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Writing research thesis literature review


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Writing research thesis literature review

  1. 1. Literature Review Khazima Tahir Muhammed Riaz La Saundra Haynes
  2. 2. Contents 1. Literature review – What and why 2. Searching and finding print and online sources 3. Evaluating sources for relevance and reliability 4. Reading critically 5. Analyzing and synthesizing findings 6. Writing and presenting literature review 7. Citing sources in text and reference list / bibliography 8. Avoiding plagiarism
  3. 3. Literature ReviewLiterature Review What is Literature Review?
  4. 4. 4 Literature review - DefinitionLiterature review - Definition  A body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge on a particular topic  A comprehensive survey of publications in a specific field of study or related to a particular line of research  Non-quantitative summary of existing published literature made by experts who select and weigh findings available from the literature  A summary and interpretation of research findings reported in the literature  A process and documentation of the current relevant research literature regarding a particular topic or subject of interest.
  5. 5. 5 Purposes of literature reviewPurposes of literature review  Define and limit problem ◦ Develop familiarity with topic ◦ Limit research to a subtopic within larger body of knowledge  Place study in historical perspective ◦ Analysis of way in which study relates to existing knowledge  Avoid unintentional and unnecessary replication ◦ Awareness of prior studies so as to avoid unneeded replication ◦ Replication is reasonable if it is needed to verify prior results, investigate results that failed to be significant, or relate problem to a specific site.
  6. 6. 6 Purposes of literature reviewPurposes of literature review  Select promising methods and measures ◦ Knowledge of and insight into specific research designs for investigating a problem ◦ Awareness of specific instruments, sampling procedures, and data analyses  Relate findings to previous knowledge and suggest future research needs ◦ Relating prior research to what is known places current study in perspective ◦ This knowledge allows researcher to focus problem on what is not known  Develop research hypotheses ◦ Suggestions for specific research hypotheses
  7. 7. 7 Meta-analysis •Quantitatively combines the results of studies that are the result of a systematic literature review. •Capable of performing a statistical analysis of the pooled results of relevant studies. Literature review designs Narrative review •Selective review of the literature that broadly covers a specific topic. •Does not follow strict systematic methods to locate and synthesize articles. Systematic review •Utilizes exacting search strategies to make certain that the maximum extent of relevant research has been considered. •Original articles are methodologically appraised and synthesized.
  8. 8. 8 When we need to do aWhen we need to do a literature reviewliterature review At the beginning of the research project ◦ Proposal ◦ Chapter 2, 1 & 3 Constantly update during the research When writing the discussion and conclusion chapters
  9. 9. 9 What is literatureWhat is literature Books Journals Conference papers Theses and dissertations Bibliographies Maps Internet Indexes/Abstracts Audio-visual material CDs/DVDs Electronic databases Government reports Magazines Newspapers Grey literature Interviews and other unpublished research
  10. 10. 10 Three types of literatureThree types of literature
  11. 11. ActivityActivity Enlist the literature usually used in your discipline.
  12. 12. 12 Searching and FindingSearching and Finding Information SourcesInformation Sources
  13. 13. 13 Start searchingStart searching
  14. 14. 14 Start searchingStart searching
  15. 15. 15 Finding information sourcesFinding information sources Formal ways ◦ University libraries ◦ Special libraries and government departments ◦ Inter-library loan Informal ways ◦ Authors ◦ Personal libraries of experts ◦ Your friends
  16. 16. 16 Bibliographic aidsBibliographic aids Library catalog Indexing journal Abstracting journal Bibliography Bibliographic database People ◦ Experts ◦ Librarians
  17. 17. 17 Online Searching TechniquesOnline Searching Techniques Boolean Operators Phrase Searching Truncation / Wildcard Searching Focusing / Limiting a Search
  18. 18. 18 Boolean OperatorsBoolean Operators AND OR NOT Boolean operators allow you to join terms together, widen a search or exclude terms from your search results. This means you can be more precise in locating your information.
  19. 19. 19 Boolean Operators at EmeraldBoolean Operators at Emerald
  20. 20. 20 Phrase SearchingPhrase Searching It narrows your search down by searching for an exact phrase or sentence. It is particularly useful when searching for a title or a quotation. Usually quotation marks are used to connect the words together. For example “Towards a healthier Scotland”
  21. 21. 21 Truncation / WildcardTruncation / Wildcard These search techniques retrieve information on similar words by replacing part of the word with a symbol usually a * or ?. However, different databases use different symbols, so check what is used. In truncation the end of the word is replaced. ◦ For example physiother* will retrieve physiotherapy, physiotherapeutic, physiotherapist and so on. In wildcard searching, letters from inside the word are replaced. ◦ For example wom*n will retrieve the terms woman and women.
