Local development planning 2

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Local development planning 2

  1. 1. LOCAL DEVELOPMENTLOCAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNINGPLANNING AND MANAGEMENT IN RURALAND MANAGEMENT IN RURAL DISTRICTS OF ZAMBIA: THEDISTRICTS OF ZAMBIA: THE CASE OF CHONGWE.CASE OF CHONGWE. PresentationPresentation byby Yasini MulimbaYasini Mulimba MSc Student, Geography,MSc Student, Geography, University of ZambiaUniversity of Zambia
  2. 2. STRUCTURE OFSTRUCTURE OF PRESENTATIONPRESENTATION ►BACKGROUNDBACKGROUND ►STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMSTATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ►OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES ►RESEARCH QUESTIONSRESEARCH QUESTIONS ►SCOPE OF THE STUDYSCOPE OF THE STUDY ►SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYSIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY ►RESEARCH METHODOLOGYRESEARCH METHODOLOGY ►TIME TABLE AND BUDGETTIME TABLE AND BUDGET
  3. 3. BACKGROUNDBACKGROUND ►In recent years, expectations for effectiveIn recent years, expectations for effective development policies and initiatives seem todevelopment policies and initiatives seem to shift from the realm of nation-state, to theshift from the realm of nation-state, to the sub-region or local levelsub-region or local level ►This shift started in Europe and NorthThis shift started in Europe and North America where planning for, and promotionAmerica where planning for, and promotion of local economic development (LED)of local economic development (LED) emerged in the 70s.emerged in the 70s.
  4. 4. BACKGROUNDBACKGROUND ►The emergence of LED was in responseThe emergence of LED was in response to :to :  liberalization and privatization coupled withliberalization and privatization coupled with decentralization in the developeddecentralization in the developed worldworld  social and economic crises in localitiessocial and economic crises in localities in thein the developing countries; anddeveloping countries; and  Spatial inequalities of access toSpatial inequalities of access to opportunitiesopportunities between the urbanbetween the urban centerscenters and the rural areasand the rural areas
  5. 5. BACKGROUNDBACKGROUND ►Today, towns and cities as well as ruralToday, towns and cities as well as rural areas face an ever increasing number ofareas face an ever increasing number of challengeschallenges ►Accordingly, LED planning is becoming anAccordingly, LED planning is becoming an increasing important activity acrossincreasing important activity across communities through out the worldcommunities through out the world
  6. 6. BACKGROUNDBACKGROUND ►In Zambia, the centralized approachIn Zambia, the centralized approach characterized development planningcharacterized development planning between 1964 and 1990between 1964 and 1990 ►This approach failed to improve standardsThis approach failed to improve standards of living in rural and urban areas.of living in rural and urban areas. ►Consequently, there has been a shift byConsequently, there has been a shift by the Central Government to “bottom-up”the Central Government to “bottom-up” strategies and decentralizationstrategies and decentralization
  7. 7. BACKGROUNDBACKGROUND ►Since 1991, several LED initiatives haveSince 1991, several LED initiatives have been promoted across Zambiabeen promoted across Zambia ►In 2002, the Zambian GovernmentIn 2002, the Zambian Government adopted the decentralization policyadopted the decentralization policy ►The policy provides for the establishmentThe policy provides for the establishment of local authorities as the focal point forof local authorities as the focal point for planning and delivery of public services inplanning and delivery of public services in the districtthe district
  8. 8. BACKGROUNDBACKGROUND ►However, inexperienced and small ruralHowever, inexperienced and small rural districts councils appear to have capacitydistricts councils appear to have capacity problems in terms of planning, financingproblems in terms of planning, financing and managing their new responsibilities.and managing their new responsibilities. ►Therefore, this proposed study intends toTherefore, this proposed study intends to investigate the competency and capacityinvestigate the competency and capacity of Chongwe as a rural district council to:of Chongwe as a rural district council to:  undertake local development planningundertake local development planning andand  provide effective public services in theprovide effective public services in the district.district.
