•Milk is a liquid and so requires a container at
•Packaging of milk is
the technique of
to protect, carry,
merchandise any milk product.
between the manufacturer and
•Necessary for delivering fresh, sound and
convenient form of milk.
PER CAPITA MILK
INDIA 155.5million tones 337 grams per day
UTTAR PRADESH 25198.36(‘000 tones) 335 grams perday
Source: Press Information Bureau
RANK COUNTRY AMOUNT OF MILK
1. India 146.31
2. USA 93.5
3. China 45
4. Pakistan 42
5. Brazil 35.7
RANK STATE AMOUNT(‘000 TONNES)
1. Uttar Pradesh 25198
2. Rajasthan 16934
3. Gujarat 11691
4. Madhya Pradesh 10779
5. Punjab 10351
Source: Press Information Bureau
RANK STATE PER CAPITA MILK
1. Punjab 1032
2. Haryana 877
3. Rajasthan 704
4. Himanchal Pradesh 505
5. Andhra Pradesh 475
Source: Press Information Bureau
‘A tool that protects and contains our goods
with the aim of minimizing the environmental
impact on our consumption.”
“A technology of enclosing or protecting
products for distribution, storage, sale, and
At early stages-cow's udder was the basic container.
Development of containers in 1860-70 for distribution.
These were metal cans of up to about 80L
First significant development in milk packaging-
process for sterilized milk ( end of last century)
In the third decade of this century- bottling of
pasteurized milk developed
Development and introduction of plastic materials for
dairy industry (initially
packaging in the
polyethylene) in 1940.
In 1995, money spent on packaging materials nearly Rs.
Packaging activities engage about 60% of the 5 million
labour force in the food industry.
46 %of the total milk production in the country consumed
as fluid milk
Only 15%of milk is packed.
Of this, the flexible pouch accounts for approximately 94%.
89 %of the households in India consume loose milk
Only 9 %households use packaged milk.
Penetration of packaged milk high amongst towns
having a population of more than 10 lakh
Production of tinplate containers 0.46 MT
Use of tinplate containers for packaging 0.4 MT
About 0.3 million tinplate containers are exported
Alluminium cans accounts to 0.035 MT
The production of glass bottles for packaging 0.9 MT
Plastics used in the milk industry in the form of
containers as well as films &laminates
• The glass bottle for milk introduced in USA in 1884
• Plastic containers, i.e. single-service HDPE
containers were introduced in 1964.
• Milk also sold in LDPE pouches, but not popular
• Paperboard industry in USA introduced a new twin
pack comprising two-half gallon containers (Goyal,
• In German Federal Republic pasteurized milk
packaged in cartons.
• In UK, plastic bottle weighing 23 g was made
from a 50/50 blend of high and low density PE.
• Liquid milk in Berlin packed in plastic bags
placed in returnable plasticcrates.
• The Rhineland Milk Supply of Germany
marketed pasteurized milk in ‘Tetra King’ one
1. Paper and paper based products
2. Glass bottles
3. Tin plate
4. Aluminium foil
a. Low polymer
b. High polymers
•Containing the product
•Selling the product
•Safety of the product
•Facilitating the handling & storage
•Protecting against biological, chemical and
• Product image
• Increasing the shelf-life
• Marketing and advertising tool.
• Attractive to the consumer.
• Easy to open, store and dispose.
• Helps in portion control
• Specific sensitivities
• Factors changing the contents
• Weight and shape of the container
• Filling and sealing speeds
• Contamination of food
• Storage conditions
• Bio-degradability and recycling potential.
• Product range
• Consumer needs
•Flexible pouches 92%, glass bottles 7% and
aseptic packaging 1%.
•Plastic materials in aseptic packaging of milk
product are polyethylene, polypropylene,
•Popular commercial systems available are Tetra
pak, Combi block, Pure pak, Hind pak, etc.
• Economic saving realized
• Shelf life of refrigerated creams 1-2 days
• Packaging consists of PE coated paperboards.
•In India, cream generally packaged in 250 ml glass
bottles, individual pack or consumer’s own container
• Tin plate containers also used for larger sizes.