  22. 22. 22 Focusing / Limiting a SearchFocusing / Limiting a Search There are many ways to focus your search and all search tools offer different ways of doing this. Some of the ways of limiting your search are as follows: Date Language Place Publication type Age groups Type of material e.g. you could just need to find case studies
  23. 23. 23 General Search EnginesGeneral Search Engines Google Yahoo AltaVista FAST Search MSN Search Lycos Excite
  24. 24. 24 Google Simple SearchGoogle Simple Search
  25. 25. 25 Google Advanced SearchGoogle Advanced Search
  26. 26. 26 Scholarly Search EnginesScholarly Search Engines Google Scholar Infomine Librarians’ Internet Index Intute Pinakes Business Research ISI Web of Science
  27. 27. 27 Librarians’ Internet IndexLibrarians’ Internet Index
  28. 28. 28 Subject DirectoriesSubject Directories Also called Information Gateways and Virtual Libraries  Yahoo Directory  Google Directory  Librarians’ Internet Index   Infomine  The WWW Virtual Library  Specialized Subject Directories ◦ Abi Logic ◦ Solid Crawler ◦ Academic Info ◦ SOSIG - Social Science Information Gateway
  29. 29. 29 Yahoo DirectoryYahoo Directory
  30. 30. 30 Electronic Theses andElectronic Theses and Dissertations - ETDsDissertations - ETDs Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations ◦ Catalog of theses and doctoral dissertations contributed by some 176 universities and 27 institutions worldwide British Library EThOS ◦ 250,000+ theses of British universities ◦ Many are free Proquest Dissertations & Theses Database ◦ World’s most comprehensive collection of dissertations and theses with over 2.7 million titles
  31. 31. 31 Networked Digital Library ofNetworked Digital Library of Theses and DissertationsTheses and Dissertations
  32. 32. 32 Online DatabasesOnline Databases Bibliographic databases ◦ ERIC, Agricola, Medline, EconLit, PsychINFO Numeric databases ◦ Stat-USA, UN Common Database Full text databases ◦ ScienceDirect, Emerald, JSTOR
  33. 33. 33 ERIC DatabaseERIC Database
  34. 34. 34 Science Direct DatabaseScience Direct Database
  35. 35. 35 Free e-booksFree e-books Gigapedia ◦ 300,000+ books, the largest e-book repository The Online Books Page ◦ 35,000+ books Project Gutenberg ◦ 30,000+ books Internet Public Library ◦ 20,000+ books
  36. 36. 36 HEC – Online ResourcesHEC – Online Resources National Digital Library ◦ Over 30 databases with over 23,000 journals ◦ Accessible by 250 institutions in Pakistan ◦ 50,000 e-books ◦ Links to open access resources Pakistan Research Repository ◦ Full text of over 1800 Pakistani doctoral theses
  37. 37. 37 HEC – National Digital LibraryHEC – National Digital Library
  38. 38. 38 Pakistan Research RepositoryPakistan Research Repository
  39. 39. 39 Library web OPACsLibrary web OPACs Libdex ◦ Worldwide index of library catalogs WorldCat ◦ 1.4 billion items from 10,000+ libraries worldwide Library of Congress The British Library National Library of Pakistan
  40. 40. ActivityActivity Enlist 10 keywords related to your research topic. Search these online resources and mention 10 most relevant and helpful resources of your discipline.
  41. 41. 41 Evaluating InformationEvaluating Information SourcesSources
  42. 42. 42 Evaluating information sources forEvaluating information sources for relevance – Bookrelevance – Book Skim its index for your key words, then skim the pages on which those words occur. Skim the first and last paragraphs in chapters that use a lot of your key words. Skim introduction, summary chapters, and so on. Skim the last chapter, especially the first and last two or three pages. If the source is a collection of articles, skim the editor’s introduction. Check the bibliography for titles relevant to your topic.
  43. 43. 43 Evaluating information sources forEvaluating information sources for relevance – Articlerelevance – Article Read the abstract. Skim the introduction and conclusion, or if they are not marked by headings, skim the first six or seven paragraphs and the last four or five. Skim for section headings, and read the first and last paragraphs of those sections. Check the bibliography for titles relevant to your topic.
  44. 44. 44 Evaluating information sources forEvaluating information sources for relevance – Onlinerelevance – Online If it looks like a printed article, follow the steps for a journal article. Skim sections labeled “introduction,” “overview,” “summary,” or the like. If there are none, look for a link labeled “About the Site” or something similar. If the site has a link labeled “Site Map” or “Index,” check it for your key words and skim the referenced pages. If the site has a “search” resource, type in your key words.
  45. 45. 45 Use colour post-its to markUse colour post-its to mark relevancerelevance ◦Red - high relevance ◦Blue – medium relevance ◦Yellow – low relevance
  46. 46. 46 Audience Authority Bias Currency Scope Evaluating information sources for reliability
  47. 47. 47 AudienceAudience What age group/education level/political affiliation/etc. is the audience? Is this for a person with in- depth knowledge or a layperson?
  48. 48. 48 AuthorityAuthority Does the author’s name appear on the Web page? What are his/her credentials? Does the author provide contact information?
  49. 49. 49 BiasBias Is the source objective? Could the writer or the organization’s affiliation put a different spin on the information presented? What is the purpose of the source?
