The Product Development    Process Cosmetics, Toiletries, Insecticides, Household Cleaning Products Murray Hunter
Steps in The Product    Development Process <ul><li>Ideation </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Product Specifications </li></ul...
Steps in the Product Development Process (Cont.) <ul><li>Manufacturing System Design </li></ul><ul><li>Review Packaging an...
The Ideation Process <ul><li>Definition:   </li></ul><ul><li>The process of conceptualizing a new  </li></ul><ul><li>idea ...
Corporate Sources of Ideation <ul><li>Observation of products in the  </li></ul><ul><li>domestic market </li></ul><ul><li>...
Corporate Sources of Ideation <ul><li>Lateral Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>a) Adaptation from other ideas (aircraft  </li></...
Lateral Thinking (Cont.) <ul><li>e) Correctly identified changes in  </li></ul><ul><li>consumer lifestyles (bath & shower ...
Corporate Sources of Ideation <ul><li>New Government regulation in regards to product registrations, toxicity, occupationa...
Individual Sources of Ideation <ul><li>Observations in everyday life  </li></ul><ul><li>Trade magazines </li></ul><ul><li>...
Examples from Ideation
Examples from Ideation
Examples from Ideation
Examples from Ideation
Examples from Ideation
Examples from Ideation
Examples from Ideation
Examples from Ideation
Examples from Ideation
Examples from Ideation
Examples from Ideation
Examples from Ideation
Influence on Mainstream Industry
Mainstream Products from Handicraft beginnings
Mainstream Products from Handicraft beginnings
Mainstream Products from Handicraft beginnings
Mainstream Products from Handicraft beginnings
Mainstream Products from Handicraft beginnings
Ethnobotany
Products Developed from Ethnobotany
Products Developed from Ethnobotany
Products Developed from Ethnobotany
The Chemist and Ideation <ul><li>Development chemists are facilitators for the marketing organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Ve...
Dispelling The Myths of New    Product Development <ul><li>Less than 5% of new products launched on the market are success...
Vanilla Breakthrough?
Catatonic Breakthrough?
To Soap or not to Soap?
Auto Breakthrough?
Developing Product    Specifications <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>To develop an idea into a list of criteria that c...
Developing Product    Specifications <ul><li>Project confirmed through a briefing by a product manager </li></ul><ul><li>-...
Developing Product    Specifications <ul><li>Chemists will determine: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Required functional aspects of ...
Developing Product    Specifications <ul><li>One method of developing product specifications is to look at the new product...
The Product System Profile <ul><li>Shampoo System Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Function  Potential Material </li></ul><ul><li...
The Product System Profile <ul><li>Laundry Detergent Powder </li></ul><ul><li>Function  Potential material </li></ul><ul><...
Market and Product Planning <ul><li>A Product Manager will be appointed to oversee the project development. </li></ul><ul>...
Market and Product Planning <ul><li>The Development Chemist will report to the product manager during this period and advi...
Chemist MPP Considerations <ul><li>Compatibility with Branding </li></ul><ul><li>have to ensure the finished product formu...
Chemist MPP Considerations <ul><li>Review of Existing Products in the Market </li></ul><ul><li>Products already in the mar...
Chemist MPP Considerations <ul><li>Formulation is compatible with proposed packaging </li></ul><ul><li>A this point the pr...
Choices of Packaging Materials
Choices of Packaging Materials
Choices of Packaging Materials
Choices of Packaging Materials
Choices of Packaging Materials
Chemist MPP Considerations <ul><li>Logistic considerations are very important to the formulation of a product. Many retail...
Logistic Considerations
Logistic Considerations
Concept and Prototype    Generation <ul><li>Concept and Prototype Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>a) Can the product meet...
Concept and Prototype    Generation <ul><li>Can the product meet organisational expectations? If not, what compromises are...
Concept and Prototype    Generation <ul><li>Where can I source raw materials and obtain good technical support? </li></ul>...
Concept and Prototype    Generation <ul><li>What type of product system is best  </li></ul><ul><li>suited to the applicati...
Gel Type Air Freshener    Systems
Gel Air Freshener Systems <ul><li>Carrageenan  CMC  Di-limonene  Co-polymers </li></ul><ul><li>Hot heat reversible  High g...
Formulation Systems <ul><li>Johnson & Johnson Clean & Clear Oil Controlling Astringent </li></ul><ul><li>Active Ingredient...
Concept and Prototype    Generation <ul><li>Can product objectives be achieved within company unit cost expectations? </li...
Concept and Prototype    Generation <ul><li>Another Alternative (This is the skill of a good development chemist) </li></u...
Formulating the Prototype <ul><li>Project confirmed by Product manager </li></ul><ul><li>Product Profile will be given (wi...
The Search for Raw Materials <ul><li>Don’t underestimate the time required </li></ul><ul><li>Read literature, trade magazi...
