Gall forming insects, mites and their management

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  • by reducing photosynthesis and seed production, discoloring foliage, changing plant architecture, causing defoliation, branch dieback and rarely plant death
  • Infestation by the gall midge results in severe flower drop, Infestation by the gall midge results in severe flower drop,reduction in yield, fruit size, seed number, production ofmalformed fruits and 42.10 % damage to floral parts in TamilNadu (Rangarajan and Mahadevan, 1974).reduction in yield, fruit size, seed number, production ofmalformed fruits and 42.10 % damage to floral parts in TamilNadu (Rangarajan and Mahadevan, 1974).
  • It prevents leaf buds from poplars, cottonwoods, and aspens are hosts to this mite. produces galls near the ends of new growth that are wrinkled and <1” in dia. They are irregular, lumpy, solid masses of plant tissue.developing into normal leaves and stems aless than one inch in diameter ) is one species prevalent in Nevada. 2.damage male trees by feeding on the blooms and causing galls to form. The galls are large, blackened, 1irregular masses.1. The galls develop on one side of the twig, but eventually encircle the base of the bud or shoot.Young galls are greenish, but older galls are red to brown
  • plants early in the season will allow quick detection and removal. Closely inspect the foliage., plant resistant varieties. Infected leaves and twigs can be pruned off. Burn or bag and dispose of infested tissues in the trash. Trees should be pruned in early spring when the tree is dormant and the mites are overwintering. Heavy infestations can be controlled with insecticides Dormant oil, carbaryl, dicofol, horticultural oils, and insecticidal soaps may be effective.
  • following insecticides are available for professional use at nurseries and should provide some control
  • Host tree has influenced the gall abundance
  • Gall forming insects, mites and their management

    1. 1. 1 Muraghendra P. Ibrahimpur PGS 12 AGR 5769
    2. 2. Contents  What is gall ?  Types of gall  Gall Formers – Insects, mites & others  Importance of galls  Management  Conclusion 2
    3. 3. What is gall ?  ‘Pathologically’ developed cells, tissues or organs of plants  Hypertrophy and hyperplasy  Abnormal growth caused by another organism (Mani, 1964 ; Margaret and Peter, 1996) 3
    4. 4. 4 •Reaction of cambium and other meristematic tissues to stimuli produced by the organisms. • Minute to 2 inches in diameter •As shelter and food source and gives protection form parasites and predators (Mani, 2000)
    5. 5. Modern explanation of gall Abnormal growths of Bacteria and Fungi - Tumours Insect and mite induced ones - Gall (Raman, 2007 ) Actual Causes for Gall formation The organism induces/ produces higher levels of plant growth hormones (Hartley, 1998 ; Byers, 2005) 5
    6. 6. 6 May be pest or may not be •Most are harmless but just look interesting •Damage high value of plants (Mani, 1973 and Buss, 2007)
    7. 7. 7 Can alter resource allocation •Negative effect on the fitness of the plant Decrease the energy allocated to flowering Less energy to reproduction- fewer seeds Fewer and small size rhizomes
    8. 8. General Types  Open Galls  Closed Galls  Simple Galls/ Monothalamous/Unilarval  Compound/ Polythalamous/ Multilarval  Unilocular- With one cavity  Plurilocular-With many cavities 8 (Mani,1973)
