Let’s take a look at the world we live in using a different Perspective. It’s called the SystemsApproach.Next Slide
Take a look at this picture and tell me what you see.Most people will answer - I see a man riding a bicycle.Well, That’s true, but I want you to take a deeper look. What else do you see?The next answer I get is: I see a building in the background.In a way that is looking deeper, but I want you to look deeper in terms of perspective. Focus on the man and the bicycle and think about what’s happening.He’s got his helmet on, he’s pushing on the pedals and he’s riding his bicycle.From my perspective, What I see isn’t just a man riding a bicycle, I see a Transportation System. That’s because I look at the picture with a different perspective. It’s called the Systems Approach. Today I’m going to show you how to view things differently using the Systems Approach.This is going to require some Critical Thinking on your part. You can’t just look at the obvious; you have to look at the picture from a different perspective.We have to break this picture of “Man riding a bicycle” down into two groups of information. First we look at the picture from the “Parts and Pieces Perspective” and then we will look at the same picture from the “How it Works Perspective”.Next slide
As we do this, we have to have a way of describing the different perspectives. For this, we will use what is called a tree diagram. You may have seen these diagrams before as a family tree with the grandparents at the top and the generations of offspring spreading out underneath. Or maybe you have seen the tree diagram used as an organization chart with the headquarters at the top and the different departments or divisions underneath.Next Slide
When you look at the world around you using the Systems Approach, You have to look at things both as individual parts an pieces, and when connected together, as a whole group. In the left window, you see all of the individual parts and pieces of the world you live in. However, it’s not until they are connected together that they actually become an Information System. In the window on the right we look at the same parts and pieces from the “ How it Works” perspective. For this, we look at the steps involved in making your world work from the perspective of INPUT – PROCESS – OUTPUT. When you put the “Parts and Pieces” perspective together with the “How it works “ perspective, Vua-La, You have the SYSTEMS APPROACHNext Slide - #5
I said earlier you were going to have to use your Critical Thinking skills. This involves using your Perspective Glasses.Lets take a look at the man riding the bicycle through your Perspectives glasses.Next slide - #6
Lets go back to the Systems Approach with the man riding a bicycle.
First we’ll look at the Parts and Pieces perspectiveNext slide - #8
From a Systems Approach, the Transportation System can be broken into two parts – we’ll call them subsystems.First is the Propulsion Subsystem and then the Vehicle Subsystem. We can look at them either way, it doesn't make much difference, as long as we use our Perspective glasses.Next slide - #9
So How does this look in the form of a diagram. The System is at the top and the two subsystems are underneath. Using the Systems Approach, the System is at level 1 and the subsystems are at level 2
Again, Using the Systems Approach, and looking at the Parts and Pieces, we can break the Vehicle subsystem down further into more parts and pieces. As you can see, we have the Frame, Wheels, and power Train.Next slide
So How does this look in the form of a diagram. The System is at the top and the two subsystems are underneath and the sub-sub systems are beneath them. Using the Systems Approach, the System is at level 1 and the subsystems are at level 2 and the sub subsystems are at level 3.Next slide
The great thing about the Systems Approach is that you can apply it at any level. Let’s say you only want to be concerned with the wheel. Level 3 now becomes the System Level, level 1, and the parts and pieces of the wheel become the subsystem level, level 2. Next slide
So now the wheel is the System. It is now at the System level and the parts and pieces of the wheel become the subsystem level.Next slide
In terms of the diagram, the wheel is at level 1 and the parts and pieces of the wheel are at level 2.Next slide
Now you can ask the question SO WHAT?
The Systems Approach gives you the power to organize your thinking in such a way that you can tackle very complex problemsNext slide
Next lets look at the other half of the Systems Approach, the How it works perspective.
Again, Using the Systems Approach, and looking at the How it Works perspective, we can break the Transportation System down into Input – Process - & Output. As you can see, the Input is the pedal power being provided by the man, the Process is the conversion of the pedal power into rotary power applied to the rear wheel, and the Output is the forward motion of the Transportation SystemNext slide
So How does this look in the form of a diagram. The Transportation System is at the top and the three subsystems are underneath. Using the Systems Approach, the System is at level 1 and the subsystems are at level 2.Lets pause and take a look at where we are.What we have done so far is to take the Transportation System from the Parts and Pieces perspective and look at how those Parts and Pieces work using the How it works perspective of Input – Process – Output.We can use the same Input – Process – Output perspective at the next levels down of the parts and pieces of the wheel. Next slide
Lets jump down a level to the Wheel. If you think of the wheel as it’s own System, you can apply the How it works perspective of Input- Process - Output
So How does this look in the form of a diagram. The Wheel system is at the top and the three subsystems are underneath. Using the Systems Approach, the System is at level 1 and the subsystems are at level 2.
By now you are asking yourself What’s the point of all this Systems Approach? It is to reorganize your thinking. I want you to look at things as both discrete objects and simultaneously as a part in a larger System. Not only that, When you perceive the parts in the larger system’ I want you to see with both the Parts and Pieces perspective and How it works perspective. Lastly I want you to be able to describe what you see with diagrams.It won’t come easy, but as you study Information Systems, it will give you the tools you need to make sense out of the disorganized bits and pieces of hardware and software you will study along the way.
Eventually when you see someone riding a bicycle, this will be your mental image. Well, maybe not right away, but I’m an optimist. Maybe someday.
Now we’ll take a look at how the same Systems Approach applies to what you are studying – Computer Systems.