Formulating Considerations <ul><li>Formulation is an art as much as it is a science </li></ul><ul><li>Processes and blendi...
General Formulating Hints <ul><li>Saponification has to be a though process, otherwise there will be uneven neutralisation...
General Formulating Hints <ul><li>Allowance have to be made for natural heating processes and colouration. Impurities tend...
General Formulating Hints <ul><li>Remember the production procedure has to be manageable and operated by shopfloor persona...
General Formulating Hints <ul><li>Each raw material will have an effect on another. Some chemicals combined create coloura...
General Formulating Hints <ul><li>Choosing Surfactants </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>a) cleaning performan...
General Formulating Hints <ul><li>Most cases have to use two because no single surfactant can provide all of the character...
Example: Shampoo <ul><li>Primary Surfactant usually anionic </li></ul><ul><li>Lauryl sulphates  will differ in their chara...
Lauyl Sulphate: Effect of different neutralising bases <ul><li>Sodium  Ammonian  MonoEA  DEA  TEA </li></ul><ul><li>Lauryl...
Secondary Surfactants <ul><li>Characteristics of primary surfactant will be modified by secondary surfactant </li></ul><ul...
Effects of Secondary Surfactants on formulations <ul><li>Main Features  Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Alkyl (amino)  Mil...
Formulating Fragrance into    the Product <ul><li>Making up little more than 1.0% of the formulation, fragrance is up to 7...
Formulating Fragrance into    the Product <ul><li>Usually a fragrance house is given a product brief outlining the objecti...
Formulating Fragrance into    the Product <ul><li>Fragrance companies are a major source of development work in a new prod...
Formulating Fragrance into    the Product <ul><li>Fragrances basically constructed with base notes, middle notes and top n...
Formulating Fragrance into    the Product <ul><li>Dishwashing liquids will have fragrances made up of mainly middle and to...
Efficacy Testing <ul><li>New products will require some efficacy testing for presentation to the marketing arm of the orga...
Efficacy Testing <ul><li>Depending on the product, different tests are required.  </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes we have to i...
Efficacy Testing <ul><li>Standard tests for a shampoo would be as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>...
Laboratory Evaluation <ul><li>Objective characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Anionic wash activity –methylene blue test </li>...
Salon Evaluation <ul><li>Assessment on half head test against a benchmark </li></ul><ul><li>Various samples tested at one ...
Consumer Testing <ul><li>Tested against a consumer profile </li></ul><ul><li>Undertaken through a workshop </li></ul><ul><...
Product Registration <ul><li>Product Registration has become much more strict around the world in the last 5 years </li></...
Product Registration <ul><li>Generally the following registrations are required: </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmetics – registratio...
Cosmetics and Therapeutic    Goods <ul><li>What is required dependent on the class of goods </li></ul><ul><li>Main criteri...
Cosmetics and Therapeutic    Goods <ul><li>Basic Criteria Examined </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>Efficac...
Insecticides <ul><li>Through Dept Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Fall under definition of an insecticide </li></ul><ul><li>...
Packaging Design <ul><li>As during the MPP phase the same considerations apply, but these must be tested for stability usi...
Packaging Design <ul><li>PVC materials are extremely susceptible to high alkalis and solvents  </li></ul><ul><li>Some form...
Manufacturing System Design <ul><li>Major Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Is the proposed manufacturing process compatible with t...
Is the proposed manufacturing process compatible with the formulation?   Powders <ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk den...
Powders – Dry Blending
Powders – Dry Blending <ul><li>Advantages – Low investment </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages – large particle size </li></ul...
Powders – Spray Drying
Powders – Spray Drying <ul><li>Advantages – uniform product </li></ul><ul><li>Low moisture content </li></ul><ul><li>Soft ...
Liquids  <ul><li>Various forms of mixers are used for manufacturing different products, depending on characteristics </li>...
Gate Mixer
Gate Mixer <ul><li>Viscous Liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Do not want aeration </li></ul><ul><li>Some Saponifications </li></ul>
Centrifugal Mixer
Centrifugal Mixer <ul><li>Low viscous liquids where aeration is not an issue </li></ul><ul><li>Products with high percenta...
Filling Equipment
Packaging
Good Manufacturing Practice <ul><li>GMP is a set of guidelines for the manufacture of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products...
Marketing Review <ul><li>This is the time when target markets are focused upon and minor modifications to packaging or for...
Test Market <ul><li>Test Marketing in a domestic market is very rare today: </li></ul><ul><li>- concentration of retailers...
Refining Product Before Major    Launch <ul><li>When products have been tested in a single country or region, there will b...
Attributes of a Good Cosmetic    Chemist <ul><li>Has initiative to conceptualise new product systems </li></ul><ul><li>Is ...
Why do Companies Need New Product development? <ul><li>Regulations change forcing product changes  </li></ul><ul><li>Disal...
Why do Companies Need New Product development? <ul><li>Lifestyles are continually changing </li></ul><ul><li>Rural/urban d...
