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Department of Leather Engineering, KUET, Khulna-9203.
Lining materials/Linings
The lining is the material inside the shoe that comes in contact with the
entire foot: the sides,...
Purpose of using lining materials
Lining is used for many purposes.
• To consolidate damaged area support.
• To strengthen...
• To provide for temporary support during overall conservation treatment.
• To provide a structural support after removing...
Quality of lining materials
• Resist abrasion with wear
• Absorb moisture & transmit
• Smooth ,Mellow & soft
• Light weigh...
Types of lining materials
A strictly scientific classification into animal, vegetable and, perhaps, synthetic
categories w...
Leather lining
Leather lining is perhaps the best quality lining, but it's also the most
expensive. Leather lining feels s...
Sources of leather upper and lining
• Cow lining
• Split leather
• Goat Skins
• Sheep Skins
• Suede
• Mule
• Pig Skins
• D...
Cow leather
Bovine or Cowhide leather is the most abundant and common leather source.
Cowhide offers maximum value for tex...
Cow leather
Calfskin is used to produce a high quality, attractive leather with a soft,
fine feel. Calfskin has a smooth s...
Cow leather
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Split leather
Split leather is leather created from the fibrous part of the hide left once the
top-grain of the rawhide ha...
Split leather
The strongest suedes are usually made from grain splits (that have the grain
completely removed) or from the...
Split leather
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Goat Skins
They have an area of 4 to 8 sq. ft. with a coarse fibrous structure varying
between butt and belly. Substance i...
Goat skin
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Sheep Skins
Sheep skins have loose fibrous structure, loose grain surface and light
substance with a soft feel. They have ...
Sheep skin
Sheep leather’s low tear and tensile strength stretches and well and
reshapes after wearing, however it can dis...
Sheep skin
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Suede
Mostly used as an insole lining in our men's sandal range. As suede is
actually a type of leather it is also very ex...
Suede leather
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Pig Skins
Pig skin is the leather fabric made from a pig or a hog. Pig or hog skin
leather is a dense leather similar to c...
Pig Skin
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Deerskin
Deerskin is one of the toughest leathers available due to the thorny nature
of the animal’s natural habitats. Dee...
Deerskin
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Bison or Buffalo hide
Buffalo hide is a heavy duty and durable leather and very value priced.
This leather is rugged and s...
Buffalo leather
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Ostrich leather
Ostrich leather is much rarer, but is one of the finest and most durable
leathers. Ostrich leather is luxu...
Ostrich leather
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Eel skin
Eel skin is a very thin and elegant, which is not very strong. Eel skin
leather can be durable but requires maint...
Eel leather
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Crocodile and alligator skin
Crocodile and alligator skin renders a very attractive and fashionable
leather. The leather i...
Crocodile and alligator skin
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Snakeskin
Snakeskin is typically produced from venomous sea snakes which are
commercially farmed. The leather is delicate,...
Snakeskin
Kangaroo leather
Kangaroo leather is lightweight, strong and flexible with high abrasion
resistance compared to cowhide. O...
Kangaroo leather
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Stingray or shagreen leather
Stingray or shagreen leather is very tough with a siliceous layer on the
surface, which makes...
Stingray or shagreen leather
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Sealskin
Sealskin is the skin of a seal which has been hunted.
Seal skins have been used by aboriginal people for millenni...
Sealskin
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Mule skin
Mule skin has a higher density than steer which gives it a very distinct and
crisp sound profile. We have severa...
Mule skin
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Horse/Equine skin
Equine skin conditions are often difficult to diagnose and frustrating to treat,
with causes ranging fro...
Horse/Equine skin
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Lizard leather
Lizard leather scales are remarkably water proof, and provide excellent
protection from the elements. Pesky...
Lizard leather
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Walrus leather
Leather produced from any fur bearing swimming mammal such as the
Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus), Paci...
Walrus leather
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Shark leather
Shark leather is world known for its rough, course texture. In the coarser
developments of shark skin, it ha...
Shark leather
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Some other animal sources used for leather include boar, elk, donkey,
ox, whale, and yak.
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna U...
Ox Yak
Other sources of leather
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Elk
Other sources of leather
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Fabric
Fabric is the most common lining material, particularly cotton and viscose.
