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Cyber Crime
Cyber Crime
Computer crime, or Cybercrime, refers to any crime that involves
a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the
commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Netcrime is criminal
exploitation of the Internet. Dr. Debarati Halder and Dr. K. Jaishankar
(2011) define Cybercrimes as: "Offences that are committed against
individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally
harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm to the
victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks
such as Internet (Chat rooms, emails, notice boards and groups) and
mobile phones (SMS/MMS). Such crimes may threaten a nation’s security
and financial health. Issues surrounding these types of crimes have
become high-profile, particularly those surrounding cracking, copyright
infringement, child pornography, and child grooming. There are also
problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted,
lawfully or otherwise.
Classification
Computer crime encompasses a broad range of activities. Generally,
however, it may be divided into two categories: (1) crimes that target
computers directly; (2) crimes facilitated by computer networks or
devices, the primary target of which is independent of the computer
network or device.
Crimes that primarily target computer networks or devices include:
 Computer viruses
 Denial-of-service attacks
 Malware (malicious code)
Crimes that use computer networks or devices to advance other ends
include:
 Cyberstalking
 Fraud and identity theft
 Information warfare
 Phishing scams
 Spam
Computer as tool
When the individual is the main target of Cybercrime, the
computer can be considered as the tool rather than the
target. These crimes generally involve less technical
expertise as the damage done manifests itself in the real
world. Human weaknesses are generally exploited. The
damage dealt is largely psychological and intangible,
making legal action against the variants more difficult.
These are the crimes which have existed for centuries in
the offline. Scams, theft, and the likes have existed even
before the development in high-tech equipment. The
same criminal has simply been given a tool which
increases his potential pool of victims and makes him all
the harder to trace and apprehend.
Computer as a Target
These crimes are committed by a selected group of
criminals. Unlike crimes using the computer as a tool,
these crimes requires the technical knowledge of the
perpetrators. These crimes are relatively new, having
been in existence for only as long as computers have
- which explains how unprepared society and the
world in general is towards combating these crimes.
There are numerous crimes of this nature committed
daily on the internet.
Fraud and Financial Crimes
 Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to let
another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss. In this
context, the fraud will result in obtaining a benefit by:
 Altering in an unauthorized way. This requires little technical expertise and
is common form of theft by employees altering the data before entry or
entering false data, or by entering unauthorized instructions or using
unauthorized processes;
 Altering, destroying, suppressing, or stealing output, usually to conceal
unauthorized transactions. This is difficult to detect;
 Altering or deleting stored data;
 Altering or misusing existing system tools or software packages, or altering
or writing code for fraudulent purposes.
 Other forms of fraud may be facilitated using computer systems,
including bank fraud, identity theft, extortion, and theft of classified
information.
 A variety of Internet scams target direct to consumers.
Obscene or Offensive Content
 The content of websites and other electronic communications
may be distasteful, obscene or offensive for a variety of
reasons. In some instances these communications may be
illegal.
 Over 25 jurisdictions within the USA place limits on
certain speech and ban racist, blasphemous, politically
subversive, libelous or slanderous, seditious, or inflammatory
material that tends to incite hate crimes
 The extent to which these communications are unlawful
varies greatly between countries, and even within nations. It
is a sensitive area in which the courts can become involved in
arbitrating between groups with strong beliefs.
 One area of Internet pornography that has been the target of
the strongest efforts at curtailment is child pornography.
Harassment
 Whereas content may be offensive in a non-specific way, harassment directs
obscenities and derogatory comments at specific individuals focusing for
example on gender, race, religion, nationality, sexual orientation. This often
occurs in chat rooms, through newsgroups, and by sending hate e-mail to
interested parties Any comment that may be found derogatory or offensive
is considered harassment.