  50. 50. 50 CurrencyCurrency When was the work published? When was the work last updated? How old are the sources or items in the bibliography? How current is the topic? If a Web page, do the links work?
  51. 51. 51 ScopeScope What does/doesn’t the work cover? Is it an in-depth study (many pages) or superficial (one page)? Are sources and statistics cited? If a site, does it offer unique info not found in any other source?
  52. 52. ActivityActivity What was your practice for searching the literature? How would you incorporate these tips for enhancing your searching skills?
  53. 53. 53 Critical ReadingCritical Reading
  54. 54. 54 What is “critical reading?”What is “critical reading?” “Critical” is not intended to have a negative meaning in the context of “critical reading.” Definition: An active approach to reading that involves an in depth examination of the text. Memorization and understanding of the text is achieved. Additionally, the text is broken down into its components and examined critically in order to achieve a meaningful understanding of the material.
  55. 55. 55 Passive vs. Active ReadingPassive vs. Active Reading Passive Reading: - (4 traits) 1. Largely inactive process. 2. Low motivation to examine the text critically or at an in-depth level. 3. Important pieces of data and assumptions may be missed. 4. Data and assumptions that are perceived by the passive reader are accepted at face value or are examined superficially, with little thought.
  56. 56. 56 Passive vs. Active ReadingPassive vs. Active Reading • Active Reading: - Active reading involves interacting with the text and therefore requires significantly more energy than passive reading. • Critical reading ALWAYS involves active reading. The active reader invests sufficient effort to understand the text and commit important details to memory. • The active reader identifies important pieces of data, the assumptions underlying arguments, and examines them critically. They rely on their personal experiences and knowledge of theory to analyze the text.
  57. 57. 57 Techniques of Critical ReadingTechniques of Critical Reading 1. Previewing 2. Writing 3. Critical Reading (at least two times) 4. Summarizing 5. Forming a Critical Response 6. Finding a Focus for Your Paper
  58. 58. 58 PreviewingPreviewing Form meaningful expectations about the reading. Pace yourself – decide how much time you will dedicate to the reading. Skimming. ◦ Look for Title, Section Headings, Date ◦ Expectations about the Author (previous works) ◦ Define the important vocabulary words ◦ Brief summaries of chapters ◦ The goal is to obtain a general grasp of the text
  59. 59. 59 WritingWriting 1. Writing While Reading a. Margin b. Divided Page Method c. Landmark/Footnote Method d. Reading Journal e. Online Documents
  60. 60. 60 Writing - MarginWriting - Margin Mark, highlight, or underline parts of the text that you think are very important. Option 1 - Write a few words in the margin that capture the essence of your reaction. Option 2 – Write a few words that will help you to remember the passage. This is useful for learning definitions or parts of a theory.
  61. 61. 61 Divided Page MethodDivided Page Method On a separate piece of paper, divide your page into two columns. Label one column “text” (meaning from your reading) and the other “response” (meaning your response). Write down a part of the text you think is important in the “text” column and then write a reaction to it in the other column.
  62. 62. 62 Landmark/Footnote MethodLandmark/Footnote Method On a separate piece(s) of paper or in your reading journal, dedicate an adequate amount of space to an article, book, chapter, etc, you are reading. Highlight, mark, or underline a critical part in your reading. In the margin, indicate that you are going to write a footnote. For example, write a 1 or a (or whatever you want). In your reading journal, write a ‘1’ or ‘a’ (or whatever symbol you chose) and then write your critical response.
  63. 63. 63 Reading JournalReading Journal  In addition to the other uses described above, use the reading journal to track what you are reading and to form critical responses to articles, chapters, etc you have read in their entirety.  Try to summarize the entire article, describe the main points, define key terms, and express your reactions.  Remember, do NOT refer back to the text until you absolutely have to! Give your memory a workout! Force yourself to learn the material as you read and be able to write it down clearly afterwards.  Also, put concepts into your own words.  A general rule is 3-5 pages of notes per 100 pages of text.
  64. 64. 64 Online DocumentsOnline Documents Two ways to write while reading online documents… 1) Reading Journal 2) Cut and Paste in Word Processor, then insert comments
  65. 65. 65 First ReadingFirst Reading Read in an environment where you will be free from distractions. Read steadily and smoothly. Try to enjoy the work. Write notes, but do so sparingly. What works best for you? We suggest avoiding your cell phone, television, computer, and music.
  66. 66. 66 Second ReadingSecond Reading  Re-read the material more slowly than during your first read.  The two most important objectives are: 1. Understand the content of the material 2. Understand the material’s structure
  67. 67. 67 3 Responses to Texts3 Responses to Texts  Restatement- Restating what a text says; talking about the original topic.  Description- Describing what a text does; identifies aspects of text.  Interpretation- Analyze what a text means; asserts an overall meaning.
  68. 68. 68 SummarizationSummarization Summarization: Pull out the main points of the text and write them down. The summary’s complexity and length will vary according to the complexity and length of the text you have read!