Cotton and viscose are both extremely b...
Fabrics are made out of yarn and are classified as woven, non-woven and
knitted. Natural fibres of cotton, jute and synthe...
Types of fabric lining
• Woven Fabrics
• Knitted fabrics
• Non-woven Fabrics
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of ...
Woven Fabrics
Warp fabrics have good strength and low elongation at break. This has
the disadvantage of breaking during we...
Knitted fabrics
Knitted fabrics have high stretch but low strength. These are used in
slipper and casual shoes, as insole ...
Non-woven Fabrics
Non-woven fabrics are produced by a random arrangement of fibres.
Woolen felts, needle felts, and bonded...
Non-woven Fabrics
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Synthetic
Synthetic materials like polyester, acrylic and elastane are very common
materials for shoe linings, but they ha...
The materials available as coated fabrics. They have a coating of
polyurethane (PU) or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) on a fabri...
Types of synthetic
• PVC coated fabrics
• Polyurethane coated Fabrics
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Enginee...
PVC coated fabrics
These are classified into solid, expanded and microporous vinyls. The
expanded vinyls are produced by i...
PVC coated fabric
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Polyurethane coated Fabrics
PU coated fabrics usually consists of non-woven fabric backer, impregnated
with polyurethane t...
The top skin PU is formulated by the reaction of a polymer, (polyester or
polyether) with an isocyanate (TDI or MDI). The ...
The release paper is separated and can be reused again. In another method,
PU solution in a solvent dimethyl formate of lo...
PU coated fabric
S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
Coated fabrics are used for uppers, linings, heel grips, sock linings,
quarter linings, slipper uppers and in sports shoes...
To get more video on Footwear Design and Development visit and subscribe
YouTube Channel:
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Presented by:
S. M. Murshidur Rahman
Department of Leather Engineering,
Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUE...
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Footwear lining materials

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This slide includes definition, purposes of using lining materials, quality of lining materials, types and sources of lining materials.

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Footwear lining materials

  1. 1. Department of Leather Engineering, KUET, Khulna-9203.
  2. 2. Lining materials/Linings The lining is the material inside the shoe that comes in contact with the entire foot: the sides, top and heels. The main purpose of lining is to cover the inside seams of the shoe and lengthen the shoe's lifespan. Linings made out of certain materials cushion and comfort the foot or draw out moisture. They can be made out of a variety materials. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  3. 3. Purpose of using lining materials Lining is used for many purposes. • To consolidate damaged area support. • To strengthen the object. • To effect certain esthetic considerations such as flattening or removing of creases. • To place a barrier between the object and an auxiliary support. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  4. 4. • To provide for temporary support during overall conservation treatment. • To provide a structural support after removing a poor quality mount. • To stabilize dimensional and planar movement of the support or media. • To facilitate the handling. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET). Purpose of using lining materials
  5. 5. Quality of lining materials • Resist abrasion with wear • Absorb moisture & transmit • Smooth ,Mellow & soft • Light weight & flexible • Resistant to mould & Fungus • Washable to good hygienic condition • Non-cracky & non-shrinky S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  6. 6. Types of lining materials A strictly scientific classification into animal, vegetable and, perhaps, synthetic categories would not prove satisfactory or particularly helpful since the materials used for shoe uppers may cut across these divisions. A more useful classification is under the broad headings as they are used in the trade, i.e. Leather, fabric, synthetics: • Leather lining • Fabric lining • Synthetic lining S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  7. 7. Leather lining Leather lining is perhaps the best quality lining, but it's also the most expensive. Leather lining feels soft on the skin and will conform to the shape of the foot over time. It's also durable and allows air flow, letting moisture evaporate. Although leather is the highest quality material for lining, certain shoes, particularly athletic shoes, don't use leather lining because the leather adds extra weight. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  8. 8. Sources of leather upper and lining • Cow lining • Split leather • Goat Skins • Sheep Skins • Suede • Mule • Pig Skins • Deerskin • Bison or Buffalo hide • Ostrich leather • Kangaroo leather • Eel skin • Crocodile • Horse S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET). • Snake skin • Seal Skin • Shark skin • Lizard • Walrus • Shagreen • Yak • Whale etc.
