genomes of
Archaea, Bacteria and mitochondria. Mol. Microbiol.
• Marraffini, L. A. & Sontheimer, E. J. CRISPR interference limits
horizontal gene transfer in staphylococci by targeting DNA. Science
• Garneau, J. E. et al. The CRISPR/Cas bacterial immune system cleaves
bacteriophage and plasmid DNA. Nature
• Konermann, S. et al. Genome-scale transcriptional activation by an
engineered CRISPR–Cas9 complex. Nature
FURTHER INFORMATION
>Eugene V. Koonin’s homepage:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Koonin/ COGs:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/COG/grace/generin.cgi
>CRISPRdb: http://crispr.u-psud.fr/crispr/
>NCBI CRISPR/Cas: ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/pub/wolf/_suppl/
CRISPRclass/index.html
>PDB: http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/home/home.do TIGRFAMs:
http://www.jcvi.org/cgi-bin/tigrfams/index.cgi
>CRISPRi protocol by Nature Protocols: http://www.nature.
com/nprot/journal/v8/n11/full/nprot.2013.132.html
Crispr

More Related Content

What's hot

Genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9
Genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9Genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9
Genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9Saravanan KA
 
Crispr cas9 scalpels and their application
Crispr cas9 scalpels and their applicationCrispr cas9 scalpels and their application
Crispr cas9 scalpels and their applicationPyarelal Syoran
 
CRISPR: Discovery & Potential Applications
CRISPR: Discovery & Potential ApplicationsCRISPR: Discovery & Potential Applications
CRISPR: Discovery & Potential ApplicationsKumaraguru Veerasamy
 
Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9
Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9
Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9Lopamudra Nayak
 
CRISPR: Opportunities and Challenges Webinar
CRISPR: Opportunities and Challenges WebinarCRISPR: Opportunities and Challenges Webinar
CRISPR: Opportunities and Challenges WebinarPreScouter
 
CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)
CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)
CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)Akshay Deshmukh
 
Review of CRISPR/Cas9
Review of CRISPR/Cas9Review of CRISPR/Cas9
Review of CRISPR/Cas9Hub_lot
 
CRISPR Cas 9 TECHNOLOGY
CRISPR Cas 9 TECHNOLOGYCRISPR Cas 9 TECHNOLOGY
CRISPR Cas 9 TECHNOLOGYMadihaAsad5
 
Crispr cas: A new tool of genome editing
Crispr cas: A new tool of genome editing Crispr cas: A new tool of genome editing
Crispr cas: A new tool of genome editing palaabhay
 
CRISPR-CAS System: From Adaptive Immunity To Genome editing
CRISPR-CAS System: From Adaptive Immunity To Genome editingCRISPR-CAS System: From Adaptive Immunity To Genome editing
CRISPR-CAS System: From Adaptive Immunity To Genome editingDebanjan Pandit
 
Crispr cas9 ( a overview)
Crispr cas9 ( a overview)Crispr cas9 ( a overview)
Crispr cas9 ( a overview)Navdeep Singh
 

What's hot (20)

Genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9
Genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9Genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9
Genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9
 
Crispr cas9 scalpels and their application
Crispr cas9 scalpels and their applicationCrispr cas9 scalpels and their application
Crispr cas9 scalpels and their application
 
Crispr
CrisprCrispr
Crispr
 
CRISPR-Cas system
CRISPR-Cas systemCRISPR-Cas system
CRISPR-Cas system
 
CRISPR: Discovery & Potential Applications
CRISPR: Discovery & Potential ApplicationsCRISPR: Discovery & Potential Applications
CRISPR: Discovery & Potential Applications
 
Crispar
CrisparCrispar
Crispar
 
Crispr/cas9 101
Crispr/cas9 101Crispr/cas9 101
Crispr/cas9 101
 
Crispr cas9
Crispr cas9 Crispr cas9
Crispr cas9
 
Crispr/Cas 9
Crispr/Cas 9Crispr/Cas 9
Crispr/Cas 9
 
Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9
Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9
Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9
 
CRISPR: Opportunities and Challenges Webinar
CRISPR: Opportunities and Challenges WebinarCRISPR: Opportunities and Challenges Webinar
CRISPR: Opportunities and Challenges Webinar
 
CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)
CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)
CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)
 
