Organizational behaviour Perception & Cognition, lecture two


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Organizational behaviour lecture two - perception & cognition

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  • Our brain can only recognize one piece of data at a single time.
  • Try to say each colour ignoring what is written you will find a cognitive conflict between the word and the colour.
  • Organizational behaviour Perception & Cognition, lecture two

    1. 1. Organizational behaviourSensory Perception & Cognition Lecture 2
    2. 2. Sensory Perception and Cognition
    3. 3. What is reality? Its relative not absolute
    4. 4. External Stimuli Perceptual Cognition Environmental energy Inputs Conversion of environmental energy to neural Receptors Eye-electromagnetic energy, impulses photoreceptors (primary visual cortex) Various parts of Ear-air waves, mechanoreceptors memory that (Auditory cortex) Sensory Store hold unanalyzed Tactile/haptic-tissue distortion, skin, receptor input. (somatosensory cortex) Tongue-aromatic chemicals, mechanoreceptors, (organoleptic and olfactory cortex) The attention Attentionmechanism selects and blocks Mechanism Visual/spatial, auditory, haptic, perceptual olfactory, organoleptic and information for motoristicpattern recognition. Pattern Recognition Recognizes and determines which Also includes information a smell, taste and person will use and Visual Phonological sensations. remember. Perception Selection Where information is patterned recognition and and sequences in a way our mind interpretation. self organizes. Patterning Bias A working limited capacity memory carrying out the functions of rehearsal, coding, decisions and strategies. Temporary Mental Cognition Decision Psychotic, Working (Short Output MakingBehavioral and Term) Memory Responses Processes Cognitive Distortion Heuristics, Long term storage memory where short term memory Overview of the Long Term biases and other Memory retrieves and deposits information. cognitive process influencingmechanisms. (Arrows represent neural transmissions)
    5. 5. Out brain can onlyprocess one pieceof information at a time
    6. 6. Yellow Blue Orange Black Red Green Purple Yellow Red Orange Green Black Blue Red Purple Green Blue OrangeTry to say each colour ignoring what is written you will find a cognitive conflict between theword and the colour.
    7. 7. Neural Cell Structure
    8. 8. Visual Input Feature Word level Letter Level Level Memory Three cognitive strategies to determine the meaning of writing
    9. 9. • Teh tree fell dwon the side of teh hill• Evrybody msut stduy to pass the exams This is why we can still comprehend the sentences above
    10. 10. Emotions influence our decisions before reasoning, a leftover from our primal existence.
    11. 11. Is it rationality or emotion you that makes you decide to buy a car like this?
    12. 12. Perceptual InformationPerceptual Biases (Discussed in chapter) Memory Reasoning
    13. 13. Memory Truth Knowledge Belief ImaginationFigure 4.5. Our Prior knowledge is made up ofboth truth and beliefs.
    14. 14. Why do we buy fine fragrances?
    15. 15. Figure 1. The olfactory interpretation process from input to response.
    16. 16. Heaven Strategy (Dan Hill 2010) High More More negative/high positive/highe response r responseResponse Rate More More negative/lower positive/lower response Low response Negative Positive Emotional Response
    17. 17. Mental Cognition
    18. 18. Working Memory Function Control (Controlled Attention) Maintains task goals in working memory, selects actions, maintains task information during distraction and suppresses irrelevant information. Controlled attention of information blocks interference and prevents decay. Activates retrieval of information from long term memory Encodes and sends information for storage in long term memory Plays major role in logical reasoning and decision making Working Memory StoreVisual-spatial Interface between environment and long term memory Phonological Processing Maintains information above the threshold Processing Allows loss or decay of information below threshold Long Term memory
    19. 19. “Run Throughs” Fix Start Blocks Change shoes Jogging Fast sprints Size up Warm up competitors Practice starts Pre-Start Stretching Call up Take off Relax track suit Running a 100m race Wait for Dip at line Stand behind call up blocks Final acceleration Slow Attention to finish line down Get on marks Whistle Race Call to marks Accelerate hard Start first part Call to set Run relax and coastScript ‘Explode off Gun Set position blocks’
    20. 20. A Metaphoric View of a Relational Memory Network.