    9. 9. Types of Galls Definitions 1. Blistergalls Blister-like swellings of leaves 2. Budgalls Deformities in buds 3. Bullet galls Nearly solid, unicellular or monothalamous galls Looks like bullets 4. Cecidomyia General term applied to any species referring to gall midges 9 Different Types of Galls (Based on Sites)
    10. 10. 5. Erineum Hairy or pile-like by plant mites 6. Flower galls Deformed flowers or masses of flowers 7. Fruit galls Deformity on fruits and seeds 8. Leaf galls Deformations with leaves 9. Leaf spots Marked discoloration rather than swellings or deformation 10. Oak apples Term used for particular familiar large galls on oaks of genus Amphibolips 11. Pouch galls Simple, pouch-like deformities 10
    11. 11. 13. Roly-poly galls Loose, usually oval cell with a large cavity 14. Root galls Galls on roots of plants 15. Rosette galls On bud tip. Generally consist of central cell surrounded by a rosette of partly developed leaves 16. Stem or twig galls Deformations on twigs and stems 17 Subcorticol galls Galls just under the bark of (usually) one side of stem or twig. Irregularly shaped 11 (Ananthakrishan and Raman, 1989)
    12. 12. MajorGallcausingorganisms  Bacteria  Fungi  Virus  Nematodes  Mites  Insects 12
    13. 13. 13 Where we can find insect and mite galls  On leaves  On Petioles  On Flower buds  On flower heads  On Stems  On Barks  On Roots  On Branches
    14. 14. Major Plant Families in which galls are formed  Leguminiaceae  Moraceae  Lauraceae  Combretaceae  Anacardaceae  Cucurbitaceae  Compositae *** Insect galls are becoming economically important especially in perennial ecosystems*** About 80 percent of the gall wasps produce galls specifically on oak trees (Mani, 1973) 14
    15. 15. 15 Insect Specificity to produce Galls Seasonal Abundance Gall development usually begins in the spring and progresses throughout the summer and fall months. ( Raman, 1983 & 2007 ; Varadarasan et al., 1982) 90% - host specific
    16. 16. 16 Fungi and bacterial galls
    17. 17. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, - crown gall 17 Fungus stem gall or "poop gall" on choke cherry (Prunus virginiana). The swollen stems are caused by the fungus Dibotryon morbosum
    18. 18. 18 Major Orders / Families of insects producing galls
    19. 19. 19 Diptera Largest number of gall-making insects Cecidomyiidae(Gall Midges), Trupaneidae , Oscinidae, Agromyzidae Hymenoptera • Majority are in the Cynipidae Gall Wasps Mainly in on oaks • Tenthredinidae, Eurytomidae, • Torymidae and Chalcididae
    20. 20. 20 Lepidoptera More in Tortricidae and Elachistidae Aegeriidae, Tineidae, Olethreutidae, Lavernidae, Pyralididae Thyridadae Homoptera Aphididae, psyllidae, coccidae Coleoptera Curculionidae,Buprestidae,Cerambycidae
    21. 21.  122 species of gall forming insect and mits species were indentified.  91 insect species,31 mite species.  13 alien insects.  Most frequented hosts are Quercus-28 species, Acer -10, Populus-9, Telia-8. Jan Kollar (2011) 21
    22. 22. 22 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Diptera Hymenoptera Homoptera Lepidoptera Coleoptera Acarina More than 13,000 insect species are known to produce galls in trees (Suzuki and Fukushi, 2009)
    23. 23. 23 Number of species of galls related to major fruit crops Number of gall forming species reported on selected fruit crops (Uma and Verghese, 2008) An over view of some plant galls of selected trees in India