PRINCIPLE OF CRISPR GENOME EDITING
PRINCIPLE OF CRISPR GENOME EDITINGPRINCIPLE OF CRISPR GENOME EDITING
PRINCIPLE OF CRISPR GENOME EDITING
 
Review of CRISPR/Cas9
Review of CRISPR/Cas9Review of CRISPR/Cas9
Review of CRISPR/Cas9
 
CRISPR Cas 9 TECHNOLOGY
CRISPR Cas 9 TECHNOLOGYCRISPR Cas 9 TECHNOLOGY
CRISPR Cas 9 TECHNOLOGY
 
Crispr cas: A new tool of genome editing
Crispr cas: A new tool of genome editing Crispr cas: A new tool of genome editing
Crispr cas: A new tool of genome editing
 
CRISPR-CAS System: From Adaptive Immunity To Genome editing
CRISPR-CAS System: From Adaptive Immunity To Genome editingCRISPR-CAS System: From Adaptive Immunity To Genome editing
CRISPR-CAS System: From Adaptive Immunity To Genome editing
 
Crispr
CrisprCrispr
Crispr
 
Crispr cas9 ( a overview)
Crispr cas9 ( a overview)Crispr cas9 ( a overview)
Crispr cas9 ( a overview)
 
Crispr cas
Crispr casCrispr cas
Crispr cas
 

Viewers also liked

An Introduction to Crispr Genome Editing
An Introduction to Crispr Genome EditingAn Introduction to Crispr Genome Editing
An Introduction to Crispr Genome EditingChris Thorne
 
Crispr handbook 2015
Crispr handbook 2015Crispr handbook 2015
Crispr handbook 2015rochonf
 
CRISPR cas, a potential tool for targeted genome modification in crops.
CRISPR cas, a potential tool for targeted genome modification in crops.CRISPR cas, a potential tool for targeted genome modification in crops.
CRISPR cas, a potential tool for targeted genome modification in crops.UAS,GKVK<BANGALORE
 
Gene Editing - Challenges and Future of CRISPR in Clinical Development
Gene Editing - Challenges and Future of CRISPR in Clinical DevelopmentGene Editing - Challenges and Future of CRISPR in Clinical Development
Gene Editing - Challenges and Future of CRISPR in Clinical DevelopmentMedpace
 
CRISPR bacterial transformation mixes
CRISPR bacterial transformation mixesCRISPR bacterial transformation mixes
CRISPR bacterial transformation mixesJohn Kozlosky
 
Applications of crispr cas system
Applications of crispr cas systemApplications of crispr cas system
Applications of crispr cas systemSarika_12
 
CRISPR presentation extended Mouse Modeling
CRISPR presentation extended Mouse ModelingCRISPR presentation extended Mouse Modeling
CRISPR presentation extended Mouse ModelingTristan Kempston
 
Crispr tekniğinn etiklik tartışmaları melike şeyma kadayıfçı
Crispr tekniğinn etiklik tartışmaları melike şeyma kadayıfçıCrispr tekniğinn etiklik tartışmaları melike şeyma kadayıfçı
Crispr tekniğinn etiklik tartışmaları melike şeyma kadayıfçıMelike Şeyma Kadayıfçı
 
CRISPR technology -A revolutionary discovery
CRISPR technology -A revolutionary discovery CRISPR technology -A revolutionary discovery
CRISPR technology -A revolutionary discovery P Navaneeth Krishna Menon
 
Genome Editing Comes of Age; CRISPR, rAAV and the new landscape of molecular ...
Genome Editing Comes of Age; CRISPR, rAAV and the new landscape of molecular ...Genome Editing Comes of Age; CRISPR, rAAV and the new landscape of molecular ...
Genome Editing Comes of Age; CRISPR, rAAV and the new landscape of molecular ...Candy Smellie
 
the application of CRISPR/Cas9 system in genome editing
the application of CRISPR/Cas9 system in genome editingthe application of CRISPR/Cas9 system in genome editing
the application of CRISPR/Cas9 system in genome editingArash zolnori
 