  69. 69. 69 Forming Your Critical ResponseForming Your Critical Response Analysis Interpretation Synthesis In forming your critical response, you will now go beyond what the author has explicitly written to form your impressions of the text.
  70. 70. 70 AnalysisAnalysis  Analysis is the separation of something into its parts or elements, which helps to examine them more closely.  To analyze reading, you can take at least these two approaches: 1) Choose a question to guide analysis. 2) Look at the author’s argument structure.
  71. 71. 71 Analysis (continued)Analysis (continued) Examine the argument structure. Claims: Statements that require support by evidence. Assumptions: The writer’s underlying beliefs, opinions, principles, or inferences that connect evidence to the claims.
  72. 72. 72 Analysis (continued)Analysis (continued) Types of evidence ◦ Facts: Verifiable evidence. ◦ Opinion: Judgments based upon facts. ◦ Expert Opinion: Judgments formed by authorities on a given subject. ◦ Appeal to Beliefs or Needs: Readers are asked to accept a claim in part because they already accept it as true WITHOUT factual evidence or because it coincides with their needs. ◦ Appeal to Emotion: A claim that is persuasive because it evokes an emotion within the reader, but may or may not rely on factual evidence.
  73. 73. 73 Analysis (continued)Analysis (continued) To judge the reliability of evidence, look at the following areas: ◦ Accuracy ◦ Relevance ◦ Representativeness ◦ Adequacy
  74. 74. 74 Analysis (continued)Analysis (continued) Logical Fallacies: Errors in reasoning. Examples: ◦ Red herring- introduction of an irrelevant issue in an argument. ◦ Non sequitur- linking two or more ideas that have no logical connection. ◦ Making broad generalizations without proven empirical evidence.
  75. 75. 75 InterpretationInterpretation After breaking down the text into its components and examining them, ask yourself about the conclusions you can draw from this evidence. What claims does the author make? What evidence supports these claims? Can you infer anything beyond what the author has explicitly written that either strengthens or weakens the claims made by the author?
  76. 76. 76 SynthesisSynthesis Now that you have broken down the text into its parts, analyzed them, and interpreted it all, you should make new connections with what you know. Ask yourself again: ◦ What are the main points of this text? ◦ Were my expectations for this article met? ◦ If I “read in between the lines” do I learn anything else about what the author is saying? ◦ Overall, what can I conclude from this text?
  77. 77. 77 Analyzing andAnalyzing and Synthesizing FindingsSynthesizing Findings
  78. 78. 78 Completely in each topic togetherCompletely in each topic together Take notesTake notes in an organized manner:in an organized manner: computer files, note cards, files, note cards, etc. Include all bibliographic info, especiallyInclude all bibliographic info, especially page number when quoting!page number when quoting! Flag like information with same color post-Flag like information with same color post- its across articles.its across articles. Read the articlesRead the articles
  79. 79. 79 SummarizeSummarize main purpose (research questions)main purpose (research questions) methodologymethodology ◦ qualitative/quantitativequalitative/quantitative ◦ subjects, controls, treatmentssubjects, controls, treatments findingsfindings relevant detailsrelevant details
  80. 80. 80 varying definitions of key termsvarying definitions of key terms methodology usedmethodology used ◦ size & generalizability of subjectsize & generalizability of subject poolpool ◦ innovative methodologyinnovative methodology enough evidence?enough evidence? findings consistent with those of similarfindings consistent with those of similar studies?studies? AnalyzeAnalyze
  81. 81. 81 AnalyzeAnalyze currency: lit review shows the latest workcurrency: lit review shows the latest work done in subject area. (last 5 years ondone in subject area. (last 5 years on average)average) Include older articles if:Include older articles if: landmark studylandmark study only evidence on a topiconly evidence on a topic helps explain the evolution of thehelps explain the evolution of the researchresearch
  82. 82. 82 Synthesize the LiteratureSynthesize the Literature How does each article relate to your topicHow does each article relate to your topic and purpose?and purpose? Define your argument/thesis.Define your argument/thesis. Identify major trends or patternsIdentify major trends or patterns emerging from your reading.emerging from your reading.
  83. 83. 83 SynthesizeSynthesize Reassemble your notes based on results ofReassemble your notes based on results of reading, using organizational aids such as post-reading, using organizational aids such as post- its, flags, etc.its, flags, etc. Revise original outline of categoriesRevise original outline of categories Create a detailed topic outlineCreate a detailed topic outline ◦ begin with your “argument” or claimbegin with your “argument” or claim ◦ present evidence from articles researched that provespresent evidence from articles researched that proves your claimyour claim Do not string together a summary of articles. TheDo not string together a summary of articles. The outline is topic driven.outline is topic driven.