    21. 21. Learning New ExperiencePresent feelings & New feelings & emotions emotions Created Interpretation Experience unableExisting Schema to coordinate new Modified Schema experience with(Prior Knowledge) existing schema Use of metaphor to understand and solve problems If solved will lead to reinforcement of existing schema Time The cognitive process of learning
    22. 22. Experience introduces feeling & emotion to learning
    23. 23. Cognitive Tools Personal Desires The ongoing story construct Perceptual Biases Environmental Potential Scenarios 1 Information Narrative 2 3 Prior Knowledge 4 Concept + + Organizational Goals Visual Spatial Consistent with personal and organizational goals, New in accordance with prior knowledge, enhanced Knowledge Developed Idea with new knowledge and developed and verified with various cognitive tools.The Cognitive Thinking Process and Idea Evolution
    24. 24. Experience Attribute SubstitutionIncreasing Availability Word of Heuristics Mouth Media Reports Fallacies Intuition Misconceptions Data Potential Creativity Information Abstract Process Inferences (Circumvents knowledge logic & perception) Faulty or invalid premises Cognitive Wisdom Biases Ideas Decision Reasoning Making Strategy Increasing Usefulness Summary of factors influencing our thinking
    25. 25. Narrative gives meaning – without narrative there is no meaning
    26. 26. World and work experience, education, culture, family upbringing, etc. Personal Paradigms Skills Behavior Alertness Influencers Motivation The Psych Prior Knowledge Sense of self. ego, encoded Perception Strategic Outcomes assumptions, Outlook beliefs and values. Personality Feedback Creativity Expectations, goals, Traits self regulating Propensity restraints, etc. to Action Talents and Motivational Abilities Trigger Interpersonal Idea GAP “What I do” “How I feel” “Who I am” A Trigger External event or Situation internal feelingsFigure 3.32. The Potential Socio-psycho Factors that Influence OpportunityDiscovery and Behavior.
    27. 27. Creativity Tool Cognitive Skill Knowledge (vocabulary) of odorous substances Imagination Olfactory sensitivity Knowledge of potential strengths, weaknesses and applications of odorous materials Knowledge of Curiosity, enquiry outstanding and Perfumer fragrance creations experimentation Excellence within the domain Practical knowledge & experience Process & Interest and Product passion Time, patience, perseverance Emotion Knowledge BaseFigure 4.1. Creativity is Domain Specific: The elements of creativity for aperfumer
    28. 28. Field Dependence-Independence Perception Embedded Figures Test (EFT) Witkin 1954, 1973, 1977
    29. 29. New Economic PollutionParadigms Growth Fossil Fuels Export/Import Transport Farm Raw materials Transport Government Power Production Transport Diversity generation Warehouse Management Supermarket Conflict Research & Community Development Consumption Education Regulation Competition & Tension Air Transport Poverty & Unhappiness Development Waste Health Uncertainty Do we view the environment as a system or focus on something?
    30. 30. What can you remember with once glimpse?