Getting started with CRISPR: a review of gene knockout and homology-directed ...
Getting started with CRISPR: a review of gene knockout and homology-directed ...Getting started with CRISPR: a review of gene knockout and homology-directed ...
Getting started with CRISPR: a review of gene knockout and homology-directed ...Integrated DNA Technologies
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Crispr technology pnk menon
Crispr technology  pnk menonCrispr technology  pnk menon
Crispr technology pnk menon
 
An Introduction to Crispr Genome Editing
An Introduction to Crispr Genome EditingAn Introduction to Crispr Genome Editing
An Introduction to Crispr Genome Editing
 
Crispr handbook 2015
Crispr handbook 2015Crispr handbook 2015
Crispr handbook 2015
 
CRISPR Presentation
CRISPR PresentationCRISPR Presentation
CRISPR Presentation
 
CRISPR cas, a potential tool for targeted genome modification in crops.
CRISPR cas, a potential tool for targeted genome modification in crops.CRISPR cas, a potential tool for targeted genome modification in crops.
CRISPR cas, a potential tool for targeted genome modification in crops.
 
Gene Editing - Challenges and Future of CRISPR in Clinical Development
Gene Editing - Challenges and Future of CRISPR in Clinical DevelopmentGene Editing - Challenges and Future of CRISPR in Clinical Development
Gene Editing - Challenges and Future of CRISPR in Clinical Development
 
Crispr
CrisprCrispr
Crispr
 
Revenge of the phages
Revenge of the phagesRevenge of the phages
Revenge of the phages
 
CRISPR bacterial transformation mixes
CRISPR bacterial transformation mixesCRISPR bacterial transformation mixes
CRISPR bacterial transformation mixes
 
Crispr
CrisprCrispr
Crispr
 
Applications of crispr cas system
Applications of crispr cas systemApplications of crispr cas system
Applications of crispr cas system
 
CRISPR presentation extended Mouse Modeling
CRISPR presentation extended Mouse ModelingCRISPR presentation extended Mouse Modeling
CRISPR presentation extended Mouse Modeling
 
Crispr cas ppt by ashish
Crispr cas ppt by ashishCrispr cas ppt by ashish
Crispr cas ppt by ashish
 
Crispr tekniğinn etiklik tartışmaları melike şeyma kadayıfçı
Crispr tekniğinn etiklik tartışmaları melike şeyma kadayıfçıCrispr tekniğinn etiklik tartışmaları melike şeyma kadayıfçı
Crispr tekniğinn etiklik tartışmaları melike şeyma kadayıfçı
 
Crispr
CrisprCrispr
Crispr
 
CRISPR technology -A revolutionary discovery
CRISPR technology -A revolutionary discovery CRISPR technology -A revolutionary discovery
CRISPR technology -A revolutionary discovery
 
MSU Transgenic and Genome Editing Facility
MSU Transgenic and Genome Editing FacilityMSU Transgenic and Genome Editing Facility
MSU Transgenic and Genome Editing Facility
 
Genome Editing Comes of Age; CRISPR, rAAV and the new landscape of molecular ...
Genome Editing Comes of Age; CRISPR, rAAV and the new landscape of molecular ...Genome Editing Comes of Age; CRISPR, rAAV and the new landscape of molecular ...
Genome Editing Comes of Age; CRISPR, rAAV and the new landscape of molecular ...
 
the application of CRISPR/Cas9 system in genome editing
the application of CRISPR/Cas9 system in genome editingthe application of CRISPR/Cas9 system in genome editing
the application of CRISPR/Cas9 system in genome editing
 
Getting started with CRISPR: a review of gene knockout and homology-directed ...
Getting started with CRISPR: a review of gene knockout and homology-directed ...Getting started with CRISPR: a review of gene knockout and homology-directed ...
Getting started with CRISPR: a review of gene knockout and homology-directed ...
 