 There are instances where committing a crime, which involves the use of a
computer, can lead to an enhanced sentence. For example, in the case
of United States v. Neil Scott Kramer, Kramer was served an enhanced
sentence according to the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines Manual for his use of a
cell phone to “persuade, induce, entice, coerce, or facilitate the travel of, the
minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct.” Kramer argued that this claim
was insufficient because his charge included persuading through a computer
device and his cellular phone technically is not a computer. Although Kramer
tried to argue this point, U.S. Sentencing Guidelines Manual states that the
term computer "means an electronic, magnetic, optical, electrochemical, or
other high speed data processing device performing logical, arithmetic, or
storage functions, and includes any data storage facility or communications
facility directly related to or operating in conjunction with such device.
Harassment
 Connecticut was the first state to pass a statute making it
a criminal offense to harass someone by
computer. Michigan, Arizona, and Virginia have also
passed laws banning harassment by electronic means.
 Harassment as defined in the U.S. computer statutes is
typically distinct from cyberbullying, in that the former
usually relates to a person's "use a computer or
computer network to communicate obscene, vulgar,
profane, lewd, lascivious, or indecent language, or make
any suggestion or proposal of an obscene nature, or
threaten any illegal or immoral act," while the latter need
not involve anything of a sexual nature.
Threats
Although freedom of speech is protected by law in most
democratic societies, (in US this is done by First
Amendment) it does not include all types of speech. In
fact spoken or written "true threat" speech/text is
criminalized because of "intent to harm or intimidate",
that also applies for online or any type of network
related threats in written text or speech The US Supreme
Court definition of "true threat" is "statements where the
speaker means to communicate a serious expression of
an intent to commit an act of unlawful violence to a
particular individual or group
Cyber Terrorism
 Government officials and Information Technology security specialists have
documented a significant increase in Internet problems and server scans
since early 2001. But there is a growing concern among federal
officials[ that such intrusions are part of an organized effort
by cyberterrorists, foreign intelligence services, or other groups to map
potential security holes in critical systems. A cyberterrorist is someone
who intimidates or coerces a government or organization to advance his
or her political or social objectives by launching computer-based attack
against computers, network, and the information stored on them.
 Cyber terrorism in general, can be defined as an act of terrorism
committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources (Parker
1983). As such, a simple propaganda in the Internet, that there will be
bomb attacks during the holidays can be considered cyberterrorism. As
well there are also hacking activities directed towards individuals, families,
organized by groups within networks, tending to cause fear among people,
demonstrate power, collecting information relevant for ruining peoples'
lives, robberies, blackmailing etc.
Cyber Terrorism
• Cyberextortion is a form of cyberterrorism in which a
website, e-mail server, or computer system is subjected
to repeated denial of service or other attacks by
malicious hackers, who demand money in return for
promising to stop the attacks. According to the Federal
Bureau of Investigation, cyberextortionists are
increasingly attacking corporate websites and networks,
crippling their ability to operate and demanding
payments to restore their service. More than 20 cases
are reported each month to the FBI and many go
unreported in order to keep the victim's name out of the
public domain. Perpetrators typically use a distributed
denial-of-service attack
Cyber Warfare
The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) notes that the
cyberspace has emerged as a national-level concern
through several recent events of geo-strategic
significance. Among those are included, the attack
on Estonia's infrastructure in 2007, allegedly by Russian
hackers. "In August 2008, Russia again allegedly
conducted cyber attacks, this time in a coordinated and
synchronized kinetic and non-kinetic campaign against
the country of Georgia. Fearing that such attacks may
become the norm in future warfare among nation-states,
the concept of cyberspace operations impacts and will be
adapted by warfighting military commanders in the
future
Combating Computer Crime
 A computer can be a source of evidence. Even where a
computer is not directly used for criminal purposes, it may
contain records of value to criminal investigators in the form
of a logfile. In most countries Internet Service Providers are
required, by law, to keep their logfiles for a predetermined
amount of time. For example; a European
wide directive(applicable to all EU member states) states that
all E-mail traffic should be retained for a minimum of 12
months.