  9. 9. Cow leather Bovine or Cowhide leather is the most abundant and common leather source. Cowhide offers maximum value for texture, appearance, durability, and comfort. Cowhide is easy to care for, the least expensive due to its availability and is dirt and water resistant. Cowhide is one of the heaviest leathers making it very tough wearing and durable featuring a pebble grain appearance. Although it can be somewhat stiff, cowhide breaks in easily. Cow leather is used for virtually every leather product including outerwear, jackets, casual and biker style coats, gloves, belts, saddles, bags, furniture, straps, shoes, boots, and upholstery. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  10. 10. Cow leather Calfskin is used to produce a high quality, attractive leather with a soft, fine feel. Calfskin has a smooth surface, which is dense, lightweight, and abrasion resistant. Calfskin takes on high luster with use and is used in bookbinding, dresses, shoes, and straps. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  11. 11. Cow leather S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  12. 12. Split leather Split leather is leather created from the fibrous part of the hide left once the top-grain of the rawhide has been separated from the hide. During the splitting operation, the top-grain and drop split are separated. The drop split can be further split (thickness allowing) into a middle split and a flesh split. In very thick hides, the middle split can be separated into multiple layers until the thickness prevents further splitting. Split leather then has an artificial layer applied to the surface of the split and is embossed with a leather grain (bycast leather). Splits are also used to create suede. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  13. 13. Split leather The strongest suedes are usually made from grain splits (that have the grain completely removed) or from the flesh split that has been shaved to the correct thickness. Suede is "fuzzy" on both sides. Manufacturers use a variety of techniques to make suede from full-grain. A reversed suede is a grained leather that has been designed into the leather article with the grain facing away from the visible surface. It is not considered a true suede. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  14. 14. Split leather S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  15. 15. Goat Skins They have an area of 4 to 8 sq. ft. with a coarse fibrous structure varying between butt and belly. Substance is thick. Vegetable tanned goat skins are used as linings. Goat skin leather is an economical, strong and durable, with a smooth fine grain. Goatskin is slightly softer and tougher than cow leather and is lightweight, comfortable, supple, flexible, and water-resistant. Pigskin is used to manufacture to gloves, casual shoes, coats, vests, bookbinding, wallets, belts, and protective clothing. Kidskin is a very soft leather made from the hide of a young goat. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  16. 16. Goat skin S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  17. 17. Sheep Skins Sheep skins have loose fibrous structure, loose grain surface and light substance with a soft feel. They have an area of 2 to 9 sq.ft and are suede finished. The wool sheep skins can be sheared. Sheep skins are used for linings. Sheep skin leather is extremely soft, comfortable, and pliable. The finely grained leather is thin and supple with a buttery texture. Sheep leather is lightweight, warm and delicate and absorbs water well. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  18. 18. Sheep skin Sheep leather’s low tear and tensile strength stretches and well and reshapes after wearing, however it can distort with excessive use. Because sheep skin leather drapes well and flows, it is often used to make high-end leather garments especially coats, dresses, skirts, jackets, and pants, as well as, vests, slippers, handbags, hats, footwear, and rugs. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  19. 19. Sheep skin S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  20. 20. Suede Mostly used as an insole lining in our men's sandal range. As suede is actually a type of leather it is also very expensive and adds a significant amount to the cost of the shoe. Its benefits are also similar to that of leather but limited to the fact that it is mainly an innersole material. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  21. 21. Suede leather S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  22. 