Education finance and decentralization in cambodia sothea and thach


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Education finance and decentralization in cambodia sothea and thach

  1. 1. Education Finance and Decentralization in Cambodia Education Finance and Decentralization in Asia: Implications for Service Delivery Bangkok, Thailand, 3-5 November 2010 Presented by Mr. Lim Sothea and Mr. Yoeun Thach
  2. 2. Contents • Country Background • Education Policies and Reform • Education Financing and decentralization • Challenge and lesson learned • Possible way forward
  3. 3. Country Background • Population: 14 Million (population census 2008, 80.5% rural, and 19.5% urban) • GDP per capital: 792 US$ (2010) • Agriculture based economy • Life expectation at birth: 60.65 for men, 66.97 for women (2009) • Gross and net admission rates (2009/10): 125.4% (122.6 for girls), 95% (94.6%) • Gross and net enrolment rate in primary (2009/10): 58.1% (57.1%), 31.9% (33.8%) • Gross and net enrolment rate in primary (2009/10): 32.3% (29.2), 19.4 (19.4%) • Primary completion rate: 88% (2010) • Completion rate at grade 9: 53% (2010) • Literacy rate (15-24 years olds): 89%
  4. 4. Public and Education Administration Level Council of Minister/Ministry of Interior Education Administration National Council of Administration Reform Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport FEA committee Provincial N/A Provincial Office of Education FEA committee District N/A District Office of Education FEA committee Cluster School Commune Commune Council EFA committee Village Village School
  5. 5. Education Policies and Reform • The MoEYS vision is to establish and develop human resources of the very highest quality and ethics in order to develop a knowledge-based society within Cambodia. • MoEYS has the mission of leading, managing and developing the Education, Youth and Sport sector in Cambodia in responding to the socio-economic and cultural development needs and the reality of regionalization and globalization. To realize the above objectives and vision, MoEYS has defined three main policy priorities as follows: – Ensuring Equitable Access to Education. – Improving Quality and Efficiency of Education. – Institutional and Capacity Development for educational staff for Decentralization.
  6. 6. Sources of Education Finance • At present, education finance is allocated by the central level, through provincial and district offices of education to schools, with limited decision making on expenditure • Its sounds equitable resource distribution, and consultation with local education authorities • Additional funds for the poor, through scholarship, school feeding program, and other particular interventions • Development partner projects use their individual funding modalities, except EC use budget support. • Parents supplementary spend directly for their children in form of clothes, transport etc.
  7. 7. Education Finance: % of national budget share for education
  8. 8. Public Finance for Education • PB (Program Budgeting) – School Annual Operating Budget: (1 US$=4,200 Cambodia Riels) Primary: 8,000 Riels for one student +700,000 Riels for one school) • Secondary: 17,000 Riels for one student + 1,500,000 Riels for one school). One student scholarship 180,000 Riels • Higher education. Most spending items by parents or individual – Supporting activities such as monitoring – Textbook printing – Scholarship for poor… • Non-PB • Personnel
  9. 9. Development partners support education sector: Around 80 Million US$ a year ODA by sub-sector in 2010 Primary/Basic 54% School and Facilities 9% Secondary Education 0% Sector Policy 3% Teacher Training 2% Tertiary, Vocational and Higher 20% SWAp / sector budget support 10% Other 2%
  10. 10. Development partners for education (cont.) • Capital expenditure covered by Development Partners/charity/community such School Construction • FTI and NGOs for disadvantaged provinces (construction, scholarship/ feeding/strengthened school management…)
  11. 11. Household contribution for their children’s education at primary by Mark Bray and Seng Bunly in 2005
  12. 12. Households contribution for their children education at lower secondary by Mark Bray and Seng Bunly in 2005
  13. 13. Challenges • Financial reform takes place when the reform at Ministry of Economics and Finance: Misunderstand • Complicated procedure: School principals/persons who are responsible for accounting do not have background in budgeting • Limited decisions on expenditure • Late budget clearance make delayed budget release and then low disbursement • Academic year and physical year are different
  14. 14. Lesson learned • Household cost at primary education have reduced through close- to- home schools, better roads, increased learning material provision, school breakfast program and ration. The MoEYS is seeking to provide scholarship for higher grades of primary education in order to cover opportunity costs, so that these students can continue to study at secondary education. • At secondary education, scholarships are provided to students from poor families. Extend the numbers and amount will be beneficial to a number of poor family students. Cost-sharing or loans will be introduced for higher education students and scholarships for the poorest. • Increased efficient use of education budget through avoiding program overlaps, transactional cost, and wastage in education services provided (i.e. high repetition and drop out) • Increased use of DPs budget for the poor, as top up to the budget given by Government and/or increased use of budget support modality among development partners.
  15. 15. Observation • With existence of PB, involvement and direct contribution from communities decreases • Private sector investments for education increase for urban general education and higher education • Scholarships ideally help the poor, but the poorest are still in need of more than scholarships • Education and economic development are strongly correlation • Decentralization and non-public actors for financing education- increased responsibility, authority, accountability, and well need response • Resource allocation, harmonized planning and budgeting -source, use of funds, adequacy, efficiency, equity
  16. 16. Way forward • Decentralization in education needs to be done in concert with other major reforms of the government such as public administration (PAR), decentralization and deconcentration (D&D), and public financial management reform (PFMR) • Government D&D strategic framework and national plan approved, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport is seeking some elements to be delegated to local education authority: – Providing early childhood education (0-under 6 years: Community kindergarten and home based kindergarten) – Providing informal education (Community education center: literacy class and vocational training) – Providing primary education – Making sure that there are materials, equipment, furniture in public education establishments. – Ensuring that educational establishments abide by the authorized standard by way of regular monitoring on non-technical work (kindergarten to secondary education) – Providing activities beyond national curriculum including life skill (music, art...)
  17. 17. Way forward • Through commune councils some education decentralization aspects should be further implemented since commune decentralization has experience ahead, integrated planning and budgeting • Should keep some education aspects at the central level for decision making in order to maintain national standards such as curriculum standards, teacher training, textbook design. ..etc. • Should review policy choices and funding modalities and mechanisms, and good policy based budgeting.
  18. 18. Thank you for your attention