  84. 84. 84 SynthesizeSynthesize Note landmark studies and if replicated.Note landmark studies and if replicated. Note how individual studies help illustrateNote how individual studies help illustrate or advance theoretical notions.or advance theoretical notions. Note gaps or areas needing moreNote gaps or areas needing more research.research. Make sure your detailed outline follows aMake sure your detailed outline follows a logical sequence of topics and subtopics.logical sequence of topics and subtopics. This will give your literature review theThis will give your literature review the coherence it needs.coherence it needs.
  85. 85. 85 Writing and PresentingWriting and Presenting Literature ReviewLiterature Review
  86. 86. 86 Structure of review articlesStructure of review articles Literature reviews are in reality a type of research Should conform to the anatomy of a typical scholarly article ◦ Abstract ◦ Introduction ◦ Methods ◦ Results ◦ Discussion ◦ Conclusion ◦ References
  87. 87. 87 Structure of literature reviewStructure of literature review  Introduction • Gives a quick idea of the topic of the literature review, such as the central theme or organizational pattern.  Body • Contains your discussion of sources.  Conclusions/Recommendations • Discuss what you have drawn from reviewing literature so far. Where might the discussion proceed?
  88. 88. 88 Organization of literatureOrganization of literature reviewreview A general organization looks like a funnel ◦ Broader topics ◦ Subtopics ◦ Studies like yours
  89. 89. 89 How to organize studiesHow to organize studies Chronological ◦ By publication date ◦ By trend Thematic ◦ A structure which considers different themes Methodological ◦ Focuses on the methods of the researcher, e.g., qualitative versus quantitative approaches
  90. 90. 90 Making links between studiesMaking links between studies Agreements  Similarly, author B points to…  Likewise, author C makes the case that…  Author D also makes this point…  Again, it is possible to see how author E agrees with author D… Disagreements  However, author B points to…  On the other hand, author C makes the case that…  Conversely, Author D argues…  Nevertheless, what author E suggests…
  91. 91. 91 Summary tableSummary table  It is useful to prepare.  Such a table provides a quick overview that allows the reviewer to make sense of a large mass of information.  The tables could include columns with headings such as ◦ Author ◦ type of study ◦ Sample ◦ Design ◦ data collection approach ◦ key findings
  92. 92. 92 Citation Sample Environment Method Conclusions Colour Bellizzi, Crowley and Hasty (1983) 125 Adults Furniture store Laboratory experiment Photographic slide simulations Warm and cool colours created different emotional responses. Customers view red retail environments as more negative and unpleasant than blue. Bellizzi, & Hite (1992) 70 Adult women 107 Students Televisions shown with different colour backgrounds Furniture stores Laboratory experiments Photographic slide simulations Study based on PAD affect measures and approach- avoidance behaviours. More positive retail outcomes occurred in blue environments than red. Music Smith and Curnow (1966) 1100 Supermarket shoppers Retail store Field experiment Time in store reduced with loud music but level of sales did not. Milliman (1982) 216 Shoppers Supermarket Field experiment The tempo of background music influenced the pace at which customers shopped. Slow tempo music slowed customers down but resulted in increased volume of sales. Hui, Dubé and Chebat (1997) 116 Students Bank branch - waiting for service. Laboratory experiment Video simulation The positive impact of music on approach behaviours is mediated by an emotional evaluation of the environment and the emotional response to waiting. Pleasurable music produced longer perceived waiting times. Lighting Areni and Kim (1994) 171 Shoppers Wine store Field experiment The investigation found that brighter in-store lighting influenced shoppers to examine and handle more of the merchandise in the store Summers and Hebert (2001) 2367 Customers Hardware store Apparel store Field experiment Confirmed Areni and Kims (1994) results. Increased levels of lighting will produce arousal and pleasure and increase the approach behaviours of customers. Summarytableofliterature Atmosphericsinserviceenvironments
  93. 93. 93 Citation stylesCitation styles Information prominent citation Example: ◦ For viscoelastic fluids, the behaviour of the time- dependent stresses in the transient shear flows is also very important (Boger et al., 1974). Author prominent citation Examples: ◦ Close (1983) developed a simplified theory using an analogy between heat and mass transfer and the equivalent heat transfer only case. ◦ Several authors have suggested that automated testing should be more readily accepted (Balcer, 1989; Stahl, 1989; Carver & Tai, 1991).
  94. 94. 94 Active or passive voiceActive or passive voice You should use, where appropriate, both active and passive voice As a general rule, use active voice unless there is good reason not to
  95. 95. 95 A Good Literature Review is:A Good Literature Review is:  Focused - The topic should be narrow. You should only present ideas and only report on studies that are closely related to topic.  Concise - Ideas should be presented economically. Don’t take any more space than you need to present your ideas.  Logical - The flow within and among paragraphs should be a smooth, logical progression from one idea to the next  Developed - Don’t leave the story half told.  Integrative - Your paper should stress how the ideas in the studies are related. Focus on the big picture. What commonality do all the studies share? How are some studies different than others? Your paper should stress how all the studies reviewed contribute to your topic.  Current - Your review should focus on work being done on the cutting edge of your topic.