22. Pig Skins Pig skin is the leather fabric made from a pig or a hog. Pig or hog skin leather is a dense leather similar to cowhide with a soft and supple feel and very good durability. Pigskin is very pliable, comfortable and water resistant with a high lanolin content to keep the glove soft after getting wet. Pigskin is used to manufacture work gloves, shoes, boots, sportswear, handbags, saddle seats, belts and apparel such as, shirts, blazers, and jackets. Despite their nickname, footballs are actually made of cowhide. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  23. 23. Pig Skin S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  24. 24. Deerskin Deerskin is one of the toughest leathers available due to the thorny nature of the animal’s natural habitats. Deerskin leather’s high tensile strength is abrasion resistant and offers high durability. Deerskin is extremely soft and comfortable with a spongy feel. It is lightweight, water-friendly, and stretchy and fits well. Deerskin is more expensive and used to manufacture gloves, shirts, dresses, hats, slippers, jackets, overcoats, sporting equipment, handbags, wallets, and upholstery. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  25. 25. Deerskin S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  26. 26. Bison or Buffalo hide Buffalo hide is a heavy duty and durable leather and very value priced. This leather is rugged and strong, yet soft and supple with a rubber waxy feel. Buffalo leather features thicker fibers which are more widely spaced and evident hair follicles creating a pebbly appearance. Bison leather is used to make furniture, shoes, belts, bookbinding, rugs, gloves, jackets, and baseball gloves . S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  27. 27. Buffalo leather S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  28. 28. Ostrich leather Ostrich leather is much rarer, but is one of the finest and most durable leathers. Ostrich leather is luxurious, soft, supple, and thick featuring an exotic goose bump appearance from the large feather quill follicles. Ostrich leather is popular in luxury fashion and is used to make boots, footwear, upholstery, accessories, clothing, luggage, purses, wallets, and briefcases. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  29. 29. Ostrich leather S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  30. 30. Eel skin Eel skin is a very thin and elegant, which is not very strong. Eel skin leather can be durable but requires maintenance if exposed to elements. Eel skin is soft, shiny, and smooth with horizontal pin-stripe patterns. This leather is actually produced from a slimy eel-like fish called the inshore hagfish, which is caught in the wild. Eel skin becomes softer and suppler with use and is used to make wallets and handbags. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  31. 31. Eel leather S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  32. 32. Crocodile and alligator skin Crocodile and alligator skin renders a very attractive and fashionable leather. The leather is strong, supple, durable and very expensive. A bony layer within the skin adds a protective shield, while a dimple on each scale makes a very exotic look. Crocodile and alligator leather is used to make luxury goods, handbags, wallets, boots, belts, and briefcases.
  33. 33. Crocodile and alligator skin S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  34. 34. Snakeskin Snakeskin is typically produced from venomous sea snakes which are commercially farmed. The leather is delicate, thin, soft and flexible, while the fine small hexagon scales produce exotic detailed grains. Snake skin leather is used to make boots, wallets, and handbags.
  35. 35. Snakeskin
  36. 36. Kangaroo leather Kangaroo leather is lightweight, strong and flexible with high abrasion resistance compared to cowhide. Ostrich leather can be cut into very thin layers which remain strong and create lighter weight garments. Ostrich leather is made from free range wild animals and is popular in soccer footwear, as well as, bullwhips and apparel. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  37. 37. Kangaroo leather S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  38. 38. Stingray or shagreen leather Stingray or shagreen leather is very tough with a siliceous layer on the surface, which makes it as durable as hard plastic. Stingray leather has a beautiful appearance and wonderful feel, which is very strong. Stingray leather scales even protect from fire damage. The leather is usually dyed black and covered with tiny round bumps dyed white to highlight the decoration. Stingray leather is used for clothing, furniture, wallets, belts, purses, and briefcases.
