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Final Year Presentation

The use of green lubricants in tribology grows day by day for a clean environment. Environment-friendly lubricant is the priority for tribology. Nowadays bio-lubricants have an important place in tribology. In recent years, there has been an increasing recognition of the significance of nanoparticles in serving as lubricant additives, mainly because of their potential to decrease emissions and improve fuel economy. In comparison to organic additives, nanoparticles are known for their thermal stability at high temperatures, making them a preferable option for lubricant additives. Bio-based oils can serve as a perfect substitute for lubrication oils derived from minerals. In the aspect of biodegradability, vegetable oils are considered the most easily biodegradable oils which include animal contents compared to mineral oil. On the other hand, mineral oils have 15 to 35% biodegradability. Nano Particles or Ionic liquid-based bio-lubricants are used to minimize wear and friction coefficient and can also be used as an alternative to mineral oil. The biggest problems with bio-lubricants are their thermal instability rather than their toxicity or lubricity. Emerging nanoparticles bio-lubricants have the potential to take the place of traditional lubricants at high temperatures. We have to add nanoparticle as an additive in cottonseed oil as base oil, which reduces friction and wears effectively. The development of bio-based lubricant will be carried out by conducting systematic optimization of additivated cotton seed oil. To accomplish this task, response surface methodology-based optimization will be conducted.

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COMSATS University Islamabad, Wah Campus
Department of Mechanical Engineering
DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY LUBRICANT BASED
ON ADITIVATED COTTON SEED OIL
Supervised by: Dr. Arslan Ahmed
Co-Supervised by: Dr. Ali Usman
Presented by:
Muhammad Saad (FA19-BME-067)
Humayoun Malik (FA19-BME-022)
Muhammad Suleman Rabbani (FA19-BME-031)
Muhammad Ehtisham (FA18-BME-029)
1
INTRODUCTION: -
 A significant amount of energy is lost through wear
and friction in the industrial, automotive, and power
generation sectors.
 Mineral Oils are being used for lubrication purposes,
but it negatively impacts the environment.
 As an alternative, Bio-Based Oils are used to reduce
friction and wear.
 Bio-Based Oil are environmentally friendly.
 Researchers are experimenting with
nano/microparticles and ionic liquids to improve the
performance of different Bio-Based Oils.
2
Pin On Plate
INTRODUTON (Cont.)
 Our SGD’s are number 11 and 12.
11- Sustainable cities and Communities.
(Make cities and human settlements, inclusive, safe
resilient and sustainable).
12- Responsible consumption and Production.
(Ensure sustainable consumption and production
patterns).
 Cotton Seed oil will be used as Bio-Based Oil
lubricant, with nanoparticle as an additive.
 Our primary goal in this research is to produce a
environment friendly lubricant by using sustainable
optimization technique RSM, rather than the hit-
and-trial approach typically used.
3
LITERATURE REVIEW (Cont.)
Lubricant Additive Wt %
Experimental
Setup
Optimized
Parameters/
Factors
Reference
Polyol Lube
Base Oil
Fatty Acid Ionic
Acid
0.75% Pin on disc Lower COF (15-
50%)
Rashi Gusain
et al.
Polar Oil Anion based
Ionic Liquid
1% Pin on disc Friction and wear R. González
et al.
Jatropha Curcas
Oil
Anion based
Ionic Liquid
1% Pin on disc (26-28%) reduction
in WSD
Amiril
SahabAbdul Sani
et al.
Polyalphaolefin Graphene
Nanoplatelets
0.05% Pin on disc Improve tribological
behavior
Khodor I.Nasser
et al.
Bio Based Oil Trihexyltetradecy
lphosphonium
1% Pin on disc (68-74%) reduction in
friction
Edward Cigno
et al.
Vegetable Oil Phosphonium
based Ionic
Liquid
1% Pin on disc Friction, Wear Carlton J. Reeves
et al.
4
LITERATURE REVIEW (Cont.)
Lubricant Additive Wt % Experimental
Setup
Optimized
Parameters/
Factors
Reference
Polar And Non-
Polar Base Oil
Phosphonium
and ammonium
based Ionic
Liquid
0.75% Pin on disc Resistance,
Friction, Wear
Tahreem Naveed
et al.
Modified
Jatropha Oil
Graphene
Nanoparticles
0.05%,0.075%,
0.1%
Pin on disc 50% reduction
in wear
K Thirumalai
Kannan et al.