    24. 24. 24 Parts of trees affected by galls and the number of species involved in selected tress Leaf Inflorescence Bud Stem Twig Mangifera indica + 20 +5 +3 +2 +1 Syzigium cumini +4 - - +2 - Acacia leucopolea +8 +2 +2 +4 - Pongamia glabra +1 +1 +1 - +2 Dalbergia sissoo +3 +1 - - - (Uma and Verghese, 2008)
    25. 25. Dipteran gall formers 25
    26. 26. Seasonal incidenceof chilligall midge (Asphondyliacapparis Rubsaaman.)and its parasitoids Basavaraj et al.(2011)
    27. 27. Basavaraj et al. (2011)
    28. 28. Mango gall midges Cecidomyiidae(Diptera)  Procontarinia sp. leaf  P. allahabadensis (Grover 1962) leaf  P. amraeomyia (Rao 1950) leaf  P. mangiferae (Felt 1911) leaf, stem  P. mangifoliae (Grover 1965) leaf  P. matteiana Keiffer & Cecconi 1906 leaf  Cecidomyiinae: Lasiopteridi: Lasiopterini  Lasioptera mangiflorae (Grover 1968) flower  [Meunieriella mangiflorae Grover 1968]  Cecidomyiinae: Lasiopteridi: Dasineurini  Dasineura amaramanjarae (Grover 1964) flower  Gephyraulus indica (Grover & Prasad 1965) flower 28Raman et al. (2009) Incidence of mango midge and its control
    29. 29.  Life cycle: EP- 2 to 3 days, LP-7 to 10 days,  PP- 5 to 7 days, pest over the period of Jan- March  Favourable climatic conditions, Temp-24oc,  RH- 60-82%  Symptoms:small raised wrat like galls on leaves,Infested bud develop as along pointed galls.  Management : Cultural control  Chemical control- fenitrothion 0.05%  Bifenthrin @70ml/100L  Biological control: Platygaster sp. Eupelmus sp. Inostemma ocularae Torymus sp. 29 Waqar Ahmed et al. (2005)
    30. 30. 30 Quantitative Estimation of Some Metabolites and Enzymes in Insect induced Leaf Galls of Mangifera indica (Marmit and Sharma, 2008)
    31. 31. 31 Host Plant -Mangifera indica Gall Insect – Amradiplosis allahabadensis at Jaipur, Rajasthan 1.Estimation of total soluble sugar- Phenol sulphuric acid reagent method 2.Estimation of reducing sugar- Miller(1972) 3. Determination of α- amylase activity- by measuring the maltose and other reducing sugar – by 3-5 dinitro salycylic acid calorimetric method of Bernfeld(1955). 4. Estimation of invertase activity- by Harris and Jaffcoat method (1974)
    32. 32. 32 Cont…
    33. 33. variety Mean percent silver shoot Kharif 2004 Kharif 2005 Pooled mean Scor e Ratin g Original transformed Original Transfo rmed Original Transfor med Leimaphou 1.21 6.05 3.62 10.16 2.42 8.11 3 MR Akutphou o.26 2.79 1.22 5.60 0.74 4.20 1 R Ereimaphou 0.68 4.66 1.o5 5.47 0.87 5.07 1 R Sanaphou 1.30 6.26 2.38 8.37 1.84 7.32 3 MR KD-5-2-8 3.08 9.94 4.41 11.62 3.75 10.78 3 MR KD-5-3-14 0.69 4.65 4.28 11.76 2.49 8.21 3 MR WR-3-2-1 0.79 4.91 2.32 8.63 1.55 6.77 1 R RCM-10 1.53 7.05 3.93 11.01 2.73 9.03 3 MR Tamphaphou 0.62 4.73 2.49 8.74 1.56 6.74 3 MR Punshi 0.50 4.02 5.55 12.98 3.03 8.50 3 MR TN-1 16.07 45.09 18.15 50.99 17.11 98.62 7 S 33 Reaction of var . to gall midge occuring under prevailing rice crop ecosystem of Manipur during 2004 and 2005
    34. 34. Incidenceof O.oryzaeandgrainyield indifferentscreenedvar.ofrice duringkharif2004and2005 34 Variety Mean per cent silver shoot 2.48Mean grain yield(t/ha) Leimaphou 2.42(8.11) 3.47 Akutphou 0.74(4.20) 2.78 Ereimaphou 0.87(5.07) 3.23 KD-5-2-8 3.75(10.78) 4.93 KD-5-3-14 2.49(8.21) 4.63 WR-3-2-1 1.55(6.77) 2.49 RCM-10 2.73(9.03) 4.84 Tamphaphou 1.56(6.74) 5.43 Punshi 3.03(8.50) 3.88 TN-1 17.11(48.82) 1.69 Singh et al. (2005)
