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Fungiopt 100401121730-phpapp02


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Fungiopt 100401121730-phpapp02

  1. 1. Fungal Characteristics       1)Cell wall made of Chitin 2)Heterotrophs and major Decomposers 3)Body is made of Long filaments of hyphae which form a mycelium
  2. 2. An example of Fungi You know
  3. 3. Mushrooms – “Club Like” Fungi or Basidiomycete Fungi
  4. 4. Bracket Fungi – Basidiomycete Fungi
  5. 5. Bread Mold – aZygomycete Fungi
  6. 6. Cup Fungi – Ascomycete Fungi Note the cup shapes and orange peel colour
  7. 7. Kingdom Fungi – you must know 5 Major Phyla1. Phylum Zygomycota = the Bread Molds Rhizopus – black bread mold2. Oomycota = the Water Molds Water mold, potato blight, mildew3. Phylum Ascomycota = the Sac Fungi Yeast, morels, truffles4. Phylum Basidiomycota = the Club Fungi Mushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, rusts, smuts, toadstools5. Phylum Deuteromycota = the Fungi Imperfecti
  8. 8. Zygomycota (Rhizopus) the Common Molds-are primarily decomposers -asexual spores may be produced in sporangia -sexual reproduction occurs between + and – strains forming a 2n zygote; a zygospore develops and may lie dormant for a long period of time; meiosis occurs just before germination -only the zygote is diploid; all hyphae and asexual spores are haploid 
  9. 9. Zygomycota – common moldsThe fungal mass ofhyphae, known asthe MYCELIUMpenetrates thebread andproduces thefruiting bodies ontop of the stalks Mycelia = a mass of hyphae or  filaments
  10. 10. Rhizoids = root-like hyphae The zhizoids meet underground and mating occurs between hyphae of different molds (SEXUAL REPRODUCTION)
  11. 11. Zygomycota (Rhizopus) 
  12. 12. Lifecycle of a Zygomycete Fungi – Asexual then Sexual
  13. 13. Ascomycota – Cup Fungi Life Cycle
  14. 14. Yeast is an Ascomycete Fungus
  15. 15. Morels are Ascomycete Fungi
  16. 16. Basidiomycete or Club Fungi
  17. 17. Life Cycle of Basidiomycete Fungi
  18. 18. Bracket Fungi Puff BallsBasidiomycete Fungi that all produce Basiospores Jelly Fungi Mushrooms
  19. 19. Other Basidiomycetes Rusts and  Smuts Rust infecting Rust infecting Whitrot Smutwheat leaves a Leaf digesting old wood
  20. 20. Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)-Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage has been observed in their life cycle -Members are not closely related and are not necessarily similar in structure or appearance; do not share a common ancestry, polyphyletic = coming from many ancestors – hmm weird 
  21. 21. Deuteromycota – the Fungi Imperfecti• Resemble Ascomycetes, but their reproductive Penicillium fungi  cycle has never been observed• Different from Ascomycetes because there is a definite lack of Up Close sexual reproduction, which is why they are called Imperfect Fungi
  22. 22. Water Molds -- Oomycota The water molds are better known as the  MILDEWS.  Fish tank fuzz is an example. Protist-like mold because share common  characteristics with plant-like protists, such  as the cell wall
  23. 23. Life Cycle of Oomycota
  24. 24. Things to Know about Oomycete Fungi1. Water molds or mildews2. Cause diseases such as potato blight3. Cell walls made of cellulose (like plant)4. Hyphae have multiple nuclei!  Because  the cell walls do not fully close off.5. Spore swims away like a flagellate, which  is why it is protist like (think of Euglena)
  25. 25. Irish Potato Famine of 19th Century Devastated potato crops, causing devastating starvation in Ireland 
  26. 26. Phylum Ex’s Characterist Asexual Sexual icsOomycota Mildew Cellulose cell Flagellated Gametes fuse Spud walls, 2N oospores in blight hyphae from gametangia sporangia creating oosporesZygomycota Rhizopus Chitin cell Unflagel. Gametangia a dung walls spores drop fuse to create fungus Coenocytic = from zygospore hyphae lack sporangia crosswallsAscomycota Yeast, Conidia on Hyphae + & - morels, conidophores fuse to create truffles ascospores in ascus
  27. 27. Basidiomycota Mushroo Cross Asexual by way Sexual when ms walls in of Conidophores hyphae fuse Puffballs, hyphae which produce in BASIDIA rusts, conidiospores to produce smuts basidiosporesFungi Penicilliu Similar Asexual by Sexual reproImperfecti m, To conidia which Not known Athlete’s Basidio produceDeuteromycota Foot conidophores and fungus, Zygomy Tomato Blight
  28. 28. Cross Walls of Hyphae Coenocytic hyphae where the  nucleis of each cell is  embedded in the cytoplasm  without a cell wall Eg.  Zygomycota, Oomycota Hyphae with cross walls Eg. Basidiomycota,  Ascomycota
  29. 29. LichensLichens are mutualistic symbiotic organisms. They have an ____________ fungus and a _________ or cyanobacterial portion. There are three lichen growth forms which are predominant in nature: __________________________________________________
  30. 30. Fruticose Crustose Foliose
  31. 31. Mycorrhizae  Mycorrhizae means “fungus-root”;  mutualistic relationship between  plant and fungi  The plant photosynthesizes while  the fungus more efficiently takes  up nutrients and water from the  rhizosphere than the roots would  alone. Plant benefits include: •Improved nutrient/water uptake  •Improved root growth  •Improved plant growth and yield  •Improved disease resistance  •Reduced transplant shock  •Reduced drought stress 
  32. 32. Soredia are the asexual reproductive part of lichens, containing both symbionts.  Rhizines may be present to anchor the lichen. Notice the distinctive algal layerand the fungal layer present in the above illustration.