Polyol Ester base
Oil
aspartic acid
and glutamic
acid-derived
ionic liquids
2% Pin on disc Almost 48%
reduction in
friction and 21% in
wear
Ponnekantl
Nagendramma
Palm Oil Cation Based
Ionic Liquid
1% Pin on disc 20% reduction in
friction compared
to traditional IL
Cneng Jiang
at el.
5
LITERATURE REVIEW (Cont.)
Lubricant Additive Wt % Experimental Setup
Optimized
Parameters/
Factors
Reference
Polyethylene
glycol 200
Cholinium amino acid ionic
liquid
0.5 to
2wt%
four-ball
tribometer
maximum
reduction
of 33.25%
for WSD
Aathira M.S. et al.
Ester propylene
glycol dioleate
(PGDO)
ILS 1 Pin on disk COF Ana-Eva Jimenez
et al.
Vegetable oil
(jatropha oil)
Tetrabutyl ammonium bromide
ionic liquid
1 Pin on disk friction and
wear
Neetesh Kumar
Sah et al.
Bio base oil
(trimethylolpropan
e trioleate (TMPTO)
( Trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium
bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate,
trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium
decanoate, and 1- butyl-3-
methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate)
0.5%, 1%,
1.5%
four-ball
tribometer
COF A.Z. Syahir et al.
Vegetable oil Halogen and halogen-free
phosphonium-based ionic liquid
0.5, 1, 2.5 pin on disk wear Edward Cigno et
al.
6

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Final Year Presentation

  • 1. COMSATS University Islamabad, Wah Campus Department of Mechanical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY LUBRICANT BASED ON ADITIVATED COTTON SEED OIL Supervised by: Dr. Arslan Ahmed Co-Supervised by: Dr. Ali Usman Presented by: Muhammad Saad (FA19-BME-067) Humayoun Malik (FA19-BME-022) Muhammad Suleman Rabbani (FA19-BME-031) Muhammad Ehtisham (FA18-BME-029) 1
  • 2. INTRODUCTION: -  A significant amount of energy is lost through wear and friction in the industrial, automotive, and power generation sectors.  Mineral Oils are being used for lubrication purposes, but it negatively impacts the environment.  As an alternative, Bio-Based Oils are used to reduce friction and wear.  Bio-Based Oil are environmentally friendly.  Researchers are experimenting with nano/microparticles and ionic liquids to improve the performance of different Bio-Based Oils. 2 Pin On Plate
  • 3. INTRODUTON (Cont.)  Our SGD’s are number 11 and 12. 11- Sustainable cities and Communities. (Make cities and human settlements, inclusive, safe resilient and sustainable). 12- Responsible consumption and Production. (Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns).  Cotton Seed oil will be used as Bio-Based Oil lubricant, with nanoparticle as an additive.  Our primary goal in this research is to produce a environment friendly lubricant by using sustainable optimization technique RSM, rather than the hit- and-trial approach typically used. 3
  • 4. LITERATURE REVIEW (Cont.) Lubricant Additive Wt % Experimental Setup Optimized Parameters/ Factors Reference Polyol Lube Base Oil Fatty Acid Ionic Acid 0.75% Pin on disc Lower COF (15- 50%) Rashi Gusain et al. Polar Oil Anion based Ionic Liquid 1% Pin on disc Friction and wear R. González et al. Jatropha Curcas Oil Anion based Ionic Liquid 1% Pin on disc (26-28%) reduction in WSD Amiril SahabAbdul Sani et al. Polyalphaolefin Graphene Nanoplatelets 0.05% Pin on disc Improve tribological behavior Khodor I.Nasser et al. Bio Based Oil Trihexyltetradecy lphosphonium 1% Pin on disc (68-74%) reduction in friction Edward Cigno et al. Vegetable Oil Phosphonium based Ionic Liquid 1% Pin on disc Friction, Wear Carlton J. Reeves et al. 4
  • 5. LITERATURE REVIEW (Cont.) Lubricant Additive Wt % Experimental Setup Optimized Parameters/ Factors Reference Polar And Non- Polar Base Oil Phosphonium and ammonium based Ionic Liquid 0.75% Pin on disc Resistance, Friction, Wear Tahreem Naveed et al. Modified Jatropha Oil Graphene Nanoparticles 0.05%,0.075%, 0.1% Pin on disc 50% reduction in wear K Thirumalai Kannan et al. Polyol Ester base Oil aspartic acid and glutamic acid-derived ionic liquids 2% Pin on disc Almost 48% reduction in friction and 21% in wear Ponnekantl Nagendramma Palm Oil Cation Based Ionic Liquid 1% Pin on disc 20% reduction in friction compared to traditional IL Cneng Jiang at el. 5