Why do Companies Need New Product development? <ul><li>To improve their market positioning and market-share </li></ul><ul>...
An Enhancement?
Another Enhancement?
New technologies Require new Product Development <ul><li>New Technologies which lead to new chemicals can force companies ...
Changing Fragrance Technology <ul><li>Illustration of ‘Lily of the Valley’ Fragrance 1800’s to present day </li></ul><ul><...
Product Evolution <ul><li>There a predictable product evolution in every category, governed by changing technology, consum...
The Laundry Cleaning Family    Tree <ul><li>1800’s  blau  R&C </li></ul><ul><li>1850’s  Soap Bars  P&G </li></ul><ul><li>1...
UKM’s New Cosmetic Chemists?
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The new product development process for cosmetics, Toiletries, Insecticides, & Household Cleaning Products

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  • The new product development process for cosmetics, Toiletries, Insecticides, & Household Cleaning Products

    1. 1. The Product Development Process Cosmetics, Toiletries, Insecticides, Household Cleaning Products Murray Hunter
    2. 2. Steps in The Product Development Process <ul><li>Ideation </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Product Specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Market and Product Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Concept and Prototype Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Product Registration </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging Design </li></ul><ul><li>Further Formulation Development </li></ul>
    3. 3. Steps in the Product Development Process (Cont.) <ul><li>Manufacturing System Design </li></ul><ul><li>Review Packaging and Formulation </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Review </li></ul><ul><li>Test Market (Optional) </li></ul><ul><li>Refining of Product Before Major Launch </li></ul><ul><li>Major Launch </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Ideation Process <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The process of conceptualizing a new </li></ul><ul><li>idea for manifestation into a new </li></ul><ul><li>product </li></ul>
    5. 5. Corporate Sources of Ideation <ul><li>Observation of products in the </li></ul><ul><li>domestic market </li></ul><ul><li>Observation of products in overseas </li></ul><ul><li>markets </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier Submissions </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Trade shows and conferences </li></ul>
    6. 6. Corporate Sources of Ideation <ul><li>Lateral Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>a) Adaptation from other ideas (aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>toilets) </li></ul><ul><li>b) Ideas from handicraft markets (candles) </li></ul><ul><li>c) Observation of everyday consumer </li></ul><ul><li>problems (some insecticides) </li></ul><ul><li>d) Adaptation from an existing </li></ul><ul><li>industrial product (disinfectants) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Lateral Thinking (Cont.) <ul><li>e) Correctly identified changes in </li></ul><ul><li>consumer lifestyles (bath & shower </li></ul><ul><li>gels, liquid soaps, insecticides) </li></ul><ul><li>f) Correctly perceived changing consumer tastes (‘green products’) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Corporate Sources of Ideation <ul><li>New Government regulation in regards to product registrations, toxicity, occupational health and safety </li></ul><ul><li>(Disinfectants, Insecticides, herbicides) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Individual Sources of Ideation <ul><li>Observations in everyday life </li></ul><ul><li>Trade magazines </li></ul><ul><li>Patent summaries </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas from friends </li></ul><ul><li>Overseas trips </li></ul><ul><li>New raw materials launched on the market by suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnobotancial literature </li></ul>
    10. 10. Examples from Ideation
    11. 11. Examples from Ideation
    12. 12. Examples from Ideation
    13. 13. Examples from Ideation
    14. 14. Examples from Ideation
    15. 15. Examples from Ideation
    16. 16. Examples from Ideation
    17. 17. Examples from Ideation
    18. 18. Examples from Ideation
    19. 19. Examples from Ideation
    20. 20. Examples from Ideation
    21. 21. Examples from Ideation
    22. 22. Influence on Mainstream Industry
    23. 23. Mainstream Products from Handicraft beginnings
    24. 24. Mainstream Products from Handicraft beginnings
    25. 25. Mainstream Products from Handicraft beginnings
    26. 26. Mainstream Products from Handicraft beginnings
    27. 27. Mainstream Products from Handicraft beginnings
    28. 28. Ethnobotany
    29. 29. Products Developed from Ethnobotany
    30. 30. Products Developed from Ethnobotany
    31. 31. Products Developed from Ethnobotany
    32. 32. The Chemist and Ideation <ul><li>Development chemists are facilitators for the marketing organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Very few chemists submit new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>The realism of the situation is that new products are dependent upon the work of the chemist (whether internal or external to the organisation) </li></ul>
    33. 33. Dispelling The Myths of New Product Development <ul><li>Less than 5% of new products launched on the market are successful </li></ul><ul><li>Out of 100 new ideas, less than 2 become a commercial reality </li></ul><ul><li>Most companies are followers and not innovators (even the Body Shop) </li></ul><ul><li>Very few really novel innovations are ever launched commercially </li></ul><ul><li>Most new products are incremental steps in enhancement, rather than something completely new (similar to the automobile industry) </li></ul>
    34. 34. Vanilla Breakthrough?