The first and most critical step to understanding Computer Fundamentals is to think differently. When you see a computer system, you have to think about it in terms of both the parts and pieces AND How it works
As we study Computer hardware, software, databases, communications, the Internet, and all the other pieces of the information world, The Systems Approach Will give you the tools to both break it down into it’s pieces and parts, and make sense of how they work together.
Let’s take a look at just one example, The Keyboard
As you saw earlier, as a part of a computer system, the keyboard is a subsystem. However, it is also an input device with it’s own parts and pieces so it can also be viewed as a System if all you want to study is the keyboard. From the How it works perspective, you can see how it functions by itself in terms of Input – Process – Output.
As we study the Parts and Pieces and How it Works of Computer Fundamentals, you and your classmates will use the Critical Thinking skills and Systems Approach tools you have learned here to design your own Small Business Information system.
We have used the Critical Thinking skills of different Perspectives and Multiple Views along with the Systems Approach of Parts & Pieces, How it Works and diagramming to lay the foundation for our study of Computer Fundamentals.
Thinking About a System Everything with more than 1 part can be thought of asa SYSTEM Think of a person riding abicycle as a System1. Parts and Pieces Perspectives2. How it works perspective6/14/2013 6
Thinking About the Parts and Pieces Perspective Transportation Systemcan be broken into 2parts (subsystems) Propulsion subsystem Vehicle subsystemParts and PiecesPerspective6/14/2013 8
Transportation Systems DiagramTransportationSystemPropulsionSubsystemVehicleSubsystem6/14/2013 9
Thinking About the Parts and Pieces Perspective Vehicle Sub-System can bebroken into 3 parts (sub-sub-systems) Frame Wheels Power trainParts and PiecesPerspective6/14/2013 10
Transportation Systems DiagramTransportationSystemPropulsionSubsystemVehicleSubsystemFrameWheelsPower Train6/14/2013 11
Transportation Systems DiagramTransportationSystemPropulsionSubsystemVehicleSubsystemFrameWheelsPower Train6/14/2013 12
Thinking About the Parts and Pieces Perspective The Part as a Sub-System of the Vehicle System Think about the wheel as it’s own System of parts andpieces Tire Spokes HubParts andPiecesPerspectiveThink of theSub Systemas it’s ownSystem6/14/2013 13
Systems Approach at a differentlevelWheelTire Spoke Hub6/14/2013 14
Parts and PiecesPerspectiveHow it WorksPerspective6/14/2013 17
Thinking About the How it Works Perspective Transportation Systemcan be broken into 3parts (subsystems) Input (pedal power) Process (convert pedalpower to rotary power) Output (forward motion)How it worksPerspective6/14/2013 18
Transportation Systems Diagram(How it Works)TransportationSystemInput – PedalPowerProcess –Vertical powerto Rotary PowerOutput –ForwardMotion6/14/2013 19
Thinking About the How it Works Perspective The Part as a Sub-Sub-System Think about the wheel as a System Input (turning Hub) Process (Transfer of energythrough spokes) Output (Rotating Tire)How it worksPerspective6/14/2013 20
Wheel Systems Diagram(How it Works)Wheel SystemInput – TurningHubProcess –Transfer energythrough spokesOutput –Rotating tire6/14/2013 21
The System view of How it Works (Input – Process –Output) Bicycle SystemThe System view of Parts and PiecesBicycle SystemPropulsionSubsystem(PersonPedaling )VehicleSubsystem(Bicycle)InputSubsystem(HumanPedalPower)ProcessSubsystem(RotaryMotion)OutputSubsystem(ForwardMotion)ProcessSubsystem(RotaryMotion)InputSubsystem(VerticalMotion)OutputSubsystem(HorizontalMotion)FrameSubsystemWheelSubsystemPower TrainSubsystem6/14/2013 23
Understanding Computers Organize your mind to think about computers interms of:Computer Devices (Parts & Pieces)&Computer Processes (How it works)6/14/2013 25
Viewing How the Computer System Works(Input – Process – Output)InputSubsystem(Keyboard& Mouse)ProcessSubsystem(RAM & CPU)OutputSubsystem(InterfaceCards &Peripherals)ProcessSubsystem(CPU)InputSubsystem(RAM & Bus)OutputSubsystem(High Speedand LowSpeed Bridges& CardsViewing the Computer System as a group ofParts and Pieces6/14/2013 26
Viewing How the Computer System Works(Input – Process – Output)InputSubsystem(Keyboard& Mouse)ProcessSubsystem(RAM & CPU)OutputSubsystem(InterfaceCards &Peripherals)ProcessSubsystem(CPU)InputSubsystem(RAM & Bus)OutputSubsystem(High Speedand LowSpeed Bridges& CardsViewing the Computer System as a group ofParts and Pieces6/14/2013 27
Keyboard DeviceParts & Pieces How it works Keyboard as a DEVICE is made up of Numerical Keypad Text keys Function Keys Special Keys Connection to Computer6/14/2013 28
Viewing How the Computer System Works(Input – Process – Output)InputSubsystem(Keyboard& Mouse)ProcessSubsystem(RAM & CPU)OutputSubsystem(InterfaceCards &Peripherals)ProcessSubsystem(CPU)InputSubsystem(RAM & Bus)OutputSubsystem(High Speedand LowSpeed Bridges& CardsViewing the Computer System as a group ofParts and Pieces6/14/2013 29
Summary Critical Thinking Different Perspective Multiple Views Systems Approach Parts & Pieces How it Works Diagram the levels6/14/2013 30
CongratulationsYou now have theSkills and ToolsTO SUCCEED6/14/2013 31