    31. 31. We view the world through field dependence or independence
    32. 32. Left Hand SideSequential processing, A to b to C Right Hand SideLooks at facts and detailed informationSplits the world into concrete and Holistic processing, big pictureidentifiable categories orientatedLogical cause and effect reasoning Visual and spatialLinear thinking from task to task Looks at the whole rather than piecesFollows on pre-existing fixed rules Analogic: sees similarities andMaths and science resemblancesStatistically inclined Feelings and emotional thoughtSystematic appraisal Philosophy and religionThinks in words and language Thinks in imagesUtilizes the concept of time, past and Transformativepresent IntuitiveObjective reality based Looks for relationships, patterns, makesLogically strategizes associationsSplits things apart Looks for unbounded connectionsKnows Lumps things together: connectorAcknowledges ImaginationReality based Present and future orientatedRealistic Looks at possibilitiesSafety, risk adverse Uses symbols and images Believes Appreciates Fantasy based Impetuous Adventurous, risk taker
    33. 33. Ways to Develop Left and Right Hemisphere Skills Left Hemisphere Skills Right Hemisphere Skills1. Step by step planning 1. Using metaphors & of your work and life activities analogies to describe things2. Reading philosophy 2. Taking off your watch3. Establishing timetables when you are not working for all your activities 3. Listening to music4. Using and working with 4. Suspending your a computer program initial judgment of ideas, people TV shows etc 5. Recording your hunches, feelings, and intuitions and calculating their accuracy 6. Detailed fantasizing and visualising things and situations in the future 7. Drawing faces, caricatures and landscapes
    34. 34. The Four Part Brain 3. Rational 4. Emotional 1. Sensory 2. Visual
    35. 35. The concept of creative intelligence New Ideas Unknown Opportunities Surrounding Developing Strategies Environment Solving Problems “Domain” &“Field” Environmental Environmental Factors conducive Factors that to creativity hinder creativity Internal Influencing Perception Factors Motivational Focus & Attention Trigger Creative Patterning Awareness Sensitivity Energy Source of Emotion Prior intelligence & Curiosity Knowledge Thinking Patterned Thinking Empathy Processes Processes Confidence (Self Organizing Discipline System) Interest Memory Passion Heuristics Applied Thinking Belief Tools, Imagination Manifestations & Fantasy Elaborations Domain & Field Experience Acceptance/ Tacit Knowledge Rejection Creative Product
    36. 36. Personality
    37. 37. Thinking IntroversionSensation Intuition Extroversion Feeling
    38. 38. Table 3.20. Some Traits and Characteristics of the Ego-Functions.Extroversion IntroversionExpressive, outgoing, energized by things, people Quiet, shy, energized by ideas, feelings andand events, act or speak before they think, share impressions, think before they speak, reluctant toinformation easily, prefer the company of others, share information, prefer to be left alone, caneasily distracted, have a lot of friends, uninhibited, concentrate well, have a small close group oflike working in groups, easily approachable, like friends, inhibited socially, like to work alone, prefermeeting new people, develop ideas through to keep to themselves, ideas come from thinkingdiscussion. alone.Thinking FeelingValue facts and figures, look for the truth, use logic Value harmony, use personal feelings in makingand reasoning to make decisions, driven by decisions, passionate about issues, empathetic withrationality, notice wrong reasoning and illogical people, merciful, takes things personally, subjective,thinking in arguments, speak their mind, firm with prefers a warm friendly atmosphere, thin-skinned.people, use justice in speaking with others, can beseen as cold and heartless, impersonal, objective,critical, prefers a logical impersonal atmosphere,thick-skinned.Sensation IntuitionFocused on the physical world, live by their senses, Focused on the mental or spiritual world, usesconcrete, interested in ‘what is’, realistic, practical, hunches and gut feeling, abstract, interested in whatunderstands details and particulars, sees only the can be, idealistic, imaginative, understands meaningobvious, down to earth, uses words literally, lives in and generalities, looks beyond the surface, head inthe present, needs evidence and facts, traditional and the clouds, deep thinker, uses metaphors, analogiessimple, sees the trees instead of the forest. and hidden meanings, lives in the future, speculative and theoretical, original and complex, and sees the big picture.