    35. 35. Catatonic Breakthrough?
    36. 36. To Soap or not to Soap?
    37. 37. Auto Breakthrough?
    38. 38. Developing Product Specifications <ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>To develop an idea into a list of criteria that can be developed into a tangible product </li></ul>
    39. 39. Developing Product Specifications <ul><li>Project confirmed through a briefing by a product manager </li></ul><ul><li>- will provide a product profile (wish list) </li></ul><ul><li>- Chemists, packaging designers and manufacturing engineers will advise what can be achieved and what cannot be achieved </li></ul><ul><li>- Constraints will be advised, manufacturing capability, budgets, etc. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Developing Product Specifications <ul><li>Chemists will determine: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Required functional aspects of required product </li></ul><ul><li>b) Ascetic functions of required new product </li></ul><ul><li>c) Determine feasibility of formulating required new product </li></ul>
    41. 41. Developing Product Specifications <ul><li>One method of developing product specifications is to look at the new product as a system and define individually each required function of the product </li></ul>
    42. 42. The Product System Profile <ul><li>Shampoo System Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Function Potential Material </li></ul><ul><li>Primary surfactant ALS, ALES, TLS, SLES, NaDOBS </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary surfactant/ Coconut MEA, </li></ul><ul><li>Foam Stabiliser Cocamide MEA, Cocamidopropyl Betaine or </li></ul><ul><li>amine </li></ul><ul><li>Pacifier/Pearliser Ethylene Glycol Distearate, Glycol Stearate </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity Control Sodium chloride </li></ul><ul><li>Preservatives Potassium Sorbate, Diazolidonyl urea, </li></ul><ul><li>Methyl and Propyl Parabens </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Additives GuarHydroxypropyl Trimmonium Chloride </li></ul><ul><li>Panthenol, Dimethicone, Hydrolysed Keratin Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Fragrance Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Ascetic Ingredients Aloe Vera, Green Tea Extract, Panthenol </li></ul><ul><li>Dyes Yes </li></ul>
    43. 43. The Product System Profile <ul><li>Laundry Detergent Powder </li></ul><ul><li>Function Potential material </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Surfactant Non-Ionic, APE </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Surfactant Anionic, LAS </li></ul><ul><li>Foam Builder CDE </li></ul><ul><li>Builders Sodium Tripolyphosphate, Zeolites, </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium Carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>Bleaches Sodium Percarbonate </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Corrosive Sodium Matasilicate </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersing CMC </li></ul><ul><li>Fabric Conditioners QAC, Clays </li></ul><ul><li>Stain Removers Enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Optical brighteners Tinapals </li></ul><ul><li>Free flowing Agents Sodium Sulphate </li></ul><ul><li>Fragrance Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Dye Yes </li></ul>
    44. 44. Market and Product Planning <ul><li>A Product Manager will be appointed to oversee the project development. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Branding (image) </li></ul><ul><li>b) Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>c) Product </li></ul><ul><li>d) Budget projections </li></ul><ul><li>advertising, promotion, sales </li></ul><ul><li>e) Source of Production </li></ul>
    45. 45. Market and Product Planning <ul><li>The Development Chemist will report to the product manager during this period and advise on: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Product compatibility with branding </li></ul><ul><li>b) Review of existing products in </li></ul><ul><li>market </li></ul><ul><li>- both in terms of benefits they offer the </li></ul><ul><li>consumer and standard of product </li></ul><ul><li>c) Formulation compatibility with packaging </li></ul><ul><li>d) Logistic considerations and effects on product </li></ul>
    46. 46. Chemist MPP Considerations <ul><li>Compatibility with Branding </li></ul><ul><li>have to ensure the finished product formulation reinforces the brand image the company wishes to market to consumers </li></ul><ul><li>- colour, odour, softness, efficacy, </li></ul><ul><li>appearance, use of particular material </li></ul>
    47. 47. Chemist MPP Considerations <ul><li>Review of Existing Products in the Market </li></ul><ul><li>Products already in the market will be reviewed as to appearance, efficacy, odour, colour, image and benefits </li></ul><ul><li>This study will assist in determining what benefits of the new product will be highlighted in the marketing campaign </li></ul>
    48. 48. Chemist MPP Considerations <ul><li>Formulation is compatible with proposed packaging </li></ul><ul><li>A this point the product manager may already have proposed packaging. </li></ul><ul><li>Considerations here for the formulator are: </li></ul><ul><li>Is the nature of the product compatible with the proposed packaging? </li></ul><ul><li>What product bulk densities will be required? </li></ul><ul><li>Can the product be filled efficiently during production? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the proposed packaging effect product stability? </li></ul>
    49. 49. Choices of Packaging Materials
    50. 50. Choices of Packaging Materials
    51. 51. Choices of Packaging Materials
    52. 52. Choices of Packaging Materials
    53. 53. Choices of Packaging Materials