  • 6. LITERATURE REVIEW (Cont.) Lubricant Additive Wt % Experimental Setup Optimized Parameters/ Factors Reference Polyethylene glycol 200 Cholinium amino acid ionic liquid 0.5 to 2wt% four-ball tribometer maximum reduction of 33.25% for WSD Aathira M.S. et al. Ester propylene glycol dioleate (PGDO) ILS 1 Pin on disk COF Ana-Eva Jimenez et al. Vegetable oil (jatropha oil) Tetrabutyl ammonium bromide ionic liquid 1 Pin on disk friction and wear Neetesh Kumar Sah et al. Bio base oil (trimethylolpropan e trioleate (TMPTO) ( Trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate, trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium decanoate, and 1- butyl-3- methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% four-ball tribometer COF A.Z. Syahir et al. Vegetable oil Halogen and halogen-free phosphonium-based ionic liquid 0.5, 1, 2.5 pin on disk wear Edward Cigno et al. 6
  • 7. PROBLEM STATEMENT Mineral Oils are non-renewable and non- biodegradable. Mineral Oils are harmful for the humans due to its toxic effect on environment. Mineral resources are depleting day by day. Most of the research work is hit and trial based. 7
  • 8. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1. To investigate the wear behavior of Nano Particles based Cotton Seed Oil. 2. Response Surface Methodology-based optimization of additivated Cotton Seed Oil. 8
  • 9. METHODOLOGY Surface Polishing of Samples Cotton Seed Oil and NanoParticle Preparation of Blends using Magnetic Stirrer 9 Cutting, Grinding, Driling and hardening of samples
  • 10. METHODOLOGY Obtaining variable values from Response Surface Methodology(RSM) Calculation for Wear (Archard’s Equation) Production of optimized bio lubricant Performed test on tribotester (pin on plate) 10
  • 11. Plate and Pin • Plate Length = 180mm • Plate With = 68mm • Plate Thickness = 5mm • Pin Diameter = 8mm • Pin length = 26mm 11
  • 12. Base oil • Density of cotton seed oil = 0.925 g/cm3 (According to ASTM standard): - • Viscosity of cotton seed oil with 0.3 concentration of nano particle is 567.6 Centipoise. • Viscosity of cotton seed oil with 0.7 concentration of nano particle is 570.7 Centipoise 12
  • 14. PRIMARY VARIABLE AND RESPONSE Run Factor 1 Load(N) Factor2 Concentration(%) Respone Wear 1 4 0.3 2.348 2 7 0.5 4.07 3 7 0.5 3.94 4 10 0.3 7.825 5 10 0.7 6.751 6 7 0.5 4.03 7 7 0.7 3.937 8 4 0.7 1.397 9 7 0.3 4.791 10 10 0.5 7.134 11 4 0.5 1.735 14
  • 15. ANOVA: - • The primary goal of performing Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is to assess whether our input variables such as load and concentration of Nano particles have a significant effect on response variable which in that case is wear coefficient. • It is desirable that the p-value should be less than 0.05 for the significance of the model and its terms. It is desirable that lack of fit term must be not significant. • We have made the table of ANOVA for analysis of wear coefficient. 15
  • 16. ANOVA: - Source Sum of Square df Mean Square F Value p-value Prob>F Model 45.83 5 9.17 1045.3 <0.0001 significant A-Concentration 1.38 1 1.38 157.51 <0.0001 B-Load 43.90 1 43.90 5005.71 <0.0001 AB 3.78E-003 1 3.782E-3 0.43 0.5404 𝐴2 0.15 1 0.15 17.03 0.0091 𝐵2 0.25 1 0.25 28.36 0.0031 Residual 0.044 5 8.77E-003 Lack of Fit 0.035 3 0.012 2.63 0.2874 Not Significant Pure Error 8.867E-003 2 4.433E-003 Cor Total 45.87 10 16
  • 17. REGRESSION ANALYSIS: - Std.Dev 0.094 R-Squared 0.9990 Mean 4.36 Adj R-Squared 0.9981 C.V.% 2.15 Pred R-Squared 0.9938 PRESS 0.28 Adeq Precision 92.093 17 • It helps in predicting how well there is relation of response variable coefficient of wear and our independent variables (load and concentration of nanoparticles). • R^2 is also called coefficient of determination and its value is ranging from 0 to 1. It tells about statistical model and how well statistical model predicts outcome.