Similar to Crispr

Crispr cas9 kiran rasal
Crispr cas9 kiran rasalCrispr cas9 kiran rasal
Crispr cas9 kiran rasalKiranRasal1
 
The relative ease of use and reproducibility of
The relative ease of use and reproducibility ofThe relative ease of use and reproducibility of
The relative ease of use and reproducibility ofShiv Nadar University
 
Crispr cas in antimicrobial research
Crispr cas in antimicrobial researchCrispr cas in antimicrobial research
Crispr cas in antimicrobial researchAnmolKulshrestha5
 
"CRISPR" Gene Editing Tool
"CRISPR" Gene Editing Tool"CRISPR" Gene Editing Tool
"CRISPR" Gene Editing Toolzabby2407
 
genome editing technique CRISPR-Cas9 - Copy.pptx
genome editing technique CRISPR-Cas9 - Copy.pptxgenome editing technique CRISPR-Cas9 - Copy.pptx
genome editing technique CRISPR-Cas9 - Copy.pptxAmirDz
 
MIMG 199 P. acnes Poster Final - Lauren and Rachelle
MIMG 199 P. acnes Poster Final - Lauren and RachelleMIMG 199 P. acnes Poster Final - Lauren and Rachelle
MIMG 199 P. acnes Poster Final - Lauren and RachelleRachelle Ann Gonzales
 
Crispr cas:an advance and efficient tool for genome modification
Crispr cas:an advance and efficient tool for genome modificationCrispr cas:an advance and efficient tool for genome modification
Crispr cas:an advance and efficient tool for genome modificationavinash tiwari
 
CRISPR/CAS9- THE GENE EDITING TOOL
CRISPR/CAS9- THE GENE EDITING TOOLCRISPR/CAS9- THE GENE EDITING TOOL
CRISPR/CAS9- THE GENE EDITING TOOLChandni Verma
 
CRISPR-CAS in VEGEtableS.pptx
CRISPR-CAS in VEGEtableS.pptxCRISPR-CAS in VEGEtableS.pptx
CRISPR-CAS in VEGEtableS.pptxlavanyays07
 
CRISPR-Revolutionary Genome editing tools for Plants.....
CRISPR-Revolutionary Genome editing tools for Plants.....CRISPR-Revolutionary Genome editing tools for Plants.....
CRISPR-Revolutionary Genome editing tools for Plants.....BHU,Varanasi, INDIA
 

Similar to Crispr (20)

Crispr cas9 kiran rasal
Crispr cas9 kiran rasalCrispr cas9 kiran rasal
Crispr cas9 kiran rasal
 
The relative ease of use and reproducibility of
The relative ease of use and reproducibility ofThe relative ease of use and reproducibility of
The relative ease of use and reproducibility of
 
CRISPR cas system
CRISPR cas systemCRISPR cas system
CRISPR cas system
 
CRISPR Technology
CRISPR TechnologyCRISPR Technology
CRISPR Technology
 
Crispr cas in antimicrobial research
Crispr cas in antimicrobial researchCrispr cas in antimicrobial research
Crispr cas in antimicrobial research
 
"CRISPR" Gene Editing Tool
"CRISPR" Gene Editing Tool"CRISPR" Gene Editing Tool
"CRISPR" Gene Editing Tool
 
Anti crispr
Anti crisprAnti crispr
Anti crispr
 
ANTI-CRISPRs
ANTI-CRISPRsANTI-CRISPRs
ANTI-CRISPRs
 
Crispr cas 9
Crispr cas 9Crispr cas 9
Crispr cas 9
 
CRISPR CAS
CRISPR CASCRISPR CAS
CRISPR CAS
 
genome editing technique CRISPR-Cas9 - Copy.pptx
genome editing technique CRISPR-Cas9 - Copy.pptxgenome editing technique CRISPR-Cas9 - Copy.pptx
genome editing technique CRISPR-Cas9 - Copy.pptx
 
Crispr cas9
Crispr cas9Crispr cas9
Crispr cas9
 
Crispr
CrisprCrispr
Crispr
 
MIMG 199 P. acnes Poster Final - Lauren and Rachelle
MIMG 199 P. acnes Poster Final - Lauren and RachelleMIMG 199 P. acnes Poster Final - Lauren and Rachelle
MIMG 199 P. acnes Poster Final - Lauren and Rachelle
 
Crispr cas:an advance and efficient tool for genome modification
Crispr cas:an advance and efficient tool for genome modificationCrispr cas:an advance and efficient tool for genome modification
Crispr cas:an advance and efficient tool for genome modification
 
CRISPR/CAS9- THE GENE EDITING TOOL
CRISPR/CAS9- THE GENE EDITING TOOLCRISPR/CAS9- THE GENE EDITING TOOL
CRISPR/CAS9- THE GENE EDITING TOOL
 
Crispr cas9
Crispr cas9Crispr cas9
Crispr cas9
 
Dr amar Sharma
Dr amar SharmaDr amar Sharma
Dr amar Sharma
 
CRISPR-CAS in VEGEtableS.pptx
CRISPR-CAS in VEGEtableS.pptxCRISPR-CAS in VEGEtableS.pptx
CRISPR-CAS in VEGEtableS.pptx
 
CRISPR-Revolutionary Genome editing tools for Plants.....
CRISPR-Revolutionary Genome editing tools for Plants.....CRISPR-Revolutionary Genome editing tools for Plants.....
CRISPR-Revolutionary Genome editing tools for Plants.....
 