    54. 54. Chemist MPP Considerations <ul><li>Logistic considerations are very important to the formulation of a product. Many retail outlets are open and suffer very harsh temperature variations, which may not be very kind to many different types of products, especially emulsions </li></ul>
    55. 55. Logistic Considerations
    56. 56. Logistic Considerations
    57. 57. Concept and Prototype Generation <ul><li>Concept and Prototype Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>a) Can the product meet organisational expectations? </li></ul><ul><li>b) If not, what compromises are acceptable? </li></ul><ul><li>c) Where can I source raw materials and obtain good technical support? </li></ul><ul><li>d) What type of product system is best suited to the application? </li></ul><ul><li>e) Can product objectives be achieved within company unit cost expectations? </li></ul>
    58. 58. Concept and Prototype Generation <ul><li>Can the product meet organisational expectations? If not, what compromises are acceptable? </li></ul><ul><li>What is realistic? </li></ul><ul><li>Period of negotiation and explanation </li></ul>
    59. 59. Concept and Prototype Generation <ul><li>Where can I source raw materials and obtain good technical support? </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of suppliers very important </li></ul><ul><li>Price is not necessarily the most important criteria in selecting a supplier </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers can do a lot of your work </li></ul>
    60. 60. Concept and Prototype Generation <ul><li>What type of product system is best </li></ul><ul><li>suited to the application? </li></ul><ul><li>Different systems can create the same </li></ul><ul><li>product </li></ul>
    61. 61. Gel Type Air Freshener Systems
    62. 62. Gel Air Freshener Systems <ul><li>Carrageenan CMC Di-limonene Co-polymers </li></ul><ul><li>Hot heat reversible High grade CMC Sodium stearate/ Newly developed </li></ul><ul><li>System, strengthened di-limonene soap co-polymers </li></ul><ul><li>With other gums </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to Manufacture Require very precise Easy to Manufacture Non-reversible </li></ul><ul><li>Hot Process manufacturing Hot Process heat process </li></ul><ul><li>proc. cold process </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Kiwi Brands SC Johnsons Glade Various local car Japanese Brands/ </li></ul><ul><li>products R&C Products </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap, versatile, Difficult manufacturing Does not dissipate Beautiful clear gels </li></ul><ul><li>Long term stability process, but can contain fully, grave expensive unit cost </li></ul><ul><li>Problems fine fragrances fragrance limitations </li></ul>
    63. 63. Formulation Systems <ul><li>Johnson & Johnson Clean & Clear Oil Controlling Astringent </li></ul><ul><li>Active Ingredients: Salicylic acid 0.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Base ingredients: Water, Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Ingredients: Glycerin, PPG-5- </li></ul><ul><li>Ceteth 20, </li></ul><ul><li>Eucalyptus oil, Benzoic </li></ul><ul><li>acid, camphor, </li></ul><ul><li>peppermint oil, Clove </li></ul><ul><li>oil </li></ul><ul><li>Presevatives: Benzophenone-4, Denatonium Benzoate </li></ul><ul><li>Dye: Yes </li></ul>
    64. 64. Concept and Prototype Generation <ul><li>Can product objectives be achieved within company unit cost expectations? </li></ul><ul><li>You get what you pay for </li></ul><ul><li>Vary active levels </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Ingredients can </li></ul><ul><li>become ascetic ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>Fragrance is the most expensive material, can vary dosage or quality </li></ul>
    65. 65. Concept and Prototype Generation <ul><li>Another Alternative (This is the skill of a good development chemist) </li></ul><ul><li>Look for alternative materials within the </li></ul><ul><li>system </li></ul><ul><li>If that doesn’t work, </li></ul><ul><li>Look for another system </li></ul>
    66. 66. Formulating the Prototype <ul><li>Project confirmed by Product manager </li></ul><ul><li>Product Profile will be given (wish list) </li></ul><ul><li>Review and evaluate functional aspects of product </li></ul><ul><li>Review and evaluate ascetic aspects of the product </li></ul><ul><li>in many cases you can satisfy desired marketing strategies with ascetics </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to source materials required (this is the hardest job) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a system profile </li></ul>
    67. 67. The Search for Raw Materials <ul><li>Don’t underestimate the time required </li></ul><ul><li>Read literature, trade magazines and journals </li></ul><ul><li>Read through all the trade show and conference materials you store </li></ul><ul><li>Look at patents </li></ul><ul><li>See suppliers but don’t necessarily limit the search through suppliers to the cosmetic industry </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the Merck Index handy </li></ul>
    68. 68. Formulating Considerations <ul><li>Formulation is an art as much as it is a science </li></ul><ul><li>Processes and blending are a critical part of formulating </li></ul><ul><li>Think, try, think, try, think, try, then ask advice, then think, try again </li></ul>
    69. 69. General Formulating Hints <ul><li>Saponification has to be a though process, otherwise there will be uneven neutralisation of acids, leaving free acids. This can lead to discolouration and even separation </li></ul><ul><li>The saponification process influences what materials can be added in what order </li></ul>