• Whipped creams sold in AEROSOL cans and PE tubs
•Imitation cream packed in wax-coated paperboard
3. WHOLE MILK POWDER
• Produced either by roller or drumprocess.
• Rapid flavour deterioration due to oxidation.
• General procedure is to remove oxygen by subjecting
the product to vacuum within 24 hours of drying.
• Less than 2% final oxygen considered satisfactory.
• Coating with an impermeable material or the
addition of antioxidants also done.
Upon prolonged storage, ghee undergoes lipid deterioration.
Tin plate container:
• Protects the product against tampering and being sturdy, can be
transported to distant places.
Semi Rigid Containers:
•Provides a moderately long shelf life, lightweight, economical and
•Limited quantities of of less than 1 kg packed.
•Short shelf life of about 7 days at refrigeration storage and less than 24
hours at room temperature.
•Sachdeva et al.(1991) vacuum packaged paneer blocks of 10x4x6 cm
size in polyethylene bags using a vacuum packaging machine.
•The body and texture of paneer improves on vacuumpackaging
•No deterioration observed upto 30 days at 6 ±10 °C in vacuum
• Limited shelf life of 5 days at room temperature
• Hot filling (80-90° C)of khoa in tin cans increases
shelf life to 14 days at 37° C
• Recently, high barrier structures/laminates based
on polyester/ethylene vinyl alcohol
(EVOH)/polythene being developed (10 days at
37°C and 60 days at refrigerated)
• Tin cans and rigid plastic containers of 15 kg
capacity can be used.
7. MILK SWEETS
a. BURFI AND PEDA
•Currently, packaged in paper cartons or duplex board boxes
with or without butter paper lining.
•Recently, packaged in HDPE/polypropylene boxes and cartons
of 500g and 1 kg size.
•They observed the shelf life of 52 days at 30 ° C in vacuum
packaged samples against 16 days without vacuum packaging
PAPER CARTONS POLYPROPYLENE
Rasogolla preserved in sugar syrup, in tin cans of
500 g and 1 kg capacity.
• Proportion of rasogolla and syrup is 40:60 (stays
good for 6 months )
• Gulabjaman largely packaged without syrup in
paper cartons or polyester boxes
• Though lacquered tin can most suitable, it is very
8. FERMENTED PRODUCTS
•Dahi, Misti dahi and Shrikhand most popular.
•Dahi and Misti dahi are sold in earthen pots and PE containers.
Heavy in weight
Cannot be covered properly
Shrinkage of product
•Polystyrene (PS)and polypropylene (PP)cups of 100, 200 and 500 g
•Pat of butter: Most commonly used
•Manual-moulded butter: Hand-packaged
•Machine-moulded butter: Automated version of
•Butter in a dish: Most popular forreduced-fat
•Mini butter: For markets with limited buying power
and high demand
•Jar of butter: For largerquantities.
Cheese is coated with a wax layer to protect
Cheese may be packaged in plastic film as slices
Also packed as cubes or whole pat in aluminum
or tin foil
Primarily transported in cartons
Some materials (PVC)contains chlorine and other harmful elements
Difficult to separate from other recyclablewaste
Release of harmful neurotoxins
Production of greenhouse gases
Scarring of landscape
Contributes to climate change
Increased amount of landfill space
Pollutes groundwater and other water bodies
Energy consumed for incineration
Depletion of raw materials
•Made from Poly Lactic Acid (PLA)
•PLA derived from natural corn starch.
•Advantages of PLA
a. Degrades within weeks
b. High stability
d. Wide temperature range
e. UV resistance
g. Carbon footprint of PLA 2.16gm as compared to 720gm/ 500ml
of serving of polyethylene
•Self-heating and self-chilling.
•Shelf-life time temperature indicators
•Micro-oven able containers
•Edible films and coatings
•Resource efficiency and light weight packaging.
•Modified atmospheric packaging (MAP)
•Better sealing techniques
•Packaging necessary for extended shelf life of milk product
•Containers have evolved from cow’s udder to convenient and
•Packaging of milk has innumerable roles and benefits
•Various factors concerning package design needs to be kept in
•Packaging material differs fromproduct-to-product
• Negative impact of packaging materials needs to be checked
•Thermoform bottles or bioplastics- future packaging material
•New concepts and innovations in packaging need to be