    39. 39. There are so many ways to define personality
    40. 40. The External World The Conscious World Usually seen as one The Personal Unconscious The Collective Unconscious Archetypes Anima/Animus (opposite sex qualities)The Shadow (Denied and Suppressing Psychic Material) Patterning The Persona (Self Image) The Ego Consciousness Jung’s personality The Transcended Self Archetypes
    41. 41. Personality Situation/Life ExperienceSense and view of theworld & realityInner drive- aggressive/destructive- sensitive/appreciative Filter ExternalObtainment strategies Ego Mechanism StimuliLibidinal love for outsideworld/internal world ConceptSelf confidenceResponsibility InfluencesAccountability AttentionDrive/Courage Capacity to Synthesize Discipline Motivation Feelings & Defense Thoughts Emotions Mechanisms Desires The role of ego in cognition
    42. 42. Based on experience, awareness, Thinking Typologies reflection, mixed emotion and imagination, very intuitive based The basis of our skills and thinking. Useful for strategic and abilities used alone or Wisdom visionary thinking and solving supplement other thinking (emotion & problems based on past patterns. typologies (our most primitive experience) Can be and is influenced by G and type of thinking) – wider than MI – more right hemisphere but Gardner’s MI uses both Memory Emotive General Multiple Instinctive Knowledge Intelligence Intelligences Solution Application (Memory & I) Connective FluidityFrontal lobe and coordinatedright/left hemisphere thinking. Canbe greatly enhanced using specific Mainly developed academiccognitive tools that can be learned. Cognitive processing learning which creates formalCan be supplemented by other (creativity) knowledge. This formalthinking typologies. Heavy use knowledge can supplementimagination/metaphor/symbolic. other thinking typologies as it isProblem solving & creating new fairly useless on its own. – leftideas hemisphere
    43. 43. Empathy ExerciseSome people don’t realize we are doing destructive things that hurt others [67]. Sometimes this hurt can lead to grave and serious illness. If we switch our self from the usual “I am” to a different viewpoint, i.e., the feeling of being superior, equal, or inferior to another, from one of these viewpoints we can generate new sets of emotions. For example, if we take a superior view point to others we may generate intensive highhandedness. If we view others as equals we may generate feelings of jealousy and competitiveness, and if we view others from an inferior position, we may generate feelings of jealousy and envy. This helps us see the perspectives of our false sense of ourselves and the source of our behaviours. If we can substitute humility for our emotions (humility does not mean subservience or inferiority), we can see our relationships without the emotional intensities that existed before. We can see our inter- connectiveness, how our actions hurt people, and how we stray from our innate morality.
    44. 44. Listening Exercise• The simple act of listening shows how we sometimes wander through life with a low level of awareness. How many times when someone is speaking to you, are you preoccupied with other things? How often do we daydream when others are speaking? How often do you believe that what you think is right and what the other has to say is not worth listening to? How often are you just waiting for an opportunity to espouse what you think? How often are you just thinking of rebuttals, arguments against what a person is saying rather than actually listening to the content of what they are actually saying? How often are you making judgments about the person speaking or what they are saying? How often are you looking for an opportunity to disagree, agree, or run away? How often are you evaluating and comparing what a person is saying against what you believe? How often do you fail to seek clarification about something you don’t understand? Do you try and control the interaction by trying to dominate the conversation? Our listening habits usually show that our level of personal awareness is low and we are influenced by so much of our own emotion just in the act of listening to someone. This is at the cost of seeing new perspectives and exercising our ability to empathize with others.
    45. 45. • The ability to listen effectively is a powerful tool in developing awareness, empathy, humility, and consequently understand new perspectives. Listening is much more than hearing, it involves being attentive to what others say, observing emotion, behaviour and body language, facial expressions, and fighting off our own internal distractions that lessen of ability to listen. Listening requires much more discipline, attention, and concentration than we expect. Think about it, how much self discipline do we need to really effectively listen to someone? Once we have achieved the discipline, attention, and concentration really needed to listen, we realize how powerful a tool listening is in understanding what a person has to say, and from where emotionally a person is saying it. Listening skills can be developed and refined through active and reflective listening techniques, where the listener repeats, paraphrases and reflects upon what the speaker is saying as a means of clarifying the message that the speaker is intending to convey to us [92].