 Penalties for computer related crimes in New York State can
range from a fine and a short period of jail time for a Class A
misdemeanor such as unauthorized use of a computer up to
computer tampering in the first degree which is a Class C
felony and can carry 3 to 15 years in prison
Thank you
MukulSource : Internet

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Cyber crime

  • 2. Cyber Crime Computer crime, or Cybercrime, refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Netcrime is criminal exploitation of the Internet. Dr. Debarati Halder and Dr. K. Jaishankar (2011) define Cybercrimes as: "Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (Chat rooms, emails, notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS). Such crimes may threaten a nation’s security and financial health. Issues surrounding these types of crimes have become high-profile, particularly those surrounding cracking, copyright infringement, child pornography, and child grooming. There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted, lawfully or otherwise.
  • 3. Classification Computer crime encompasses a broad range of activities. Generally, however, it may be divided into two categories: (1) crimes that target computers directly; (2) crimes facilitated by computer networks or devices, the primary target of which is independent of the computer network or device. Crimes that primarily target computer networks or devices include:  Computer viruses  Denial-of-service attacks  Malware (malicious code) Crimes that use computer networks or devices to advance other ends include:  Cyberstalking  Fraud and identity theft  Information warfare  Phishing scams  Spam
  • 4. Computer as tool When the individual is the main target of Cybercrime, the computer can be considered as the tool rather than the target. These crimes generally involve less technical expertise as the damage done manifests itself in the real world. Human weaknesses are generally exploited. The damage dealt is largely psychological and intangible, making legal action against the variants more difficult. These are the crimes which have existed for centuries in the offline. Scams, theft, and the likes have existed even before the development in high-tech equipment. The same criminal has simply been given a tool which increases his potential pool of victims and makes him all the harder to trace and apprehend.
  • 5. Computer as a Target These crimes are committed by a selected group of criminals. Unlike crimes using the computer as a tool, these crimes requires the technical knowledge of the perpetrators. These crimes are relatively new, having been in existence for only as long as computers have - which explains how unprepared society and the world in general is towards combating these crimes. There are numerous crimes of this nature committed daily on the internet.
  • 6. Fraud and Financial Crimes  Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to let another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss. In this context, the fraud will result in obtaining a benefit by:  Altering in an unauthorized way. This requires little technical expertise and is common form of theft by employees altering the data before entry or entering false data, or by entering unauthorized instructions or using unauthorized processes;  Altering, destroying, suppressing, or stealing output, usually to conceal unauthorized transactions. This is difficult to detect;  Altering or deleting stored data;  Altering or misusing existing system tools or software packages, or altering or writing code for fraudulent purposes.  Other forms of fraud may be facilitated using computer systems, including bank fraud, identity theft, extortion, and theft of classified information.  A variety of Internet scams target direct to consumers.
  • 7. Obscene or Offensive Content  The content of websites and other electronic communications may be distasteful, obscene or offensive for a variety of reasons. In some instances these communications may be illegal.  Over 25 jurisdictions within the USA place limits on certain speech and ban racist, blasphemous, politically subversive, libelous or slanderous, seditious, or inflammatory material that tends to incite hate crimes  The extent to which these communications are unlawful varies greatly between countries, and even within nations. It is a sensitive area in which the courts can become involved in arbitrating between groups with strong beliefs.  One area of Internet pornography that has been the target of the strongest efforts at curtailment is child pornography.
  • 8. Harassment  Whereas content may be offensive in a non-specific way, harassment directs obscenities and derogatory comments at specific individuals focusing for example on gender, race, religion, nationality, sexual orientation. This often occurs in chat rooms, through newsgroups, and by sending hate e-mail to interested parties Any comment that may be found derogatory or offensive is considered harassment.  There are instances where committing a crime, which involves the use of a computer, can lead to an enhanced sentence. For example, in the case of United States v. Neil Scott Kramer, Kramer was served an enhanced sentence according to the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines Manual for his use of a cell phone to “persuade, induce, entice, coerce, or facilitate the travel of, the minor to engage in prohibited sexual conduct.” Kramer argued that this claim was insufficient because his charge included persuading through a computer device and his cellular phone technically is not a computer. Although Kramer tried to argue this point, U.S. Sentencing Guidelines Manual states that the term computer "means an electronic, magnetic, optical, electrochemical, or other high speed data processing device performing logical, arithmetic, or storage functions, and includes any data storage facility or communications facility directly related to or operating in conjunction with such device.