    35. 35. Effectofnurserytreatment andseedlingrootdiponricegallmidgeinfestationduring khariff,1997and1998 Treatment Dose Mean silver shoot yield 30 DAT 40 DAT 50 DAT 60 DAT q/ha % increased over control Corbofuran 3G(seedling treatment at 45 DBP+ monocrotophosat 45 and 60 DAT) 1.5Kg a.i./ha 0.78 (1.10.) 5.37 (2.40) 5.94 (2.52) 7.33 (2.63) 39.14 21.40 Carbosulphon 5G(seedling treatment at 45 DBP+ monocrotophosat 45 and 60 DAT) 1.5Kg a.i./ha 1.71 (2.81) 7.48 (3.21) 9.94 (3.10) 9.09 37.25 15.54 Isazophos 3G5G(seedling treatment at 45 DBP+ monocrotophosat 45 and 60 DAT) 1.5Kg a.i./ha 2.15 (1.62) 8.67(2.0 1) 9.37 (3.13) 9.06 (3.14) 37.07 14.98 Chloropyriphos 20 EC5G(seedling treatment at 45 DBP+ monocrotophosat 45 and 60 DAT) 0.22% 0.62 (0.97) 4.95 (2.31) 5.75 (2.48) 6.77 (2.51) 39.97 23.98 Monocrotophosat 45 and 60 DAT 1.5Kga.i./ ha 4.65 (3.50) 11.86 (3.83) 14.36(3. 79) 14.57 34.05 5.61 Untreated control 11.46 (2.25) 15.82 (3.45) 17.07 (10.71) 32.24 (4.22) SE(m) 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.09 0.13 0.62 CD 0.05 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.25 0.37 0.37 1.79 Singh et al. (2000)
    36. 36. Rose Pea Gall by gall a wasp (Diplolepis rosae) 36 Hymenopterans gall former Vein Pocket Galls, Macrodiplosis quercusoruca Goldenrod Stem Gall - by the small fly Eurosta solidaginis
    37. 37. 37 Wool-sower Gall on a White Oak twig – seeds like items inside the gall. - by Cynipid Wasp, Callirhytis seminator Horned Oak Gall - by Cynipidae. It is the Horned Oak Gall Wasp, Callirhytis cornigera An "oak apple" gall caused by the gall wasp (Andricus californicus)
    38. 38. 38 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) (Blue gum chalcid)
    39. 39. 39 Severe pest on Eucalyptus – A recent News
    40. 40. 40 Galls development stages Mir samim akthar et al. (2012)
    41. 41. 41 Damage Feeding of larva on tender portion of the plant and releasing oxalic acid, etc. The tiny galls formed on the stem kill the affected portion of the plant - stoppage the apical growth At the side, buds become active - bushy growth of the plant. Photosynthetic activity gets affected. Loss in yield Bio-control- Aprostocetus sp. Megastigmus sp. Kavitha Kumari , 2009
    42. 42. 42 Kavitha Kumari , 2009
    43. 43. Kavita kumari(2009)
    44. 44. Kavitha Kumari , 2009
    45. 45. 46 Petiole Gall on cottonwood trees, by Petiole Gall Aphid Pemphigus populitransversus Hackberry Petiole Gall by Psyllid- Pachypsylla venusta Aphid and Psyllid gall formers Hackberry Nipple Gall – Psyllids- Pachypsylla
    46. 46. 47 Do aphid galls provide good nutrients for the aphids? : Comparison of amino acid concentrations in galls among Tetraneura species (Aphididae: Erisomatinae) Suzuki et al., 2009
    47. 47. 48 Host Plant - Japanese elm - Ulmus davidiana Gall Insect - 6 species of aphids T. yezoensis T.sp.O T. fusiformis T. radicicola T. trianguala T. sorini Control: Intact Leaves Suzuki et al., 2009
    48. 48. 49 Amino Acids Aphid Species T.y T.sp.O T.f T.r T.s T.t Intact Leaves Total (nM) 1422.9 410.7a 1170.5 441.7a 697.4 158.6a 77.0 18.0 b 47.59 14.6b 35.3 80 5.6b Essen tial a.a 113.6 32.6a 91.6 27.6ab 48.3 12.4ab 16.6 4.7bc 10.0 2.8c 3.3 9.1 0.8c #aphi ds* 19.2 2.7 41.3 7.0 18.3 2.6 7.8 0.6 5.8 1.0 7.9 0.5 - Average concentrations( SD) of amino acids found in Tetraneura galls and intact leaves of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica (Control) *- Average no. of second generation aphid per gall Suzuki et al., 2009