  9. 9. STATEMENT OF THESTATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.PROBLEM. ►Local authorities in Zambia have been givenLocal authorities in Zambia have been given considerable responsibilities under theconsiderable responsibilities under the National Decentralisation Policy.National Decentralisation Policy. ►This is in addition to many functions localThis is in addition to many functions local authorities are required to discharge underauthorities are required to discharge under the local government Act no 22 of 1991the local government Act no 22 of 1991
  10. 10. STATEMENT OF THESTATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMPROBLEM ►local authorities are required to:local authorities are required to:  formulate and implement local developmentformulate and implement local development plans.plans.  delivery of effective public services to theirdelivery of effective public services to their constituencies with the participation of theconstituencies with the participation of the locallocal communitycommunity..
  11. 11. STATEMENT OF THESTATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMPROBLEM ►to provide effective public services in theirto provide effective public services in their constituencies, with the participation of theconstituencies, with the participation of the local communities.local communities.
  12. 12. STATEMENT OF THESTATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMPROBLEM ►In line with this, studies have been done inIn line with this, studies have been done in Ndola, Kitwe Lusaka and LivingstoneNdola, Kitwe Lusaka and Livingstone districtsdistricts  to assess the capacity of the local authoritiesto assess the capacity of the local authorities to plan andto plan and  deliver public services.deliver public services. ►The results show that the councils lack theThe results show that the councils lack the required capacities.required capacities.
  13. 13. STATEMENT OF THESTATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMPROBLEM ►Similarly, studies have been done inSimilarly, studies have been done in Lusaka, Choma, Chongwe and LuwinguLusaka, Choma, Chongwe and Luwingu Districts on factors effecting local authoritiesDistricts on factors effecting local authorities to effectively provide public services.to effectively provide public services. ►The results of the studies show that theThe results of the studies show that the local authorities have problems in terms oflocal authorities have problems in terms of::  financial managementfinancial management  skilled manpower, andskilled manpower, and  equipments for public service deliveryequipments for public service delivery
  14. 14. STATEMENT OF THESTATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMPROBLEM ►However, no comprehensive study hasHowever, no comprehensive study has been done in rural districts, particularlybeen done in rural districts, particularly Chongwe, to:Chongwe, to:  assess the competency and capacity of theassess the competency and capacity of the local authority and to undertake locallocal authority and to undertake local development planning anddevelopment planning and  to provide effective public services in theto provide effective public services in the district, with the participation of the localdistrict, with the participation of the local communitycommunity
  15. 15. STATEMENT OF THESTATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMPROBLEM ►Though Chongwe is different fromThough Chongwe is different from city/urban districts in terms of the size ofcity/urban districts in terms of the size of its population and the economic base, it isits population and the economic base, it is expected to discharge the same functionsexpected to discharge the same functions as urban/city districtsas urban/city districts.. ►Hence, it is imperative that a research isHence, it is imperative that a research is undertaken in Chongwe District.undertaken in Chongwe District.
  16. 16. GENERAL OBJECTIVEGENERAL OBJECTIVE ►To examine the competency and capacityTo examine the competency and capacity of Chongwe District Council in terms of:of Chongwe District Council in terms of:  local development planning andlocal development planning and  public service delivery, in Chongwe District.public service delivery, in Chongwe District. ►To examine the role of the community andTo examine the role of the community and the private sector in terms of:the private sector in terms of:  local development planning andlocal development planning and  public service delivery, in Chongwe Districtpublic service delivery, in Chongwe District
  17. 17. Specific ObjectivesSpecific Objectives ► To identify and explain the specific rolesTo identify and explain the specific roles played byplayed by  Chongwe District CouncilChongwe District Council  the community andthe community and  the private sector in terms of localthe private sector in terms of local ► To assess the technical and humanTo assess the technical and human resource capacities of Chongwe Districtresource capacities of Chongwe District Council.Council.
