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Steel terms

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Steel terms

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Steel terms

  1. 1. Steel Terms for Building & Construction Materials www.unitech-ikk.com
  2. 2. AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute): A North American trade association Alloying Element : The adding of any metallic element in stainless steel production in Order to increase hardness, strength, or corrosion resistance. Molybdenum, nickel, and chromium are common alloying elements in stainless steel. Alloy steel (S): Refers to steels made with deliberate additions of one or more alloying elements during steelmaking to enhance the properties of the steel. The most common alloying elements are Mn, Cr, Mo and Ni. Annealing (Solution Annealing): A process of heating cold stainless steel to obtain maximum softness and ductility by heat treatment which also produces a homogeneous structure (in austenitic grades). It relieves stresses that have built up during cold working and insures maximum corrosion resistance. Annealing can produce scale on the surface shall be removed by pickling. Austenitic Stainless Steel: Non-magnetic stainless steels that contain nickel and chromium. Austenitic stainless steels are the most widely used category of stainless steel.
  3. 3. Cold Forming (Cold Working): Any mechanical operation that makes permanent deformation, such as bending, rolling, drawing, etc. performed at room temperature that increases the hardness and strength of the stainless steel. Cold roll formed sections (S): The term usually refers to hot rolled steel (although it can be cold rolled steel) that is roll formed [or 'bent'] cold into angles, channels or shaped / corrugated sheet. The word 'cold' refers to the forming process, not to the type of steel that is used Cold-Rolled Strip (Sheet): Stainless steel that has been run through a cold reduction mill. Drawing (Drawn): A forming process that presses metal into or through a die (as in cold drawn wire). Ferritic: Magnetic stainless steels that have a low carbon content and contain Chromium as the main alloying element, usually between 13% and 17%. It is the second most widely used stainless steel. Ferrous: Any metal that is primarily composed of iron.
  4. 4. Galvanneal (S): Refers to a sheet steel product that is annealed after hot dip galvanizing with zinc. The additional annealing step produces an external zinc-iron alloy coating which gives the coated steel product exceptional corrosion resistance Gauge (S): Another term for the thickness of sheet steel Hardness Test: Hardness testing consists of pressing an indenter into a flat surface under a perfectly controlled load, then measuring the dimension of the resulting indentation. The three methods most commonly used for stainless steel are the Rockwell B, Rockwell C and Vickers tests. The higher the number, the harder the Material. HRC (S): Common abbreviation for hot rolled coil Low-Carbon Stainless Steel: Stainless steel containing less than 0.03% carbon. Martensitic: A small category of magnetic stainless steels typically containing 12% chromium, a moderate level of carbon, and a very low level of nickel.
  5. 5. Mild steel (S): Low carbon steel - often also referred to as soft steel. Carbon content generally under 0.25% Molybdenum (Mo): An alloying element that enhances corrosion resistance along with chromium in stainless steels. Nickel (Ni): An alloying element used in stainless steels to enhance ductility and corrosion resistance. Non-Ferrous Metal: Metal or alloy that contains no iron. Passivation: When exposed in air, stainless steels passivate naturally (due to the presence of chromium). In order to ensure that the passive layer reforms rapidly after pickling, a passivation treatment is performed using a solution of nitric acid and water. Pickling: A process that removes surface scale and oxidation products by immersion in a chemically active solution, such as sulfuric or hydrochloric acid.
  6. 6. Quenching (S): Rapid cooling - typically undertaken to obtain a specific property such as increased hardness of steel Secondary Stainless Steel: Stainless steel that has been rejected by an original customer because of a defect in the chemistry, gauge, or surface quality. Mills then search for another customer that will accept the stainless steel at a discount. Stainless Steel: Group of corrosion resistant steels containing at least 10.5% chromium and may contain other alloying elements. These steels resist corrosion and maintain its strength at high temperatures. Titanium (Ti): A very ductile and malleable white metal that is used in aviation, aerospace, etc. because of its high strength and light weight. Tungsten (W): Gray metal with high tensile strength. It is ductile, malleable, and resistant to atmospheric elements and all acids except strong alkalies.

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