Organizational culture


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Organizational Culture lecture

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Organizational culture

  1. 1. Organizational Culture<br />Lecture 4<br />
  2. 2. A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way you perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems.<br />-Schein (2006)<br />Definition<br />
  3. 3. Culture a phenomenon that surrounds us all. <br />Culture helps us understand how meaning is created, embedded, developed, manipulated, managed, and changed. <br />Culture defines leadership and leadership defines culture. <br />Understand the culture to understand the organization (This is one method).<br />Importance as a tool for looking at organizations<br />
  4. 4. Culture is a story<br />Theories in action verses Espoused<br />Stories, myths, heroes, artifacts, informal behaviours<br />Norms and group behaviour<br />Organisational learning (single or double looped<br />Productivity & effectiveness<br /> Leadership<br />
  5. 5. Find The Dimensions<br />Innovate --------------------------Avoid mistakes<br />Think long term--------------------Live for today<br />Save money----------------Spend for the future<br />Work by oneself---------------Work as a group<br />Be flexible------------- Follow rules and norms<br />Collaborate-------------------------------Compete<br />Make your own decisions---Make joint decisions<br />Are there any others?<br />
  6. 6. Organisational Culture Check List<br />Communications (see also “Words”)<br />Attitude towards<br />Frequency<br />How are strangers greeted<br />Style<br />Use of language<br />Preferred modes?<br />Most common modes?<br />Written or verbal?<br />E-mail or memo?<br />Telephone or face to face?<br />Acceptable ways of offering opinion<br />Impassioned arguing?<br />Rational debate?<br />Shouting acceptable?<br />
  7. 7. Deviancy<br />Is non-normative behaviour admired or deprecated?<br />Are ‘fools’ and ‘tricksters’ celebrated?<br />Formally or informally?<br />Groups and networks<br />Formal or informal<br />Rumour & gossip rate<br />Sanctioned or illegitimate<br />Strength of grapevine<br />
  8. 8. History<br />Attitudes to history<br />Attitudes to past folk heroes & villains<br />Lots of stories? Told in public or told in corridors?<br />Organisation myths<br />Home and work<br />Attitudes towards child care<br />Role of spouse<br />What is the policy towards domestic crises?<br />How are domestic crises actually dealt with?<br />More flexible than policy?<br />
  9. 9. Meetings<br />How are new members (employees) assimilated<br />How often<br />Setting<br />Shape of table<br />Who attends<br />Who sits where<br />Who speaks<br />
  10. 10. Rewards and recognition<br />Basis of reward<br />Individual-based<br />Team-based<br />Organisation-based<br />Indicators of status—grade or salary?<br />Private bonus system<br />Public reward?<br />Titles<br />Salesman of month, etc.<br />
  11. 11. Space, use of<br />Allocation of office space<br />Decor an indicator of social structure?<br />Location an indicator of social structure?<br />e.g. ‘top’ management at top of building?<br />Size an indicator of social structure?<br />Indicators in open plan:<br />Higher partitions?<br />Some offices?<br />Labelling—how easy is it for stranger to find a specific person<br />Analogue of ease of entry to organisation?<br />Mapping of function or process to space?<br />Open plan vs. individual offices<br />Public vs private space:<br />Use of toilets<br />“Executive washroom”?<br />Shared toilets?<br />State of building—clean, in need of decoration, etc<br />
  12. 12. Time<br />Attitudes to time<br />Busy, busy or relaxed?<br />Attitude to past and future<br />Emphasis on planning<br />Punctuality—virtue or vice?<br />
  13. 13. Words<br />Jargon<br />Indicator of boundary strength<br />Subgroups using jargon?<br />Modes of address<br />Different to clients?<br />First name to all?<br />Mr upward, first name downward?<br />Sir?<br />Terms of address; terms of reference<br />Treatment of women different from men?<br />Sexual innuendo?<br />Harassment?<br />Pinups?<br />Sexual joking?<br />Swear words?<br />
  14. 14. Dress code<br />Formal or informal?<br />How rigidly enforced<br />Are there ‘dress down’ days? How are they treated?<br />How do people dress for off-site meetings?<br />What differentiators—how many classes?<br />for example:<br />Uniforms for security<br />Casual for operations<br />Two piece suits for middle managers<br />Three piece suits for senior managers<br />Fixtures & fittings<br />Office furniture—expensive or cheap?<br />Differences due to status or function?<br />Do managers have chairs with arms and high backs?<br />Are some areas carpeted? Why?<br />Decor—bright? Dowdy?<br />Level of maintenance and decorative order<br />
  15. 15. Our exercise over next week:<br />Watch “The Devil Wears Prada”<br />Consider according to guidelines<br />Come up with group presentation on:<br />a) what are the important values<br />b) What are the beliefs people at “Runway Magazine have?<br />c) What are their basic assumptions?<br />d) What would it be like to work there?<br />e) What are the sources of stress and how do people cope?<br />