First Generation          NetworkMuhammad Uzair Rasheed          2009-CPE-03    UCE&T BZU MULTAN
First Generation What   we will look at    1st Generation technology    Frequency Division    Handover    Infrastruct...
First Generation   Early Wireless    communications       Signal fires       Morse Code       Radio                   ...
First Generation 1st   Generation devices       Introduced in the UK by Vodafone           January 1985       UK Techn...
First Generation   Operates       Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)         Covered in next slide       Operat...
1G technology   FDMA       Breaks up the available frequency into channels          Allocates a single channel to each ...
Continued …   FDMA              Frequency
Continued….   FDMA       You use this technology all of the time!          Consider your radio in the house(well use to...
Voice calls..     Are transferred using Frequency modulation     The rate at which the carrier wave propogates is change...
First Generation Infrastructure     Base Station         Carries out the actual radio communications with the          ...
First Generation Cellular    Architecture     Allows the area to be broken into smaller cells     The mobile device the...
First Generation   Cellular Architecture continued       Cellular architecture requires the available frequency to be   ...
First Generation   Cellular Architecture continued     There must be a frequency difference    between adjoining cells. ...
First Generation    Logically we picture a cell as being a     Octagon      In reality the shape of a transmission will ...
First Generation Cellular       infrastructure why ??     Cells with different frequencies allow devices to      move be...
First Generation Cellular        infrastructure     Once you get to the ‘edge’ of a cell you will need      a handover  ...
   Cellular infrastructure       Communicating with BS1         Moving towards BS2                    Tnm              ...
First Generation   Cellular infrastructure       Power of signal now weakening                                        BS...
First Generation   Cellular infrastructure       Paging signal stronger so hand over to new MSC                         ...
First Generation Handover    Once a handover is decided upon by the BS        The MSC is informed            All BS in...
First Generation    Problems      Roaming was not applicable        All of Europe was using different standards        ...
 Summary    1G systems    Frequency Used    Infrastructure    Handover    Problems                      Jazak Allah!...
First generation network
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First generation network

  1. 1. First Generation NetworkMuhammad Uzair Rasheed 2009-CPE-03 UCE&T BZU MULTAN
  2. 2. First Generation What we will look at  1st Generation technology  Frequency Division  Handover  Infrastructure
  3. 3. First Generation Early Wireless communications  Signal fires  Morse Code  Radio Radio Transmitter 1928 Dorchester
  4. 4. First Generation 1st Generation devices  Introduced in the UK by Vodafone  January 1985  UK Technology (and Italy)  Total Access Cellular System  This was based on the American design  Used the 900MHz frequency range  Europe  Germany adopted C-net  France adopted Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT)
  5. 5. First Generation Operates  Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)  Covered in next slide  Operates in the 900MHz frequency range  Three parts to the communications  Voice channels  Paging Channels  Control Channels
  6. 6. 1G technology FDMA  Breaks up the available frequency into channels  Allocates a single channel to each phone call  The channel is agreed with the Base station before transmission takes place on agreed and reserved channel  The device can then transmit on this channel  No other device can share this channel even if the person is not talking at the time!  A different channel is required to receive  The voice/sound is transmitted as analog data.
  7. 7. Continued … FDMA Frequency
  8. 8. Continued…. FDMA  You use this technology all of the time!  Consider your radio in the house(well use too!!!)  As you want different information you change the frequency which you are receiving
  9. 9. Voice calls..  Are transferred using Frequency modulation  The rate at which the carrier wave propogates is changed  Encoding information  More resistant to interference than AM radio (www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0030280.html, 2004)
  10. 10. First Generation Infrastructure  Base Station  Carries out the actual radio communications with the device  Sends out paging and control signals  MSC  Takes responsibility  Controls all calls attached to this device  Maintains billing information  Switches calls (Handover/hand off)
  11. 11. First Generation Cellular Architecture  Allows the area to be broken into smaller cells  The mobile device then connects to the closest cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell
  12. 12. First Generation Cellular Architecture continued  Cellular architecture requires the available frequency to be distributed between the cells  If 2 cells next to each other used the same frequency each would interfere with each other Cell Cell Cell Cell Frequency 900 Cell
  13. 13. First Generation Cellular Architecture continued  There must be a frequency difference between adjoining cells. Cell Frequency 900 Cell Frequency 920 Cell Cell Cell Cell Frequency 940 Cell Cell Frequency 960
  14. 14. First Generation  Logically we picture a cell as being a Octagon  In reality the shape of a transmission will change depending on the environment  In this diagram of a cell you can see this  The building are the rectangles in dark green  The darker the shade of green the stronger the signal Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell
  15. 15. First Generation Cellular infrastructure why ??  Cells with different frequencies allow devices to move between these cells  The device just informing what frequency they are communicating at.  Cellular communications can only travel a certain distance  Cell sizes are flexible  Examples in the AMP system were up to 50 Miles!
  16. 16. First Generation Cellular infrastructure  Once you get to the ‘edge’ of a cell you will need a handover  Handover allows the user to move between cells  After a certain distance the area covered by a certain cell ends so it switches over to the domain of the next cell.
  17. 17.  Cellular infrastructure  Communicating with BS1  Moving towards BS2 Tnm rasis snS ioB2 SBosm n i nT is s ar 1 BS1BS2
  18. 18. First Generation Cellular infrastructure  Power of signal now weakening BS1BS2
  19. 19. First Generation Cellular infrastructure  Paging signal stronger so hand over to new MSC BS1BS2
  20. 20. First Generation Handover  Once a handover is decided upon by the BS  The MSC is informed  All BS in the area of the current location are informed to start paging the device  The BS with the strongest signal is then handed over to  The call can continue  In reality a lot of calls were dropped whilst waiting for a handover to take place  Ending a call  The phone returns to an idle state and pagging ends
  21. 21. First Generation  Problems  Roaming was not applicable  All of Europe was using different standards  Different frequencies  Different frequency spacing  Security  Calls were easily ‘listened’ upon  Limited capacity of the available spectrum  Analog signal meant a larger than required amount of the frequency had to be allocated to each call  Expansion of the network was difficult  This was unacceptable  GSM was introduced….
  22. 22.  Summary  1G systems  Frequency Used  Infrastructure  Handover  Problems Jazak Allah!!!!

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