Principles of managment


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Principles of managment

  1. 1. Principles of Managment Planning Tools and Techniques Chapter 9
  2. 2. Presented by  Muhammad Waqas  Shakeel Ahmed  Husnain dar  Tanvir ul Hassan  Abubakar Ashraf
  3. 3.  Prensented To : DR Ijaz Ahmed Qureshi
  4. 4. Outlines  Techniques for Assessing the Enviroment  Techniques for Allocation Resources  Contemporary Planning Techniques
  5. 5. Techniques for Assessing the Enviroment 1. Environmental Scanning 2. Forecasting 3. Benchmarking
  6. 6. Enviromental Scanning  Monitoring and Scanning  Political, social , Demographics, Global, Competitors etc.
  7. 7. Competitor Intellegence  Identify Competitors , Their Activities , and their Impact on Organization  Advertisement , Annual Report etc
  8. 8. Global Scanning  Information on global forces. Draws information from sources that provide global perspectives on world-wide issues and opportunities.
  9. 9. Forecasting  Prediction of outcomes 1. Quantative forecasting Applies a set of mathematical rules to series of past data to predict outcome. E.g: units to be probuced 2. Qualitative forecasting. Use the expert judment and opinions of knowledge individuals to predict outcomes. E.g: direction of the economy.
  10. 10. Quantitative  Time series analysis  Regression models  Econometric models  Economic indicators  Substitution effect  Qualitative  Jury of opinion  Sales force composition  Customer evaluation
  11. 11. Forecasting Effectiveness  Dynamic environments decrease the forecasting effectiveness.  Shorter timeframes improve forecasting effectiveness.  Simple forecasting techniques are more effective than complex techniques.  Compare every forecast with “no change”.  Use multiple forecasting techniques.  Forecasting skills improve with practice
  12. 12. Benchmarking  The search for the best practices among competitors and non-competitors that lead to their superior performance.  By analyzing and copying these practices, firms can improve their performance.
  13. 13. Steps in Benchmarking  Form a benchmarking planning team.  Gather internal and external data.  Analyze data to identify performance gaps.  Prepare and implement action plan.
  14. 14. Steps in Benchmarking Continue..
  15. 15. Techniques for Allocating Resources  Types of Resources  The assets of the organization • Financial: debt, equity, and retained earnings • Physical: buildings, equipment, and raw materials • Human: experiences, skills, knowledge, and competencies • Intangible: brand names, patents, reputation, trademarks, copyrights , and databases
  16. 16. Allocating Resources: Budgeting Are numerical plans for allocating resources. E.g., revenues, expenses, and capital expenditures. Are the most commonly used and most widely applicable planning technique for organizations.
  17. 17. Types of Budgets
  18. 18. Suggestions for Improving Budgeting  Collaborate and communicate.  Be flexible. Budgets should not determine goals.  Remember that budgets are tools.
  19. 19. Allocating Resources: Scheduling  Schedules Plans that allocate resources by detailing what activities have to be done. Represent the coordination of various activities.
  20. 20. PERT Network Analysis Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) Network—a flowchart diagram showing the sequence of activities needed to complete a project and the time or cost associated with each activity.
  21. 21. Breakeven Analysis It is used to determine the point at which all fixed costs have been recovered and profitability begins.  Fixed cost (FC)  Variable costs (VC)  Total Fixed Costs (TFC)  Price (P) The Break-even Formula: CostsVariableUnit-PriceUnit CostsFixed : Total Breakeven
  22. 22. Contemporary Planning Techniques  Project Set of activities that has a definite beginning and ending point time.  Project Management The task of getting a project’s activities done on time, within budget, and according to specifications.
  23. 23. Project Planning Process
  24. 24. Terms to Know environmental scanning. competitor intelligence. Forecasts. quantitative forecasting. qualitative forecasting. Benchmarking. Resources. Budget. Scheduling. PERT network. Events. Activities. slack time. critical path. breakeven analysis. linear programming. Project. project management.