  • 9. Harassment  Connecticut was the first state to pass a statute making it a criminal offense to harass someone by computer. Michigan, Arizona, and Virginia have also passed laws banning harassment by electronic means.  Harassment as defined in the U.S. computer statutes is typically distinct from cyberbullying, in that the former usually relates to a person's "use a computer or computer network to communicate obscene, vulgar, profane, lewd, lascivious, or indecent language, or make any suggestion or proposal of an obscene nature, or threaten any illegal or immoral act," while the latter need not involve anything of a sexual nature.
  • 10. Threats Although freedom of speech is protected by law in most democratic societies, (in US this is done by First Amendment) it does not include all types of speech. In fact spoken or written "true threat" speech/text is criminalized because of "intent to harm or intimidate", that also applies for online or any type of network related threats in written text or speech The US Supreme Court definition of "true threat" is "statements where the speaker means to communicate a serious expression of an intent to commit an act of unlawful violence to a particular individual or group
  • 11. Cyber Terrorism  Government officials and Information Technology security specialists have documented a significant increase in Internet problems and server scans since early 2001. But there is a growing concern among federal officials[ that such intrusions are part of an organized effort by cyberterrorists, foreign intelligence services, or other groups to map potential security holes in critical systems. A cyberterrorist is someone who intimidates or coerces a government or organization to advance his or her political or social objectives by launching computer-based attack against computers, network, and the information stored on them.  Cyber terrorism in general, can be defined as an act of terrorism committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources (Parker 1983). As such, a simple propaganda in the Internet, that there will be bomb attacks during the holidays can be considered cyberterrorism. As well there are also hacking activities directed towards individuals, families, organized by groups within networks, tending to cause fear among people, demonstrate power, collecting information relevant for ruining peoples' lives, robberies, blackmailing etc.
  • 12. Cyber Terrorism • Cyberextortion is a form of cyberterrorism in which a website, e-mail server, or computer system is subjected to repeated denial of service or other attacks by malicious hackers, who demand money in return for promising to stop the attacks. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, cyberextortionists are increasingly attacking corporate websites and networks, crippling their ability to operate and demanding payments to restore their service. More than 20 cases are reported each month to the FBI and many go unreported in order to keep the victim's name out of the public domain. Perpetrators typically use a distributed denial-of-service attack
  • 13. Cyber Warfare The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) notes that the cyberspace has emerged as a national-level concern through several recent events of geo-strategic significance. Among those are included, the attack on Estonia's infrastructure in 2007, allegedly by Russian hackers. "In August 2008, Russia again allegedly conducted cyber attacks, this time in a coordinated and synchronized kinetic and non-kinetic campaign against the country of Georgia. Fearing that such attacks may become the norm in future warfare among nation-states, the concept of cyberspace operations impacts and will be adapted by warfighting military commanders in the future
  • 14. Combating Computer Crime  A computer can be a source of evidence. Even where a computer is not directly used for criminal purposes, it may contain records of value to criminal investigators in the form of a logfile. In most countries Internet Service Providers are required, by law, to keep their logfiles for a predetermined amount of time. For example; a European wide directive(applicable to all EU member states) states that all E-mail traffic should be retained for a minimum of 12 months.  Penalties for computer related crimes in New York State can range from a fine and a short period of jail time for a Class A misdemeanor such as unauthorized use of a computer up to computer tampering in the first degree which is a Class C felony and can carry 3 to 15 years in prison