    49. 49. 50 Amino Acids Leaf T. y. T.sp. O T. f. T. r. T. t. T. s. Arginine 0.39 8.42 17.84 14.95 0.98 0.45 1.48 Threonine 3.11 57.74 43.03 13.73 4.66 1.74 2.72 Aspergine 2.25 1078.3 835.9 515.0 20.21 1.76 13.93 Glutamic Acids 19.1 39.33 54.63 27.62 7.48 13.17 4.94 Lycine 0.49 1.09 3.42 1.04 1.09 0.59 0.72 Glutamine 2.94 52.77 53.40 14.92 3.22 1.9 1.75 Non Essentials 40.2 115.36 73.75 73.75 27.6 18.4 15.83 Amino acid profiles (averaged nM) Suzuki et al., 2009
    50. 50. 51 Percentage of aspargine , other non-essential and essential amino acids found in Tetraneura galls and intact leaves %age Aspergine %age Non- essential a.a. %age Essential a.a. 7 0 % 30% 3% 70% Suzuki et al., 2009
    51. 51. Lepidopteron gall former Betousa stylophora swinhoe (Thyrididae : lepidoptera). It is specific univoltine pest. (Masarrat et al.,2007) The newly emerged larva penetrates into the new growth of twigs. Typical gall formation –snake chamber flute. 52
    52. 52. InfestationofapicaltwiggallmakerB.stylophoraindifferent varieties/genotypes Variaties/ Genotypes Gall formed twigs(%) No.of galled twigs Anand -1 27.95 b (23.11) 1.47 b (1.68) Guj-aonla-1 31.61 a (28.36) 1.56 a (1.94) Anand-3 26.84 b (21.50) 1.42 bc (1.54) LS-1 21.54 d (14.92) 1.28 ef (1.16) Krishna 19.61 e (12.61) 1.25 fg (1.08) Kanchan 12.93 g (06.70) 1.14 h (0.88) Chakaiya 17.00 f (10.28) 1.19 gh (0.96) LS-2 15.73 f (08.97) 1.18 h (0.96) LS-3 19.79 e (12.75) 1.27 f (1.15) LS-4 19.49 e (12.58) 1.27 f (1.14) LS-5 24.17 c (18.39) 1.30 ef (1.22) LS-6 25.26 c (19.19) 1.39 cd (1.45) Banarsi 21.75 d (15.06) 1.34 de (1.32) NA-7 10.50 h (05.03) 1.06 i (o.70) Bharpoda et al.(2007)
    53. 53. REACTION OF DIFFERENT AONLA VARIETIES/GENOTYPES TO APICAL TWIG GALL MAKER …. Category of resistance Based on twig damage Based on no.of gall Per cent twig Varieties/genotyp es No. of galls/twig Varieties/genotyp es Resistant (R) Less than 14.96(<x) NA-7, Kanchan, LS-2,Chakaiya, LS-4, Krishna, LS-3 and LS-1 Less than 1.23(<x) NA-7, Kanchan, LS-2,Chakaiya, LS-4, Krishna, LS-3,LS-1 and LS-5 Moderately resistant(MR) 14.96-28.08 (X+1sd) Anand-3, Banarsi,LS-5,LS- 6 1.23-1.55 (X+2sd) Anand-3, Banarsi and LS-6 Susceptible (S) 21.52-28.08 (x+2sd) Anand-1, 1.55-1.89 (x+2sd) Anand-1, Highly Susceptible(HS) More than 28.08 Guj-aonla-1 More than 1.89 Guj-aonla-1 sd 6.56 0.32 Bharpoda et al.(2007)
    54. 54. 55 Elm Finger Gall - by a mite Eriophyes ulmi Maple Spindle Galls – by gall mite Lime Nail Galls (Eriophyes tiliae tiliae) Mite galls
    55. 55. Eriophyid Gall Mites  Poplar bud gall mite (Eriophyes parapopuli)  Ash flower gall mites(Eriophyes fraxiniflora) Jessica and Wayne(2004)  Ample bladder gall mite: Vasates quadrupeds  Mapple spindle gall mite: Vasates aceriscrumena  Erinium gall mite: Eriophyes aceris Pellitteri et al.1997
    56. 56. Aceria pongamia  This species produces solitary, elongate, spindle shaped galls with the truncate apices on the upper surface of the leaves of pongamia pinnata. These galls are irregular greenish with internal cavity densely filled. This is during rainy season. Acalitus hibisci  The galls n Hibiscus vitifilius Linn.  Galls are globose, hollow , sessil, with rough texture outer surface , they greenish brown externally with short fine hairs internally. Gall width 1.5 to 3mm. This infestation occurs through out the year. Ghosh et al.(2002) 57
    57. 57. Management  Pesticide avoidance  Monitor/scout  Plant selection  Pruning  Plant removal  Use broad spectrum insecticides like abamectin, bifenthrin . Ryan (2011)