    70. 70. General Formulating Hints <ul><li>Allowance have to be made for natural heating processes and colouration. Impurities tend to influence this. </li></ul><ul><li>Raw materials differ in specifications and qualities and adjustments have to be made for this </li></ul>
    71. 71. General Formulating Hints <ul><li>Remember the production procedure has to be manageable and operated by shopfloor personal. If you are developing a complex procedure, break it down into parts. </li></ul>
    72. 72. General Formulating Hints <ul><li>Each raw material will have an effect on another. Some chemicals combined create colouration, odouration, vary viscosities, combine with free agents and cause precipitation, or in drastic cases, splitting. It is essential to be aware of these effects. In many cases it is experience rather than theoretical knowledge that we learn these reactions </li></ul>
    73. 73. General Formulating Hints <ul><li>Choosing Surfactants </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>a) cleaning performance </li></ul><ul><li>b) Storage stability </li></ul><ul><li>c) Viscosity </li></ul><ul><li>d) Foam generation </li></ul><ul><li>e) Consumer safety </li></ul><ul><li>f) Aesthetic appeal </li></ul>
    74. 74. General Formulating Hints <ul><li>Most cases have to use two because no single surfactant can provide all of the characteristics required </li></ul><ul><li>Choose from non-ionic and anionic or amphoteric </li></ul><ul><li>Non-ionics tend to be harsh and need a softer surfactant </li></ul><ul><li>There are also synergistic effects from using two surfactants </li></ul>
    75. 75. Example: Shampoo <ul><li>Primary Surfactant usually anionic </li></ul><ul><li>Lauryl sulphates will differ in their characteristics depending on the neutralising base </li></ul>
    76. 76. Lauyl Sulphate: Effect of different neutralising bases <ul><li>Sodium Ammonian MonoEA DEA TEA </li></ul><ul><li>Lauryl Sulphate Lauryl Sulphate Lauryl Sulphate Lauryl Sulphate Lauryl Sulphate </li></ul><ul><li>Solubility Increases </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity Decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Cold Storage Improves </li></ul><ul><li>Mildness Increases </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Increases </li></ul>
    77. 77. Secondary Surfactants <ul><li>Characteristics of primary surfactant will be modified by secondary surfactant </li></ul><ul><li>Three general types to choose from: </li></ul><ul><li>a) alkyl (amino) betaines </li></ul><ul><li>b) alkanolamides </li></ul><ul><li>c) Amine oxides </li></ul>
    78. 78. Effects of Secondary Surfactants on formulations <ul><li>Main Features Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Alkyl (amino) Mildness </li></ul><ul><li>Betaines Foam Stability Price </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity Building </li></ul><ul><li>Amine Oxides Mildness </li></ul><ul><li>Foam Stability Price </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity Building </li></ul><ul><li>Alkanolamides Foam Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity Building Less Mild </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul>
    79. 79. Formulating Fragrance into the Product <ul><li>Making up little more than 1.0% of the formulation, fragrance is up to 70% the cost of the product formulation </li></ul><ul><li>Fragrance part of brand image both overtly and sublimely in the product </li></ul><ul><li>Fragrance compounding is a very specialised industry, so in 99% of cases fragrances are purchased, rather than manufactured by consumer product manufacturers </li></ul>
    80. 80. Formulating Fragrance into the Product <ul><li>Usually a fragrance house is given a product brief outlining the objectives of the proposed new product. </li></ul><ul><li>The product brief will contain: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Product and intended use </li></ul><ul><li>b) Position in Market </li></ul><ul><li>c) Expectations from fragrance </li></ul><ul><li>d) Scent profile required </li></ul><ul><li>e) Production process anticipated for finished product </li></ul><ul><li>f) Expected process temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>g) Materials used in formulation </li></ul><ul><li>h) required cost/kg </li></ul><ul><li>i) dosage level </li></ul>
    81. 81. Formulating Fragrance into the Product <ul><li>Fragrance companies are a major source of development work in a new product. </li></ul><ul><li>Before making submissions, they should test stability, colouration, effectiveness, overall appeal. </li></ul>
    82. 82. Formulating Fragrance into the Product <ul><li>Fragrances basically constructed with base notes, middle notes and top notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Base notes are the least volatile and top notes are the most volatile </li></ul><ul><li>Aroma chemicals and essential oils have different flash and boiling points. This is a great consideration in selecting the right fragrance for a new product </li></ul>
    83. 83. Formulating Fragrance into the Product <ul><li>Dishwashing liquids will have fragrances made up of mainly middle and top notes so there is no residual fragrance on dishes after washing </li></ul><ul><li>Laundry liquids will have lots of base and middle notes so they can survive a hot water wash </li></ul><ul><li>Gel air fresheners will have lots of base and middle notes to survive a hot production process. If the manufacture of a gel doesn’t use heat then more top notes can be incorporated into the fragrance </li></ul>
    84. 84. Efficacy Testing <ul><li>New products will require some efficacy testing for presentation to the marketing arm of the organisation and in many cases (Thai & Vietnam FDA’s) product registration. If the product is a cosmetic or insecticide, efficacy information will have to be submitted at registration </li></ul>
