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Maslow and rogers (humanistic and cognivitism learning


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Dr Madam Nazeerah Learning Theory Class, Assignment 1.

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Maslow and rogers (humanistic and cognivitism learning

  1. 1. By MURTALA LAWAL 1122300037
  2. 2. • To introduce HUMANISTIC LEARNING THEORY • To discuss the contributions of MASLOW & ROGERS in the field of Learning Theories
  3. 3. • Is a psychological perspective which rose to prominence in the mid-20th century • The approach emphasizes an individual's inherent drive towards self-actualization and creativity. • Is in contrast with behaviorist notion of operant conditioning (which argues that all behavior is the result of the application of consequences) and the cognitive psychologist belief that the discovering knowledge or constructing meaning is central to learning. • The fundamental belief of humanistic psychology is that people are innately good and that mental and social problems result from deviations from this natural tendency.
  4. 4. Humanism, as a learning theory, is based on human generation of knowledge, meaning, and ultimately expertise through interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence. The learning goal is to become self-actualized with intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment. The educator’s role in humanistic learning is to encourage and enable the learner, andragogically, by providing access to appropriate resources without obtrusive interference.
  5. 5. • Students' learning should be self-directed. • Schools should produce students who want and know how to learn • The only form of meaningful evaluation is self-evaluation • Feelings, as well as knowledge, are important in the learning process • Students learn best in a nonthreatening environment
  6. 6. • Open Classroom -Student centered with focus on individual growth, critical thinking, commitment to lifelong learning. -Not age/grade specific nor curriculum bound. • Learning Styles -Allow student to use a learning style that suits them. • Co-operative Learning -Students engage with one another in order to work towards a common goal. • Experimental Learning -Learning from experience that addresses the needs and wants of the learner
  7. 7. Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers
  8. 8. • Born : 1908 • Died :1970 • Nationality : American • Fields : Psychology • Received BA (1930), MA (1931) and PhD (1934) all from University of Wisconsin • Professor at Brooklyn College (1937-51) and Brandeis University (1951-61) • Popular name in the field of Management (Hierarchy of Need ) • Father of Humanistic Psychology
  9. 9. • Hierarchy of Needs • Hierarchy of Needs which can be divided into basic (or deficiency) needs (e.g. physiological, safety, love, and esteem) and growth needs (cognitive, aesthetics and self-actualization). One must satisfy lower level basic needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. Once these needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called self-actualization • Every person is capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy toward a level of self-actualization. Unfortunately, progress is often disrupted by failure to meet lower level needs. Life experiences including divorce and loss of job may cause an individual to fluctuate between levels of he hierarchy. Maslow noted only one in ten people become fully self-actualized because our society rewards motivation primarily based on esteem, love and other social needs
  10. 10. • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs has had a dramatic influence on the field of education. Traditional beliefs regarding educational methodology have shifted to a more humanistic approach, with the focus on meeting the students' basic needs in order to assist them to progress. • The most important goal in education is to learn, followed by developing an understanding of the material to retain it, and apply it in life. In order to do this, the students need to be motivated enough to work hard to achieve this goal. Without motivation to learn it is unlikely that the education will succeed to the extent that it is intended. • In order to maximize this motivational desire, the educators need to attend to the needs of the student. By understanding Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, teachers can work toward realizing the basic needs that develop the foundation for higher learning, or actualization
  11. 11. • A Theory of Human Motivation • Motivation and Personality • Religions, Values and Peak-experiences • Eupsychian Management • The Psychology of Science: A Reconnaissance • Toward a Psychology of Being • The Farther Reaches of Human Nature
  12. 12. • Born : 1902 • Died: 1987 • Nationality : American • Fields : Psychology • University of Wisconsin Madison (1921), Teachers College Columbia University (M.A 1928, PhD 1931) • Known as the founder of person-centered psychotheraphy • Inventor of Counseling • Leader in development of humanistic approaches to education
  13. 13. • Learner Centered Teaching • A person cannot teach another person directly; a person can only facilitate another's learning. This is a result of personality theory, which states that everyone exists in a constantly changing world of experience in which he or she is the center. Each person reacts and responds based on perception and experience. The belief is that what the student does is more important than what the teacher does. The focus is on the student . Therefore, the background and experiences of the learner are essential to how and what is learned. Each student will process what he or she learns differently depending on what he or she brings to the classroom.
  14. 14. • A person learns significantly only those things that are perceived as being involved in the maintenance of or enhancement of the structure of self. Therefore, relevancy to the student is essential for learning. The students' experiences become the core of the course.
  15. 15. Experience which, if assimilated, would involve a change in the organization of self, tends to be resisted through denial or distortion of symbolism. If the content or presentation of a course is inconsistent with preconceived information, the student will learn if he or she is open to varying concepts. Being open to consider concepts that vary from one's own is vital to learning. Therefore, gently encouraging open-mindedness is helpful in engaging the student in learning. Also, it is important, for this reason, that new information be relevant and related to existing experience.
  16. 16. • The structure and organization of self appears to become more rigid under threats and to relax its boundaries when completely free from threat. If students believe that concepts are being forced upon them, they might become uncomfortable and fearful. A barrier is created by a tone of threat in the classroom. Therefore, an open, friendly environment in which trust is developed is essential in the classroom. Fear of retribution for not agreeing with a concept should be eliminated. A classroom tone of support helps to alleviate fears and encourages students to have the courage to explore concepts and beliefs that vary from those they bring to the classroom. Also, new information might threaten the student’s concept of him- or herself; therefore, the less vulnerable the student feels, the more likely he or she will be able to open up to the learning process.
  17. 17. • The educational situation which most effectively promotes significant learning is one in which (a) threat to the self of the learner is reduced to a minimum and (b) differentiated perception of the field is facilitated. The instructor should be open to learning from the students and also working to connect the students to the subject matter. Frequent interaction with the students will help achieve this goal. The instructor's acceptance of being a mentor who guides rather than the expert who tells is instrumental to student- centered, nonthreatening, and unforced learning.
  18. 18. • A Theory of Human Motivation (originally published in Psychological Review, 1943, Vol. 50 #4, pp. 370–396). • •
  19. 19. Thank you for your TIME