Recently uploaded

Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesVijayaLaxmi84
 
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest EntranceFarrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrancejulius27264
 
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsShark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsArubSultan
 
Jason Potel In Media Res Media Component
Jason Potel In Media Res Media ComponentJason Potel In Media Res Media Component
Jason Potel In Media Res Media ComponentInMediaRes1
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxryandux83rd
 
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxkarenfajardo43
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Celine George
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...DrVipulVKapoor
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptxUmeshTimilsina1
 
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptxTransdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptxinfo924062
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressMaria Paula Aroca
 
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17Celine George
 
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17Celine George
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipKarl Donert
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
 
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest EntranceFarrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
 
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsShark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
 
Jason Potel In Media Res Media Component
Jason Potel In Media Res Media ComponentJason Potel In Media Res Media Component
Jason Potel In Media Res Media Component
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
 
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ 4 KĨ NĂNG TIẾNG ANH LỚP 8 - CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC ...
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
 
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
18. Training and prunning of horicultural crops.pptx
 
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA _
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA            _CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA            _
CARNAVAL COM MAGIA E EUFORIA _
 
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
 
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptxTransdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
Transdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Resilience [Work in Progress].pptx
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
 
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
 
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
How to create _name_search function in odoo 17
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
 
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database ReleaseIsrael Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 