  39. 39. Stingray or shagreen leather S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  40. 40. Sealskin Sealskin is the skin of a seal which has been hunted. Seal skins have been used by aboriginal people for millennia to make waterproof jackets and boots, and seal fur to make fur coats. Sailors used to have tobacco pouches made from sealskin. Canada, Greenland, Norway, Russia and Namibia all export sealskin. It was traditionally used to make Scottish sporrans. The indigenous Inuit people argue that banning seal products is detrimental to their way of life. However, there are many objections to the use of seal skin, fur and pelts, and it is illegal to hunt seals in many countries, particularly young seals. The value of global sealskin exports in 2006 was over 16 million Canadian dollars. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  41. 41. Sealskin S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  42. 42. Mule skin Mule skin has a higher density than steer which gives it a very distinct and crisp sound profile. We have several different types of mule skin which work perfectly for many different types of drums. Mule skin has a very bright tone and sounds controlled and tight. Slaps are amazingly crisp. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  43. 43. Mule skin S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  44. 44. Horse/Equine skin Equine skin conditions are often difficult to diagnose and frustrating to treat, with causes ranging from fungus to allergens to who-knows-what. The skin is the largest organ of your horse’s body. It provides a protective barrier against the environment, regulates temperature, and gives your horse its sense of touch. Depending on the species and age, the skin may be 12 to 24% of an animal’s body weight. The skin has 3 major layers: the epidermis or outermost layer, the dermis or middle layer, and the subcutis or innermost layer. Other important components include skin appendages (such as hair and hooves), and subcutaneous muscles and fat. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  45. 45. Horse/Equine skin S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  46. 46. Lizard leather Lizard leather scales are remarkably water proof, and provide excellent protection from the elements. Pesky stains shan’t be nearly as much of a threat to lizard skin as to other leathers, although this shouldn’t be your cue to take it for granted. Those scales are rooted in place by a well lubricated membrane beneath them, which they are charged with protecting. Should that membrane dry up, the scales can pop off, which really doesn’t bode well for the aesthetics. Try not to take lizard leather out under excessive weather conditions, such as rain. If it does get wet, just blot up the moisture with a dry, clean cloth or paper towel. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  47. 47. Lizard leather S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  48. 48. Walrus leather Leather produced from any fur bearing swimming mammal such as the Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus), Pacific walrus (Odobenus abesus), sea lion (Zalophus caliifornianus) or seal (Callorhinus alascanus). All are called walrus leather because, once processed, the skins are difficult to distinguish. Walrus hides are thick, tough, and smooth. Due to the scarcity of the animals at the end of the 20th century, most commercial walrus leathers were imitations made from embossed and grained sheepskins, goatskins, or cowhides. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  49. 49. Walrus leather S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  50. 50. Shark leather Shark leather is world known for its rough, course texture. In the coarser developments of shark skin, it has been used like sandpaper for polishing. However, the finer tanned shark skins are used for shoes, handbags, and other leather items. Highly sought after, these skins are by-products from fishing villages and international cuisine. All of our leather is coming from non-endangered and non-threatened shark species and no CITES is required. Currently, we’re offering black fin species in 1 to 4 oz thickness in a rough or soft-tanned presentation. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  51. 51. Shark leather S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  52. 52. Some other animal sources used for leather include boar, elk, donkey, ox, whale, and yak. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET). Whale Donkey Other sources of leather
  53. 53. Ox Yak Other sources of leather S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  54. 54. Elk Other sources of leather S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  55. 55. Fabric Fabric is the most common lining material, particularly cotton and viscose. Cotton and viscose are both extremely breathable fabrics that absorb moisture, making shoes more comfortable and sterilized. Even if a pair of shoes is worn regularly, if it's lined with cotton or viscose it will likely retain its shape. Cotton and other natural fabrics are certainly breathable, but not as breathable as leather. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  56. 56. Fabrics are made out of yarn and are classified as woven, non-woven and knitted. Natural fibres of cotton, jute and synthetic fibres such as nylon, terylene and so on are used, in fabric manufacture. Fabrics are extensively used as upper materials, linings, inter-linings and backers. Fabrics are manufactured and sold in rolls. Fabrics, are woven from yarns which run at right angles to each other. Warp threads are those which run the width of the fabric. Warp threads stretch less but possess more tensile strength. Weft threads stretch more but have less strength as compared to warp threads. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  57. 57. Types of fabric lining • Woven Fabrics • Knitted fabrics • Non-woven Fabrics S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  58. 58. Woven Fabrics Warp fabrics have good strength and low elongation at break. This has the disadvantage of breaking during wear in certain shoe constructions. The fabrics are cut in bias (diagonal) direction, for use as tapes and top line bindings. