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MHD generation ppt


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MHD generation ppt

  1. 1. Group Members: Muhammad Saleem 10-EE-38 EhtishamulHaq 10-EE-48 Mazhar Ali 10-EE-49
  2. 2.  In 1938, U.S scientist Bela Karlovitz introduced the Magneto hydrodynamic generation  The Magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) generator is a device that converts thermal energy of a fuel into electrical energy.  80 % of total electricity produced in the world is hydal, while remaining 20% is produced from nuclear, thermal, solar, geothermal energy and from magneto hydro dynamic (mhd) generator.
  3. 3. The word magneto hydro dynamics (MHD) is derived from magneto-meaning magnetic field, and hydro-meaning liquid, and dynamics meaning movement. Hannes Alfvén worked a lot on MHD generation , for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1970. Magneto hydrodynamics (MHD) is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. Examples of such fluids include plasmas, liquid metals, and salt water.
  4. 4.  In MHD generator, the solid conductors are replaced by a gaseous conductor, an ionized gas. If such a gas is passed at a high velocity through a powerful magnetic field, a current is generated and can be extracted by placing electrodes in suitable position in the stream.  The principle can be explained as follows. “An electric conductor moving through a magnetic field induces electric field and current.”
  5. 5. Thermal resistance sealing Water cooler Working fluid Inlet combustion Chamber S Electrode Ionized Gas N Nozzle Magnet Load V output Stream out
  6. 6. MHD generator consist of a Combusion chamber and generator chamber. The fliud conductor is passed into the combusion where they are ionized at very high temperature. chamber There is a nozzel through which the ionized gas pass into the generator chamber. The generator chamber consist of powerful magnet and a number of oppositely located electrode pair is inserted in the channel to conduct the electrical current generated to an external load. Both combusion chamber and generator chamber are suurounded by a heat resistance material and water cooler
  7. 7.      The gaseous (fluid) conductor is passed into the combustion chamber through inlet. By using a fuel like oil (or) natural gas (or) coal, the fluid conductor is heated to a plasma state and hence it is ionized. The temperature in the combustion chamber is around 2000°K to 2400°K. The heat generated in the combustion chamber removes the outermost electrons in the fluid conductor. Therefore, the gas particle acquires the charge
  8. 8.  The charged gas particles with high velocity enters into the generator chamber via nozzle.  The positive and negative charge moves to corresponding electrodes and constitute the current.  The direction of current is perpendicular to both the direction of moving gas particle and to the magnetic field.
  9. 9.    The electrodes are connected to an external circuit to get a load output. The current produced in the generator are direct current (DC) MHD This DC current can be converted into alternative current (AC) using an inverter attached with the external circuit. .
  10. 10.  The on and off time is about second.  There are no moving parts, it is very reliable to use.  The MHD generator has high thermal efficiency  It is a direct conversion device.  They have a better fuel utilization  It can produce large amount of power  The size of the pant is small
  11. 11.  They need high pure superconductor.  Working temperature is very high as about 200°K to 2400°K.  The loss of power if very high  The components get high corrosion due to high working temperature.
  12. 12.     The MHD generators are used to power submarines and aircrafts. Electrical power applications production for domestic They are used in rocket for space application They can be used as power plants in industry and uninterrupted power supply system
  13. 13. ANY QUESTION???????? THANKS………