  96. 96. 96 PitfallsPitfalls  Vagueness due to too much or inappropriate generalizations  Limited range  Insufficient information  Irrelevant material  Omission of contrasting view  Omission of recent work
  97. 97. 97 Common errors inCommon errors in reviewing literaturereviewing literature Hurrying through review to get started could mean that you will miss something that will improve your research. Relying too heavily upon secondary sources. Concentrating on findings rather than methods. Overlooking sources other than academic journals. Don’t forget newspaper articles, magazines, blogs, etc. Searching too broad or too narrow of a topic. Inaccuracy in the compiling of bibliographic information.
  98. 98. ActivityActivity What do you know about good literature review?
  99. 99. Citing ReferencesCiting References in Your Researchin Your Research (APA Style)(APA Style)
  100. 100. Some Important TermsSome Important Terms Used in Research WorkUsed in Research Work • Citation • References • Footnote
  101. 101. Learning CheckLearning Check What is the sharp difference between Citation, References, bibliography and foot-note.
  102. 102. Citation A reference or listing of the key pieces of information about a work that makes it possible to identify and locate it again.
  103. 103. What we quoted in the text consists of author name (Not inverted), title and pages of sources it could be as footnote, at the end of chapter or at the end of thesis. ReferenceReference
  104. 104. In the context of academic research, a list of books or references to sources cited, for further reading, usually printed at the end of an article or in the back matter of a book includes author name (inverted), title, year, place of publication, publisher. BibliographyBibliography
  105. 105. Any note used to further explain a detail outside of the main text. The term usually refers to notes at the bottom of a page OP Cited (for reference already given in list) op. cited ref No 11, H.M Deitel Ibid (for the same reference use) Foot NoteFoot Note
  106. 106. Various Style ManualsVarious Style Manuals APA – American Psychological Association MLA – Modern Language Association Chicago Style – Chicago Manual of Style Turabian Style – based on Chicago Style Harvard Referencing System ASA – American Sociological Association CBE - Council of Biology Editors
  107. 107. 107 APA styleAPA style American Psychological Association In 1929, published instructions for authors on how to prepare manuscripts for APA journals Later used for theses, term papers, etc. Latest edition 6th in 2009 Widely used in social sciences
  108. 108. 108 Citing references – OutlineCiting references – Outline Identifying and formatting citing elements Citing in text Preparing reference list / bibliography
  109. 109. 109 Citing ElementsCiting Elements
  110. 110. 110 Citing ElementsCiting Elements The elements of a citation normally include: Author or authoring body Date of publication Title of the work Edition Publisher Place of publication Title of the source Location information within the source URL or DOI Non-routine information (page no, Volume no, etc.)
  111. 111. 111 AuthorAuthor Surname and initials Kernis, M. H. Hyphenated first name Sun, C.-R. Editor’s name Robinson, D. N. (Ed.) No author Entry under title Delete Prof., Dr., Maj., Retd., etc.
  112. 112. 112 Authoring body or groupAuthoring body or group Full name National Institute of Health Subordinate body University of the Punjab, Institute of Business Administration Government agencies Pakistan, Ministry of Finance
  113. 113. 113 Date of publicationDate of publication Journal, book, AV media 1993 Meeting, Monthly magazine, Newsletter 1993, June 1993, Spring Daily, Weekly 1994, September 28 Accepted work but not yet published in press No date available n.d. Publication over long period 1959-1963 Republished work, a note at the end (Original work published 1923)
  114. 114. 114 Title of the workTitle of the work Title of book Title of book chapter Title of journal article Title of encyclopedia article Subtitle with colon
  115. 115. 115 EditionEdition Edition you used Edition in Arabic numeral 2nd ed. Rev. ed. 4th rev. ed.
  116. 116. 116 PublisherPublisher Publisher name for non periodicals In a brief form Omit superfluous terms, such as Publishers, Publications, Co., Inc. Sage Wiley McGraw-Hill Prentice Hall Ferozsons Use only word “Author” when author and publisher is the same
  117. 117. 117 Place of publicationPlace of publication Name of city If city is not well known then add state/province and/or country Jaipur, India Medford, NJ US postal service abbreviations for states (2-digit codes) CA for California If more cities are given, use the first or the publisher’s head office if clearly mentioned
  118. 118. 118 Title of the sourceTitle of the source Title of the book in case of a book chapter Title of the journal in case of journal article Journal title in full Harvard Business Review Not Har. Bus. Rev. Not HBR
  119. 119. 119 LocationLocation Journal volume and issue number in Arabic numerals 33(4) Volume of a book Vols. 1-20 (Vol.26, pp. 501-508) Start and end (inclusive) page numbers for journal article or book chapter 215-224 (pp. 215-224) Discontinuous pages 5-7, 11-12
  120. 120. 120 URL or DOIURL or DOI Uniform Resource Locator (URL) Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 10.1037/0002-9432.76.4.482
  121. 121. 121 Non-routine informationNon-routine information Give nonroutine but important information in square brackets [Letter to the editor] [Special issue] [Brochure] [Abstract]
  122. 122. 122 Citing in textCiting in text
  123. 123. 123 Author’s name in sentenceAuthor’s name in sentence Schwepps (1998) states that the solution sat dormant for several months before any of the employees tested it (p. 743).