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  59. 59. Knitted fabrics Knitted fabrics have high stretch but low strength. These are used in slipper and casual shoes, as insole coverings. The disadvantages being raw edges fray. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  60. 60. Non-woven Fabrics Non-woven fabrics are produced by a random arrangement of fibres. Woolen felts, needle felts, and bonded fibres are used in non-woven fabrics. In woolen felts the fibres are milled and pressed to lock the protein fibres together. Needle felts are obtained when the fibres are tangled together by repeatedly thrusting binder or adhesive to hold the fibres together. Bonded fibres are also known as impregnated non-woven and when abraded gives a finish similar to suede with leather like appearance and touch. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  61. 61. Non-woven Fabrics S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  62. 62. Synthetic Synthetic materials like polyester, acrylic and elastane are very common materials for shoe linings, but they hardly absorb any moisture. The only reason shoe manufacturers use these synthetic materials is to cut costs. Synthetic lining causes odor and breaks down more quickly than fabric, and much more quickly than leather. Artificial leathers are synthetic materials with leather like appearances and feel, mostly used for shoe uppers and linings. A few of these materials have physical properties to certain extent similar to leather. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  63. 63. The materials available as coated fabrics. They have a coating of polyurethane (PU) or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) on a fabric. The fabric may be natural or synthetic, or a blend of both. The coatings can be coloured, printed or embossed giving an attractive finish with leather like appearance. The coated fabrics are produced by either transfer film process or direct coating process. The direct coating process is also known as coagulation method. The expanded products viz. expanded PU and expanded PVC are obtained by incorporating a blowing agent in addition to plasticizer. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  64. 64. Types of synthetic • PVC coated fabrics • Polyurethane coated Fabrics S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  65. 65. PVC coated fabrics These are classified into solid, expanded and microporous vinyls. The expanded vinyls are produced by incorporating a blowing agent; into vinyl paste resin (a fine powder) and a plasticizer (a colourless liquid), mixed in proportion to obtain paste of required viscosity, heated to obtain a “gelled” material. Stabilizers are added to reduce decomposition, pigments to colour, fillers to modify the properties and reduce the price. These fabrics are manufactured by 1. Direct application of PVC to the fabric and 2. By transfer coating. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  66. 66. PVC coated fabric S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  67. 67. Polyurethane coated Fabrics PU coated fabrics usually consists of non-woven fabric backer, impregnated with polyurethane to give a microporous structure. The top of the coated fabric is given a lacquer coating. Also known as poromerics, are microporous permeable materials with leather like appearance. These upper and lining materials possesses moisture absorption and permeability properties to certain extent similar to natural leather. The backer or substrate is non-woven fabric—a raised twill. The fibres are teared out to form a pile to impart leather like surface to the fabric. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  68. 68. The top skin PU is formulated by the reaction of a polymer, (polyester or polyether) with an isocyanate (TDI or MDI). The film is coloured by pigment dispersions. A spray of lacquer coat on the top of the coated fabric imparts gloss or wet look to the coated fabric. In practice the PU solution with a mixer of dimethyl formate and methyl-ethyl ketone, is applied on a release paper. The solution is spread evenly on the paper by knives. It passes through ovens where the solvent evaporates. PU adhesive is applied and spread uniformly on the PU films. The fabric is pressed on the adhesive by its pile side. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  69. 69. The release paper is separated and can be reused again. In another method, PU solution in a solvent dimethyl formate of low viscosity is impregnated into the fabric. The solution also contains colouring material and other materials. The solvent is then gradually removed by passing the fabric through tanks containing PU solution, mixture of water and PU solution and then water. Thus the solvent is gradually removed. PU is dispersed within the fabric. The coated fabric is printed and embossed, if required, sprayed by lacquer and finished metallic, pearl, rub off and so on. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  70. 70. PU coated fabric S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  71. 71. Coated fabrics are used for uppers, linings, heel grips, sock linings, quarter linings, slipper uppers and in sports shoes. S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  72. 72. To get more video on Footwear Design and Development visit and subscribe YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC2B6ePUTufmASxL9lbf-0Zg or https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLtkxsvTf9L6G2aZV2-HGCfcjPCplLeOqL https://www.facebook.com/FootwearDesignandDevelopment/ To get slide visit http://www.slideshare.net S. M. Murshidur Rahman, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET).
  73. 73. Presented by: S. M. Murshidur Rahman Department of Leather Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET), Khulna-9203, Bangladesh. Email: murshidurkhulnabd@gmail.com https://www.facebook.com/murshidur.rahman.5203 https://www.linkedin.com/in/murshidur-rahman-206850124 https://twitter.com/Murshidur6
  74. 74. Thank You
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This slide includes definition, purposes of using lining materials, quality of lining materials, types and sources of lining materials.

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