  18. 18. Specific ObjectivesSpecific Objectives ►To evaluate the fiscal capacity of ChongweTo evaluate the fiscal capacity of Chongwe District Council.District Council. ►To assess the institutional capacity ofTo assess the institutional capacity of Chongwe District Council.Chongwe District Council.
  19. 19. RESEARCH QUESTIONSRESEARCH QUESTIONS ► What are the specific roles played by ChongweWhat are the specific roles played by Chongwe District Council, the community and the privateDistrict Council, the community and the private sector in terms of:sector in terms of:  local development planning andlocal development planning and  public service provision in the district?public service provision in the district? ► Does Chongwe District Council have theDoes Chongwe District Council have the competency and capacity:competency and capacity:  to undertake local development planningto undertake local development planning andand  to provide public service in the district?to provide public service in the district?
  20. 20. SCOPE OF THE STUDYSCOPE OF THE STUDY ►Due to insufficient funds and time, only theDue to insufficient funds and time, only the Council Area will be considered for thisCouncil Area will be considered for this research.research. ►In this case, the study will focus on:In this case, the study will focus on:  Chongwe District Council,Chongwe District Council,  NGOs and CBOs andNGOs and CBOs and  Private OrganisationsPrivate Organisations
  21. 21. SIGNIFICANCE OF THESIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYSTUDY ►The findings of this study will provideThe findings of this study will provide great benefits to the followinggreat benefits to the following stakeholders:stakeholders:  The Government of the Republic of Zambia,The Government of the Republic of Zambia,  Rural District CouncilsRural District Councils  Local Communities, andLocal Communities, and  Students, Researchers and AcademiciansStudents, Researchers and Academicians
  22. 22. LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW ►This section reviews literatures of studiesThis section reviews literatures of studies done by:done by:  Odero (2004) on decentralisation programme inOdero (2004) on decentralisation programme in UgandaUganda  ZAMSIF (2003) on capacities of districts inZAMSIF (2003) on capacities of districts in Zambia to handle responsibilities under ZAMSIFZambia to handle responsibilities under ZAMSIF projects andprojects and  Momba (2002) on effectiveness of serviceMomba (2002) on effectiveness of service delivery by local authorities in Zambiadelivery by local authorities in Zambia
  23. 23. LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW ►In Uganda, The results of this studyIn Uganda, The results of this study demonstrate that:demonstrate that:  there is need to take into account the capacitythere is need to take into account the capacity of small and poor councils when implementingof small and poor councils when implementing the decentralisation policy.the decentralisation policy. ►In Zambia, the study results by ZAMSIFIn Zambia, the study results by ZAMSIF show that the:show that the:  districts have capacity problems in districtdistricts have capacity problems in district planning and managementplanning and management
  24. 24. LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW ►The study by Momba failed to distinguishThe study by Momba failed to distinguish the problems of rural councils from that ofthe problems of rural councils from that of city/urban councilscity/urban councils ►The study by Momba also relied too muchThe study by Momba also relied too much on newspaper articles.on newspaper articles.
  25. 25. LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW ►This section also reviews studies done onThis section also reviews studies done on LED experiences:LED experiences:  inin Uganda, by Odero (2004)Uganda, by Odero (2004)  in South Africa by Davis (2006) and sulzerin South Africa by Davis (2006) and sulzer (2008) and(2008) and  in Zambia by Hampwaye (2008) and Ktembain Zambia by Hampwaye (2008) and Ktemba (1999(1999).).
  26. 26. LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW ►The results of the study in UgandaThe results of the study in Uganda demonstrates that:demonstrates that:  implementation of LED plans assists the districtimplementation of LED plans assists the district councils to enhance their capacities andcouncils to enhance their capacities and effectiveness in planning and service deliveryeffectiveness in planning and service delivery ►In South Africa, the results of the studiesIn South Africa, the results of the studies demonstrate that:demonstrate that:  successful implementation of LED planssuccessful implementation of LED plans depends on the capacity of local government,depends on the capacity of local government, which is the major stakeholder.which is the major stakeholder.