    58. 58. Aculops fuchsiae was described in 1972 from specimens discovered on a Fuchsia sp. from Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. In 1981, an eriophyid mite new to North America. This gall mite, Aculops fuchsiae Keifer, is believed to be native to Brazil. Ostoja and Eyre (2012)
    59. 59. Life cycle  The Aculops fuchsiae is with four stages: egg, larva, nymph and adult.  fecundity ~50 eggs ,  The TLC 21 days . Carlton Koehler et al.( 2005) k The round bodies are mite eggs
    60. 60. symptoms Infested growth becomes twisted and stunted, swollen and blistered, and Often reddened.
    61. 61. Management  To destroy all infested plants, placing all infested material into bags before disposal.  abamectin (e.g. Dynamec) and spirodiclofen (Envidor). Envidor is approved for use indoor and outdoor.  Use natural enemy Amblyseius californicus Ostoja and Eyre (2012)
    62. 62. Abundance of bud galls caused by eriophyoidmites among host trees Carpinus tschonoskii  Galls caused by Acalitus sp. (Eriophyidae) among host trees Carpinus tschonoskii (Betulaceae).  As tree size increased, the number of galls increased.  tree characteristics such as number of terminal buds, temporal pattern of shoot elongation and reproductive status . Ishihara et al.(2007)
    63. 63. Thelifehistoryofagall-inducingmite:summerphenology, predationandinfluenceofgallmorphologyinasugarmaplecanopy 64 * * = control (gall-free) leaves Phenology of MSGM life stages from gall on sugar mapple leaves during the growing season of the host.
    64. 64. 65 MSGM gall ostiole condition in relation to (a) MSGM eggs and immatures (b)Tarsonemus eggs, larvae an adult Rajit Patankar et al.(2012) Mean number of maple spindle gall mite (MSGM) eggs in galls with (clear bars) and without (shaded bars) tarsonemid larvae from sugar maple canopy leaves
    65. 65.  Tannic acid -economic products from galls Eurasian cynipid gall- 65 percent tannic acid  Dyes - from galls. Turkey red dye is found in the "mad apple" gall  For Natives of East Africa -galls as a source of dye for tattooing  Some galls are aromatic and acidic in flavor and is used with honey for cooking 66 Importance of Galls
    66. 66.  Pliny(1997) stated that the Aleppo gall is able to dye hair black  Inks - from some galls, such as the Aleppo gall produced by Cynips gallae-tinctoriae on oaks  Inks from galls – In Legal documents (Laws, 1972)  USA, England, German and Danish Government have specified formulas for inks using the Aleppo gall. 67
    67. 67. Cultural Control: Pruning and destroying Keep the plants healthy Biological Control: Complex of Natural enemies Some Insects may feed on the galls for food and shelter - For ex. Gall wasps, gall midges, clearwing borers, long horned beetles, metallic wood-boring beetles, weevils, ants and others Chemical Control Contact insecticide or target the immature with a systemic A horticultural oil/ dormant can control aphid galls 68 Management of Galls
    68. 68. 69 Conclusion Galls are species specific Galls are of economic importance Galls are of metabolic machinery/Physiological Sink In India, more concentrated studies are needed to know how these galled tissues are formed and what are the ecological factors affecting the galls, etc. Also, an intensive research should be conducted whether these galls can be used in medical fields for treating the human disorders and can be used commercially
    69. 69. Thank you

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