  • 18. REGRESSION EQUATION: - Wear Coefficient = [ +4.06 - 0.48*A + 2.71 *B + 0.031 *A*B + 0.24𝐴2 - 0.31 𝐵2 ] Wear Coefficient= [+1.98844 - 8.11081 * Concentration + 0.43911 * Load -0.051250 * Concentration * Load + 6.0739 * 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛2 - 0.034813 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑2 ] The positive sign with the coefficient indicates that as the parameter increases our response wear coefficient increases and the negative sign indicates response decreases as the parameter value increases. 18
  • 21. Wear Coefficient 3D surface Plot 21
  • 25. GANTT CHART No Activities Duration (Months) Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July 1 Literature Review 2 Purchase Of samples 3 Generation of Matrix RSM 4 Experiment on Tribotester 5 Result Analysis 6 Report Writing 25
  • 26. OUTCOMES Knowledge generation regarding optimum quantity of nanoparticles in biolubricant. Development of optimized additivated bio lubricant Cotton Seed Oil. Research paper will be published. 26
  • 27. REFERENCE • Gusain, R. and Khatri, O.P., 2016. Fatty acid ionic liquids as environmentally friendly lubricants for low friction and wear. RSC advances, 6(5), pp.3462-3469. • González, R., Viesca, J.L., Battez, A.H., Hadfield, M., Fernández-González, A. and Bartolomé, M., 2019. Two phosphonium cation-based ionic liquids as lubricant additive to a polyalphaolefin base oil. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 293, p.111536. • Abdul Sani, A.S., Rahim, E.A. and Samion, S., 2017. Tribological performance of modified jatropha oil containing oil-miscible ionic liquid for machining applications. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 31(12), pp.5675-5685. • Nasser, K.I., del Río, J.M.L., López, E.R. and Fernández, J., 2021. Hybrid combinations of graphene nanoplatelets and phosphonium ionic liquids as lubricant additives for a polyalphaolefin. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 336, p.116266. • Cigno, E., Magagnoli, C., Pierce, M.S. and Iglesias, P., 2017. Lubricating ability of two phosphonium-based ionic liquids as additives of a bio-oil for use in wind turbines gearboxes. Wear, 376, pp.756-765. • Reeves, C.J., Siddaiah, A. and Menezes, P.L., 2018. Tribological study of imidazolium and phosphonium ionic liquid-based lubricants as additives in carboxylic acid-based natural oil: advancements in environmentally friendly lubricants. Journal of cleaner production, 176, pp.241-250. 27
  • 28. Reference: - • Naveed, T., Zahid, R., Mufti, R.A., Waqas, M. and Hanif, M.T., 2021. A review on tribological performance of ionic liquids as additives to bio lubricants. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, 235(9), pp.1782-1806. • Thirumalai Kannan, K. and RameshBabu, S., 2017. Tribological behavior of modified jojoba oil with graphene nanoparticle as additive in SAE20W40 oil using pin on disc tribometer. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 39(17), pp.1842-1848. • Nagendramma, P., Khatri, P.K., Thakre, G.D. and Jain, S.L., 2017. Lubrication capabilities of amino acid based ionic liquids as green bio-lubricant additives. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 244, pp.219-225. • Aathira, M.S., Khatri, P.K. and Jain, S.L., 2018. Synthesis and evaluation of bio-compatible cholinium amino acid ionic liquids for lubrication applications. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 64, pp.420- 429. • Jiménez, A.E. and Bermúdez, M.D., 2008. Imidazolium ionic liquids as additives of the synthetic ester propylene glycol dioleate in aluminium–steel lubrication. Wear, 265(5-6), pp.787-798. • Sah, N.K., Singh, R. and Sharma, V., 2021. Experimental investigations into thermophysical, wettability and tribological characteristics of ionic liquid based metal cutting fluids. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 65, pp.190-205. • Syahir, A.Z., Zulkifli, N.W.M., Masjuki, H.H., Kalam, M.A., Harith, M.H., Yusoff, M.N.A.M., Zulfattah, Z.M. and Jamshaid, M., 2020. Tribological improvement using ionic liquids as additives in synthetic and bio- based lubricants for steel–steel contacts. Tribology Transactions, 63(2), pp.235-250. 28
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