  27. 27. LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW  LED planning is not the responsibility of oneLED planning is not the responsibility of one stakeholder, but depends on unified action of:stakeholder, but depends on unified action of: local government, civil society and private sectorlocal government, civil society and private sector ►In Zambia, the studies by Hampwaye andIn Zambia, the studies by Hampwaye and Ktemba did not include an assessment ofKtemba did not include an assessment of the capacities of rural district councils.the capacities of rural district councils.
  28. 28. RESEARCHRESEARCH METHODOLOGYMETHODOLOGY ►Secondary data will be sourced from reportsSecondary data will be sourced from reports and documents from:and documents from:  Chongwe District Council (CDC)Chongwe District Council (CDC)  Local Government Association of ZambiaLocal Government Association of Zambia (LGAZ)(LGAZ)  Ministry of Local Government and HousingMinistry of Local Government and Housing (MLGH) and(MLGH) and  Central Statistical OfficeCentral Statistical Office
  29. 29. RESEARCHRESEARCH METHODOLOGYMETHODOLOGY ►Primary data will be collected from:Primary data will be collected from:  officials of Chongwe District Councilofficials of Chongwe District Council  community and private organisations andcommunity and private organisations and  residents from Chongwe districtresidents from Chongwe district ►Primary data will be collected using:Primary data will be collected using:  an interview guidean interview guide  focus group discussions andfocus group discussions and  structured questionnairesstructured questionnaires
  30. 30. RESEARCHRESEARCH METHODOLOGYMETHODOLOGY ►A sample of 140 respondents will beA sample of 140 respondents will be selected using systematic and quotaselected using systematic and quota sampling methodssampling methods ►Data will be presented in the form of tables,Data will be presented in the form of tables, percentages, pies charts, line graphs, barpercentages, pies charts, line graphs, bar graphs, histograms and institutionalgraphs, histograms and institutional mapping (vein diagram).mapping (vein diagram).
  31. 31. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYRESEARCH METHODOLOGY ►Qualitative data will be analysed manuallyQualitative data will be analysed manually through:through:  Description, classification (sorting) andDescription, classification (sorting) and Connections,Connections, andand  Stakeholder Analysis/Institutional mappingStakeholder Analysis/Institutional mapping
  32. 32. RESEARCHRESEARCH METHODOLOGYMETHODOLOGY ►Quantitative data will be analyzed using:Quantitative data will be analyzed using:  Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) andand  Microsoft Excel, computer programsMicrosoft Excel, computer programs ►Statistical methods that will be used are:Statistical methods that will be used are:  Trend analysis forTrend analysis for income (revenue) andincome (revenue) and expenditureexpenditure  A Report Card MethodA Report Card Method when analyzing thewhen analyzing the effectiveness of serviceseffectiveness of services
  33. 33. TIME TABLETIME TABLE ActivityActivity Time-2009/2010Time-2009/2010 SepSep OctOct NoNo vv DeDe cc JanJan FebFeb MarMar AprApr ProposalProposal SubmissionSubmission Presentation &Presentation & ApprovalApproval Data Collection &Data Collection & AnalysisAnalysis Report WritingReport Writing Sub. of DraftSub. of Draft reportsreports Sub. of FinalSub. of Final
  34. 34. BudgetBudget Item (s)Item (s) QuantityQuantity Unit CostUnit Cost (K)(K) TotalTotal Cost (K)Cost (K)  StationaryStationary  QuestionnairesQuestionnaires and Reportsand Reports  EquipmentEquipment  Data CollectionData Collection TransportTransport  LodgingLodging 1*5days1*5days 22 2*5days2*5days 100,000.00100,000.00 50,000.0050,000.00 150,000.00150,000.00 256,000256,000 200,000200,000 2,500,0002,500,000 500,000500,000 100,000100,000 1,500,0001,500,000 Sub-TotalSub-Total ContingencyContingency 10%10% 505,600.00505,600.00 5,056,0005,056,000 505,600505,600 Grand TotalGrand Total 5,561,605,561,60 00

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