  124. 124. 124 Author’s name in parenthesesAuthor’s name in parentheses When the solution had been sitting for a number of months, the employees tested for bacteria (Schwepps, 1998).
  125. 125. 125 Short quotationShort quotation When fewer than 40 words Put prose quotation in running text Put quote marks around quoted material Author’s last name, publication year, and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text
  126. 126. 126 Example – Short quotationExample – Short quotation Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p. 11). A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p. 11).
  127. 127. 127 Long quotationsLong quotations When 40 words or more In block form Indent 5-7 spaces and omit the quotation marks. If the quotation has internal paragraphs, indent the internal paragraphs a further 5-7 spaces Do not use quotation marks Double space the block quote Cite the source after the end punctuation of the quote
  128. 128. 128 Example – Long quotationExample – Long quotation Meile (1993) found the following: The “placebo effect,” which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again, even when real drugs were administered. Earlier studies were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (p. 276)
  129. 129. 129 Secondary referenceSecondary reference In 1947 the World Health Organization proposed the following definition of health. “Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity” (World Health Organization, as cited in Potter & Perry, 2001, p. 3).
  130. 130. 130 Multiple authorsMultiple authors 2 authors – cite both names separated by & Example: (Kosik & Martin, 1999, p. 127) 3-5 authors – cite all authors first time; after first time, use et al. Example: (Wilson et al., 2000) 6 or more authors – cite first author’s name and et al. Example: (Perez et al., 1992)
  131. 131. 131 Multiple citationsMultiple citations Multiple sources from same author – chronological order, separated by comma (Burke, 1998, 1999, in press) Within same year: (Burke, 1998a, 1998b, 1999, in press) Multiple sources – separated by semicolon, alphabetical order (Burke, 1998; Perez, 1992; Wilhite, 2001)
  132. 132. 132 Personal communicationPersonal communication Personal communication (email, phone, conversation, letter, etc.) (T.K. Lutes, personal communication, September 19, 2001) Not included in reference list
  133. 133. 133 Handling parentheticalHandling parenthetical citationscitations More than one author with the same last name (H. James, 1878); (W. James, 1880) Specific part of a source (Jones, 1995, chap. 2)
  134. 134. 134 Handling parentheticalHandling parenthetical citationscitations If the source has no known author, then use an abbreviated version of the title: Full Title: “California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers” Citation: (“California,” 2009)
  135. 135. 135 Sample parenthetical citationsSample parenthetical citations Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Higonnet et al (1987), Marcus (1989), and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include women’s personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects. Feminist researchers now concur that “It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt & Tate, p. 2). Though these studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions originating in Fussell (1975) and Bergonzi (1996). However, Tylee (1990) further criticizes Fussell, arguing that his study “treated memory and culture as if they belonged to a sphere beyond the existence of individuals or the control of institutions” (p. 6).
  136. 136. 136 Reference List /Reference List / BibliographyBibliography
  137. 137. 137 Reference listReference list Place the list of references cited at the end of the paper Start references on a new page Begin each entry flush with the left margin Indent subsequent lines five to seven spaces (hanging indent) Double space both within and between entries Italicize the title of books, magazines, etc.
  138. 138. 138 Reference list orderReference list order Arrange sources alphabetically beginning with author’s last name If author has more than one source, arrange entries by year, earliest first When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation as the first author of a group, list the one author entries first If no author given, begin entry with the title and alphabetize without counting a, an, or the Do not underline, italicize or use quote marks for titles used instead of an author name
  139. 139. 139 Example – Reference list orderExample – Reference list order ◦ Baheti, J. R. (2001a). Control … ◦ Baheti, J. R. (2001b). Roles of … ◦ Kumpfer, K. L. (1999). Factors … ◦ Kumpfer, K. L. (2002). Prevention … ◦ Kumpfer, K. L., Alvarado, R., Smith, P., … ◦ Yoshikawa, H. (1994). Preventions …
  140. 140. 140 Group authorGroup author American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
  141. 141. 141 Book with one authorBook with one author Carter, R. (1998). Mapping the mind. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  142. 142. 142 Book with two authorsBook with two authors Struck, W., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.
  143. 143. 143 Book with six or more authorsBook with six or more authors Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., et al. (2000). An experimental evaluation of…
  144. 144. 144 Book with no authorBook with no author Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
  145. 145. 145 Book with editorsBook with editors Allison, M. T., & Schneider, I. E. (Eds.). (2000). Diversity and the recreation profession: Organizational perspectives. State College, PA: Venture.
