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Job satisfaction


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Job satisfaction

  1. 1. Job Satisfaction12 June 2013
  2. 2. Topics What is Job Satisfaction? Work Values. Work Attitudes. Theories of Job satisfaction. Potential Consequences of Jobsatisfaction.12 June 2013
  3. 3. What is Job satisfaction? Job satisfaction has been defined as apleasurable emotional state resultingfrom the appraisal of one’s job or jobexperiences.12 June 2013
  4. 4. Work Values A worker’s personal conviction about whatoutcomes one should expect from his worksand how one should behave at work. The most general and long-lasting feelingsand beliefs people have that contribute tohow they experience work. Values can be intrinsic (i.e., related to thenature of work itself) or extrinsic (i.e.,related to the consequences of work).12 June 2013
  5. 5. Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Work ValuesIntrinsic Values Interesting work Challenging work Learning new things Making importantcontributions Responsibility andautonomy Being creativeExtrinsic Values High pay Job security Job benefits Status in widercommunity Social contacts Time with family Time for hobbies12 June 2013
  6. 6. Work Attitudes Collections of feelings, beliefs, and thoughtsabout how to behave that people currentlyhold about their jobs and organizations. Compared to values, attitudes are◦ More specific◦ Not as long lasting Specific work attitudes:◦ Job satisfaction is the collection of feelings andbeliefs that people have about their current jobs.◦ Organizational commitment is the collection offeelings and beliefs that people have about theirorganizations as a whole.12 June 2013
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  9. 9. Theories of Job Satisfaction Each theory of job satisfaction takes intoaccount one or more of the four maindeterminants of job satisfaction and specifies,in more detail, what causes one worker to besatisfied with a job and another to bedissatisfied. Influential theories of job satisfaction include◦ The Facet Model◦ Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory◦ The Discrepancy Model◦ The Steady-State Theory These different theoretical approachesshould be viewed as complementary.12 June 2013
  10. 10. The Facet Model Focuses primarily on work situation factors bybreaking a job into its component elements, orjob facets, and looking at how satisfied workersare with each. A worker’s overall job satisfaction isdetermined by summing his or her satisfactionwith each facet of the job. Sample job facets:◦ Ability utilization: the extent to which the job allowsone to use one’s abilities.◦ Activity: being able to keep busy on the job.◦ Human relations supervision: the interpersonal skillsof one’s boss.12 June 2013
  11. 11. Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory Hypothesized relationships betweenmotivator needs, hygiene needs, andjob satisfaction:◦ When motivator needs are met, workers willbe satisfied; when these needs are not met,workers will not be satisfied.◦ When hygiene needs are met, workers willnot be dissatisfied; when these needs arenot met, workers will be dissatisfied.12 June 2013
  12. 12. Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory Every worker has two sets of needs orrequirements: motivator needs andhygiene needs. Motivator needs are associated with theactual work itself and how challenging it is.◦ Facets: interesting work, autonomy,responsibility Hygiene needs are associated with thephysical and psychological context inwhich the work is performed.◦ Facets: physical working conditions, pay,12 June 2013
  13. 13. The Discrepancy Model To determine how satisfied they are withtheir jobs, workers compare their job tosome “ideal job.” This “ideal job” couldbe◦ What one thinks the job should be like◦ What one expected the job to be like◦ What one wants from a job◦ What one’s former job was like Can be used in combination with theFacet Model. 12 June 2013
  14. 14. The Steady-State Theory Each worker has a typical orcharacteristic level of job satisfaction,called the steady state or equilibriumlevel. Different situational factors or eventsat work may move a workertemporarily from this steady state, butthe worker will eventually return tohis or her equilibrium level.12 June 2013
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  16. 16. Potential Consequencesof Job Satisfaction Performance: Satisfied workers are only slightlymore likely to perform at a higher level thandissatisfied workers.◦ Satisfaction is most likely to affect work behaviors whenworkers are free to vary their behaviors and when aworker’s attitude is relevant to the behavior in question. Absenteeism: Satisfied workers are only slightlyless likely to be absent than dissatisfied workers. Turnover: Satisfied workers are less likely toleave the organization than dissatisfied workers.12 June 2013
  17. 17. Determinants of Absence from WorkMotivationto Attend Workis Affected by Job satisfaction Organization’sabsence policy Other factorsAbilityto Attend Workis Affected by Illness andaccidents Transportationproblems Familyresponsibilities12 June 2013
  18. 18. Potential Consequencesof Job Satisfaction Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB):Satisfied workers are more likely to engage inthis behavior than dissatisfied workers.◦ OCB: Behavior that is above and beyond the callof duty but is nonetheless necessary fororganizational survival and effectiveness Helping coworkers, spreading goodwill Worker well-being: Satisfied workers aremore likely to have strong well-being thandissatisfied workers.◦ Worker well-being: How happy, healthy, andprosperous workers are12 June 2013
  19. 19. Advice to Managers Do not assume that poor performers are dissatisfied with their jobsor that good performers are satisfied with their jobs. Do not assume that workers who are absent are dissatisfied or thatthey were not motivated to come to work. Absence is also afunction of ability to attend. Manage absenteeism. Don’t try to eliminate it, and keep in mindthat a certain level of absence is often functional for workers andorganizations. Realize that turnover has both costs and benefits for anorganization and that you need to evaluate both. In particular,before becoming concerned about worker turnover, examine theperformance levels of those who quit. If workers do only what they are told and rarely, if ever, exhibitorganizational citizenship behavior, measure their levels of jobsatisfaction, identify the job facets they are dissatisfied with, andmake changes where possible. Even if job satisfaction does not seem to have an effect onimportant behaviors in your organization, keep in mind that it is animportant factor in worker well-being.12 June 2013
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