Crispr

  • 1. CRISPR - A New Tool inCRISPR - A New Tool in Molecular BiologyMolecular Biology Presented by- Musharraf Ali M.Tech- 2 sem Roll No.-15012006 School of BCE , IIT-BHU
  • 2. CRISPR- • Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats • found in PK DNA as repeats followed by a short spacer DNA segment • spacer DNA segment could contain previously exposured bacterial plasmid or virus • contributed as an adaptive/acquired immunity in PK system. • common in archae bacteria
  • 3. Kind of Repeats observed- • Regularly Spaced Repeats • Direct Repeats in Mycobacteria • TREPs in Haloarchaea • short repeat (SR) arrays Later, Jansen and Mojica proposed replacing SRSR with the more explicit, elegant and now widely adopted acronym CRISPR, for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats .
  • 4. Distribution of CRISPR Arrays Amongst Archaea and Bacteria
  • 5. CRISPR-Cas Function Revealed • Early Hypotheses- - modulating gene expression - binding sites for regulatory proteins - regulation of neighbouring genes - role in recombination - role in replicon partitioning - chromosomal rearrangement
  • 6. • The Link to Invading Genetic Elements - Two reports in 2005 revealed the presence of spacer - analyses of isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and Yersina pestis - BLAST searches s revealed that 2 % of analysed spacers showed close similarities to viral DNA or plasmid DNA - CRISPR-Cas system in immunity was demonstratedCRISPR-Cas system in immunity was demonstrated experimentally forexperimentally for S.thermophilus in 2007
  • 7. Functional Components of CRISPR-Based Systems • composed of - - regularly alternating repeats and spacers - a leader sequence at one end of the array - a set of cas genes these components participate in different stages of the CRISPR-Cas pathway, generating CRISPR-RNAs (crRNAs) and Cas proteins
  • 8. Fig- Schematic representation of CRISPR-Cas systems and the main steps of CRISPRmediated interference
  • 9. Identification of CRISPR-associated Proteins • Four cas (CRISPR-associated) genes, cas1–cas4, were originally identified • Cas1 and Cas2, the Cas3 and Cas4 protein families were proposed to be homologous to DNA-helicases and exonucleases, respectively • CRISPR-Cas systems into three main types (I, II and III) on the presence of particular signature cas genes
  • 10.
  • 11. APPLICATION 1- Resistance Against Viruses Dairy fermentations using Streptococcus thermophilus. 3 approaches are- a)-‘‘CRISPerization’’: Phage Resistance Improvement b)-Artificial Spacer Engineering c)-Transfer Between Microorganisms
  • 12. 2- Immunity Against Non-Viral Nucleic Acids- -provides immunity against nucleic acids through base pairing between spacer-derived crRNAs and complementary target sequences Beside immunity it also confer- a)-Plasmid Interference- In Staphylococcus epidermidis where CRISPR-encoded spacers lowered efficiency of plasmid uptake. b)-Interference Against Other Mobile Elements – CRISPR-mediated interference against antibiotic resistance genes. ability of S. thermophilus to naturally acquire spacers that target an antibiotic resistance gene
  • 13. 3- CRISPR-Based Gene Regulation – •potential to use CRISPR-Cas systems for the regulation, transcriptional control, or regulation of transcript levels within a cell (patent application WO/2010/075424) •ability of CRISPR spacers to lower transcript levels, showing that a spacer homologous to the histidyl-tRNA synthetase sequence lowers His-tRNA levels (Aklujkar and Lovley 2010) •Analogies between CRISPR-mediated interference and RNA interference •to harness the flexibility and modularity of CRISPR-Cas systems for RNA interference in bacteria and archaea(patent applications WO/ 2010/011961 and WO/2010/054108)
  • 14.
  • 15. 4- CRISPR-Based Strain Typing – -CRISPR loci comprise of two main elements, the CRISPR spacer array and a group of CRISPR-associated (cas) genes -CRISPR applications existed long before their function was elucidated. The first use of spacer information for subtyping was in spacer- oligonucleotide typing, or “spoligotyping,” of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. -principle of spoligotyping is PCR amplification of the CRISPR array with labeled primers that recognize the DR sequences
  • 16.
  • 17. Patent applications related to various uses of CRISPR-Cas systems Publication number Title Inventor Publication Date WO/2006/073445 Detection and typing of bacterial strains Russell et al. 13.07.2006 WO/2007/025097 Use of CRISPR- associated genes (cas) Horvath et al. 01.03.2007 WO/2007/136815 Tagged microorganisms and methods of tagging Barrangou et al. 29.11.2007 WO/2008/108989 Cultures with improved phage resistance Barrangou et al. 12.09.2008
  • 18. CONCLUSION & FUTURE PERSPECTIVE • CRISPR-based typing techniques have been well established for some bacterial species such as Mycobacterium and are currently being developed and studied extensively, especially for human pathogens but also for some agriculturally important species • strain-specific portions of a CRISPR allele using spacer- specific primers or third-generation long-read sequencing • Harnessing CRISPR biology, specifically, identifying the presence/ absence of spacer sequences for subtyping purposes
  • 19. REFRENCES • Deveau, H., Garneau, J. E. & Moineau, S. CRISPR/Cas system and its role in phage-bacteria interactions. Annu. Rev. Microbio. • Horvath, P. & Barrangou, R. CRISPR/Cas, the immune system of bacteria and archaea. Science. • Mojica, F. J., Diez-Villasenor, C., Soria, E. & Juez, G. Biological significance of a family of regularly spaced repeats in the genomes of Archaea, Bacteria and mitochondria. Mol. Microbiol. • Marraffini, L. A. & Sontheimer, E. J. CRISPR interference limits horizontal gene transfer in staphylococci by targeting DNA. Science • Garneau, J. E. et al. The CRISPR/Cas bacterial immune system cleaves bacteriophage and plasmid DNA. Nature • Konermann, S. et al. Genome-scale transcriptional activation by an engineered CRISPR–Cas9 complex. Nature
  • 20. FURTHER INFORMATION >Eugene V. Koonin’s homepage: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Koonin/ COGs: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/COG/grace/generin.cgi >CRISPRdb: http://crispr.u-psud.fr/crispr/ >NCBI CRISPR/Cas: ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/pub/wolf/_suppl/ CRISPRclass/index.html >PDB: http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/home/home.do TIGRFAMs: http://www.jcvi.org/cgi-bin/tigrfams/index.cgi >CRISPRi protocol by Nature Protocols: http://www.nature. com/nprot/journal/v8/n11/full/nprot.2013.132.html