    85. 85. Efficacy Testing <ul><li>Depending on the product, different tests are required. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes we have to invent our own methods for unusual products like ant and cockroach repellents and then convince the FDA to accept the results. </li></ul>
    86. 86. Efficacy Testing <ul><li>Standard tests for a shampoo would be as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Salon </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer </li></ul>
    87. 87. Laboratory Evaluation <ul><li>Objective characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Anionic wash activity –methylene blue test </li></ul><ul><li>Catatonic substance determination </li></ul><ul><li>Solids content – Dry residue or refractometer </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity –Brookfield </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>- Ross Miles foam height test </li></ul><ul><li>- Draves-Shapiro tape wetting test </li></ul>
    88. 88. Salon Evaluation <ul><li>Assessment on half head test against a benchmark </li></ul><ul><li>Various samples tested at one time </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation given on rinse/combing/creaminess/fragrance </li></ul>
    89. 89. Consumer Testing <ul><li>Tested against a consumer profile </li></ul><ul><li>Undertaken through a workshop </li></ul><ul><li>In-House </li></ul>
    90. 90. Product Registration <ul><li>Product Registration has become much more strict around the world in the last 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>Next year all new products, including household cleaning require registration </li></ul><ul><li>Most countries have FDA type organisations </li></ul>
    91. 91. Product Registration <ul><li>Generally the following registrations are required: </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmetics – registration through the Dept. Health </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticides – registration through the Department of Agriculture </li></ul>
    92. 92. Cosmetics and Therapeutic Goods <ul><li>What is required dependent on the class of goods </li></ul><ul><li>Main criteria determining the class of goods is the claims made on the product </li></ul><ul><li>Another criteria is the substances the product contains </li></ul>
    93. 93. Cosmetics and Therapeutic Goods <ul><li>Basic Criteria Examined </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>Efficacy according to claims made </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>GMP </li></ul>
    94. 94. Insecticides <ul><li>Through Dept Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Fall under definition of an insecticide </li></ul><ul><li>a) specifically declared to be an agricultural chemical product </li></ul><ul><li>b) Contents of Formulation </li></ul><ul><li>c) Claims made about the product </li></ul>
    95. 95. Packaging Design <ul><li>As during the MPP phase the same considerations apply, but these must be tested for stability using various techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation is compatible with proposed packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Considerations here for the formulator are: </li></ul><ul><li>Is the nature of the product compatible with the proposed packaging? </li></ul><ul><li>What product bulk densities will be required? </li></ul><ul><li>Can the product be filled efficiently during production? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the proposed packaging effect product stability? </li></ul>
    96. 96. Packaging Design <ul><li>PVC materials are extremely susceptible to high alkalis and solvents </li></ul><ul><li>Some formulations that release gases over time (bleach) must have some an outlet to equalise pressure with the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Synerethesis can occur in gels and create moisture leakage </li></ul><ul><li>Clear packaging will change some overtime dyes by allowing constant UV light to effect product </li></ul>
    97. 97. Manufacturing System Design <ul><li>Major Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Is the proposed manufacturing process compatible with the formulation? </li></ul><ul><li>Will a new process need to be engineered and developed? </li></ul><ul><li>What modifications to the product formula will have to be made, if any? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of filling equipment is needed? </li></ul>
    98. 98. Is the proposed manufacturing process compatible with the formulation? Powders <ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk densities </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture in powder products </li></ul>
    99. 99. Powders – Dry Blending
    100. 100. Powders – Dry Blending <ul><li>Advantages – Low investment </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages – large particle size </li></ul><ul><li>high moisture content </li></ul><ul><li>Limits to amount of </li></ul><ul><li>liquids that can be </li></ul><ul><li>incorporated </li></ul>
    101. 101. Powders – Spray Drying
    102. 102. Powders – Spray Drying <ul><li>Advantages – uniform product </li></ul><ul><li>Low moisture content </li></ul><ul><li>Soft fluffy feel </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage – massive investment </li></ul>
    103. 103. Liquids <ul><li>Various forms of mixers are used for manufacturing different products, depending on characteristics </li></ul>
    104. 104. Gate Mixer
    105. 105. Gate Mixer <ul><li>Viscous Liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Do not want aeration </li></ul><ul><li>Some Saponifications </li></ul>
    106. 106. Centrifugal Mixer
    107. 107. Centrifugal Mixer <ul><li>Low viscous liquids where aeration is not an issue </li></ul><ul><li>Products with high percentage of solvents </li></ul>