  146. 146. 146 Chapter in bookChapter in book Stern, J. A., & Dunham, D. N. (1990). The ocular system. In J. T. Cacioppo & L. G. Tassinary (Eds.), Principles of psychophysiology: Physical, social, and inferential elements (pp. 513-553). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  147. 147. 147 Multivolume bookMultivolume book Koch, S. (Ed.). (1959-1963). Psychology: A study of science (Vols. 1-6). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  148. 148. 148 Journal articleJournal article Sellard, S., & Mills, M. E. (1995). Administrative issues for use of nurse practitioners. Journal of Nursing Administration, 25(5), 64-70.
  149. 149. 149 Article in pressArticle in press Jones, R. (in press). The new healthcare lexicon. Journal of Health.
  150. 150. 150 AbstractAbstract Misumi, J., & Fumita, M. (1982). Effects of PM organizational development in supermarket organization. Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 93-111. [Abstract] Psychological Abstracts, 1982, 68, Abstract No. 11474
  151. 151. 151 MagazineMagazine Posner, M. I. (1993, October 29). Seeing the mind. Science, 262, 673- 674.
  152. 152. 152 NewspaperNewspaper Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
  153. 153. 153 Encyclopedia articleEncyclopedia article Blaser, L. (1996). Relativity . In Gale encyclopedia of science (Vol. 15, pp. 82-86). New York, Gale Encyclopedia Co.
  154. 154. 154 ThesisThesis Ho, M. (2000). Coping strategies of counseling professionals (Unpublished master’s thesis, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore).
  155. 155. 155 VideotapeVideotape National Institute on Mental Health. (1980). Drug abuse [videotape]. Bethesda: Author.
  156. 156. 156 Electronic sourcesElectronic sources Velmans, M. (1999). When perception becomes conscious. British Journal of Psychology, 90, 543-566. Retrieved from the Expanded Academic ASAP database.
  157. 157. 157 Web pageWeb page Green, C. (2000, April 16). History & philosophy of psychology web resources. Retrieved from
  158. 158. 158 Article with DOIArticle with DOI Stultz, J. (2006). Integrating exposure therapy and analytic therapy in trauma treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(4), 482–488. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.76.4.482
  159. 159. 159 Preprint version of articlePreprint version of article Philippsen, C., Hahn, M., Schwabe, L., Richter, S., Drewe, J., & Schachinger, H. (2007). Cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress is not affected by alpha2- adrenoreceptor activation or inhibition. Psychopharmacology, 190(2), 181–188. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s00213-006-0597-7
  160. 160. 160 Online dictionaryOnline dictionary Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary. Retrieved from
  161. 161. 161 Presentation slidesPresentation slides Columbia University, Teachers College, Institute for Learning Technologies. (2000). Smart cities: New York: Electronic education for the new millennium [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from publications/index.html
  162. 162. 162 Press releasePress release American Psychological Association. (2006, April 30). Internet use involves both pros and cons for children and adolescents [Press release]. Retrieved from youthwww0406.html
  163. 163. 163 Message posted to anMessage posted to an electronic mailing listelectronic mailing list Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed estimates of IQ [Msg 670]. Message posted to ForensicNetwork electronic mailing list, archived at rensicNetwork/message/670
  164. 164. 164 Weblog postWeblog post bfy. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind. Message posted to
  165. 165. 165 Sample Reference ListSample Reference List  References Calvillo, D. (1999). The theoretical development of aggression. Retrieved August 21, 2002 from: Flory, R. K., (1969a). Attack behavior as a function of minimum inter-food interval. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 12, 825-828. Flory, R. K., (1969b). Attack behavior in a multiple fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Psychonomic Science, 16, 383-386. Flory, R. K., & Everist, H.D. (1977). The effect of a response requirement on schedule-induced aggression. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 9, 383-386. Gentry, W. D. (1968). Fixed-ratio schedule-induced aggression. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 11, 813-817.
  166. 166. 166 For More InformationFor More Information APA Manual Website:
  167. 167. ActivityActivity Arrange the bibliographic details provided to you according to APA.
  168. 168. 168 Avoiding PlagiarismAvoiding Plagiarism in Researchin Research
  169. 169. 169 Plagiarism – DefinitionPlagiarism – Definition Taking and using the thoughts, writings, and inventions of another person as one's own Using someone’s ideas without citing or quoting; thereby, receiving credit for someone else’s intellectual effort
  170. 170. 170 How to avoid plagiarismHow to avoid plagiarism Use quotes for ◦ Information that comes directly from any source ◦ Words, spoken or written, that you use directly from another person Make sure you document the source
  171. 171. 171 Plagiarism detectionPlagiarism detection softwaresoftware
  172. 172. 172 Penalties for teachers, researchersPenalties for teachers, researchers and staffand staff  Dismissal from service  Demotion to the next lower grade  Warning  Freezing of research grants  Promotions/annual increments of the offender may be stopped  University may debar the offender from sponsorship of research funding, travel grant, supervision of Ph.D. students, scholarship, fellowship or any other funded program  Offender may be “Black Listed” and may NOT be eligible for employment in any academic / research organization  Notification of “Black Listing” of the author may be published in the print media or may be publicized on different websites
  173. 173. 173 Good luckGood luck