UUU Phenylalanine UUC Glutamic acid Glycine Leucine UUA UCU UUG UCC AG U C A Serine UCA Aspartic acid C A GU G UC UCG Alanine G U U C A Tyrosine UAU A G UAC C G U A C C Stop G U C A A G U G U G Valine U Cysteine A C C A Stop U G Tryptophan G U Arginine A G U C A C C A Leucine C G Serine U G A C U A A CU Lysine A Proline C U G Asparagine G G A C UG G A C U Threonine ACUGACU Histidine Glutamine Arginine Isolucine Methionine What is the amino acid sequence for the codons: GCA UAC CCC GUA?Animated by Jeff Christopherson alanine tyrosine proline valine
Phenylalanine Leucine Serine Tyrosine Stop Cysteine Stop Tryptophan UUU UUA UCU UAU UAA UGU UGA UGG UUC UUG UCC UAC UAG UGC UCA UGA UCGLeucine Proline Histidine Glutamine ArginineCUU CCU CAU CAA CGUCUC CCC CAC CAG CGCCUA CCA CGACUG CCG CGGIsoleucine Methionine Threonine Asparagine Lysine Serine Arginine AUU AUG ACU AAU AAA AGU AGG AUC ACC AAC AAG AGC AGA AUA ACA ACGValine Alanine Aspartic Acid Glutamic Acid GlycineGUU GCU GAU GAA GGUGUC GCC GAC GAG GGCGUA GCA GGAGUG GCG GGG
C AG U C A A GU G UC G U U C A A G C G U A C C G U C A A G U G U G U A CC AU GG UA G U C C U G A A C C C U G A A A CU C A U G G G A C UG G A C U ACUGACU
RNA and Protein Synthesis A. The Structure of RNA B. Types of RNA C. Transcription D. RNA Editing E. The Genetic Code F. Translation G. The Roles of RNA and DNA H. Genes and Proteins
Concept Map RNA can be Messenger RNA Ribosomal RNA Transfer RNAalso called which functions to also called which functions to also called which functions to Bring Combine mRNA Carry instructions rRNA tRNA amino acids to with proteins ribosome from to to make up DNA Ribosome Ribosomes
TranscriptionAdenine (DNA and RNA)Cystosine (DNA and RNA)Guanine(DNA and RNA)Thymine (DNA only)Uracil (RNA only) RNA polymerase DNA RNA
Translation Nucleus Messenger RNA Messenger RNA is transcribed in the nucleus. Lysine mRNA Phenylalanine tRNA Transfer RNA Methionine The mRNA then enters the cytoplasm and attaches to a ribosome. Translation begins at AUG, the start codon. Each transfer RNA has an anticodon whose bases are complementary to a codon on the mRNA strand. The ribosome positions the start codon to attract its anticodon, which is part of the tRNA that binds methionine. The ribosome also binds the next Ribosome codon and its anticodon.mRNA Start codon
Translation (continued) The Polypeptide “Assembly Line” Growing polypeptide chain The ribosome joins the two amino acids— methionine and phenylalanine—and breaks the bond between methionine and its tRNA. The tRNA floats away, allowing the ribosome Ribosome to bind to another tRNA. The ribosome moves tRNA along the mRNA, binding new tRNA molecules and amino acids. Lysine tRNA mRNA Completing the Polypeptide The process continues until the ribosome reaches one of the three stop codons. The result is amRNA Translation direction growing polypeptide chain. Ribosome
Interest Grabber• Determining the Sequence of a Gene• DNA contains the code of instructions for cells. Sometimes, an error occurs when the code is copied. Such errors are called mutations.
Interest Grabber continued1. Copy the following information about Protein X: Methionine—Phenylalanine —Tryptophan—Asparagine—Isoleucine—STOP.2. Use Figure 12–17 on page 303 in your textbook to determine one possible sequence of RNA to code for this information. Write this code below the description of Protein X. Below this, write the DNA code that would produce this RNA sequence.3. Now, cause a mutation in the gene sequence that you just determined by deleting the fourth base in the DNA sequence. Write this new sequence.4. Write the new RNA sequence that would be produced. Below that, write the amino acid sequence that would result from this mutation in your gene. Call this Protein Y.5. Did this single deletion cause much change in your protein? Explain your answer.