    108. 108. Filling Equipment
    109. 109. Packaging
    110. 110. Good Manufacturing Practice <ul><li>GMP is a set of guidelines for the manufacture of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactured and imported products have to comply with set standards and procedures </li></ul>
    111. 111. Marketing Review <ul><li>This is the time when target markets are focused upon and minor modifications to packaging or formulation may be made because of panel testing </li></ul>
    112. 112. Test Market <ul><li>Test Marketing in a domestic market is very rare today: </li></ul><ul><li>- concentration of retailers </li></ul><ul><li>- companies tend to have regional or </li></ul><ul><li>global product strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Test markets tend to be in a region or number of countries before a regional or global launch is made </li></ul>
    113. 113. Refining Product Before Major Launch <ul><li>When products have been tested in a single country or region, there will be final refining of the product before major launch </li></ul><ul><li>These refinements have more to do with different markets, than technical issues </li></ul><ul><li>Fragrances may be modified to suit a particular market </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging changes may be modified </li></ul><ul><li>Branding may be changed </li></ul><ul><li>Some raw materials may be changed due to local regulations or availability or cost factor </li></ul>
    114. 114. Attributes of a Good Cosmetic Chemist <ul><li>Has initiative to conceptualise new product systems </li></ul><ul><li>Is well read and conversed with raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Understands strengths and limitations of various raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Continually surveys market, environment and industry for new developments </li></ul><ul><li>Willing to undertake laborious lab work </li></ul><ul><li>Able to take a market orientation when developing products </li></ul><ul><li>Able to communicate effectively to others within the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Is well versed in manufacturing processes </li></ul><ul><li>Understands product costing and able to formulate accordingly </li></ul>
    115. 115. Why do Companies Need New Product development? <ul><li>Regulations change forcing product changes </li></ul><ul><li>Disallowing of phenols required change to QACs </li></ul><ul><li>Banning of paraquats in herbicides </li></ul>
    116. 116. Why do Companies Need New Product development? <ul><li>Lifestyles are continually changing </li></ul><ul><li>Rural/urban drift decreased need for mosquito coils </li></ul><ul><li>Less time at home and health developed consumer interest in Shower gels </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in leisure activities and awareness of skin cancer developed demand for sunscreens </li></ul>
    117. 117. Why do Companies Need New Product development? <ul><li>To improve their market positioning and market-share </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t necessarily want new products, want enhancements to claim benefits over competitors </li></ul>
    118. 118. An Enhancement?
    119. 119. Another Enhancement?
    120. 120. New technologies Require new Product Development <ul><li>New Technologies which lead to new chemicals can force companies to develop new formultions </li></ul><ul><li>Materials are less toxic </li></ul><ul><li>Materials are cheaper </li></ul><ul><li>Materials perform better </li></ul>
    121. 121. Changing Fragrance Technology <ul><li>Illustration of ‘Lily of the Valley’ Fragrance 1800’s to present day </li></ul><ul><li>19 th Century Present </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberose Extract 21oz Hydroxycitronellal 35.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Jasmin Extract 3oz Rhodinol 18.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Rose Extract 2oz Linalool 14.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Orange Flower Extract 2oz Phenyl Ethyl Alcohol 12.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Spirit of Rose 2oz Geraniol 4.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Essence of Vanilla 2oz Di Methyl Benzyl Cabinal </li></ul><ul><li>Ylang Ylang No. 1 ½ oz Acetate 4.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Bergamot ½ oz Amyl Cinnamic aldehyde 3.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Boi de Rose Extract ¼ oz Lillial (Giv) 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Iso Eugenol 0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Phenylacetaldhyde DA 0.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Benyzl Benzoate 4.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Indole (10% sol.) 1.0 </li></ul>
    122. 122. Product Evolution <ul><li>There a predictable product evolution in every category, governed by changing technology, consumer tastes and lifestyles and supermarkets increasing cost of shelf space </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of new products come out of this evolution and travel from one international market to another </li></ul>
    123. 123. The Laundry Cleaning Family Tree <ul><li>1800’s blau R&C </li></ul><ul><li>1850’s Soap Bars P&G </li></ul><ul><li>1920’s Soap Powder Persil – P&G </li></ul><ul><li>1950’s Detergent Powder Tide – P&G </li></ul><ul><li>1970’s Low Built Laundry Liquids AURA – R&C </li></ul><ul><li>1980’s Fully Built Laundry Liquid Dynamo – Colgate </li></ul><ul><li>Mid 80’s Concentrated Laundry Powder Dynamo –Colgate </li></ul><ul><li>2002 Ultra Liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Failed Evolution – Laundry Detergent Tablets </li></ul>
    124. 124. UKM’s New Cosmetic Chemists?

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