SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 32
“IN THE NAME OF ALLAH WHO IS MOST
COMPASSIONATE AND MERCIFUL.”
SOCIOLOGY
BBA 3RD (B)
Presented By:
 M. Awais Kaleem
 Rizwan Haider
 Umair Javed
 Hammad Qureshi
 Ahzam
TOPICS:
 POWER AND AUTHORITY
 LEADERSHIP ROLE IN BRINGING CHANGES IN SOCIETY
 POVERTY ISSUES IN PAKISTAN
 CULTURAL RELITIVISM
POWER & AUTHORITY:
POWER:
According To Weber’s:
“The ability of an individual or group to achieve their own
goals or aims when others are trying to prevent them from realising them.”
Weber argued that power can take a variety of forms:
A person’s power can be shown in the social order through their status, in the economic order
through their class and in the political order through their party. Thus class, status and party are
each aspects of the distribution of power within the community.
“Power is a mean to gets things done.”
SOCIAL POWER MODELS:
There are three types of social power models:
1.Potential Power:
It is a power which is assumed to go with certain positions or situations in
the community and society. This is the “power elite” as the mayor of corporation hold upon
his members.
2. Reputed Power:
It is the power ascribed to certain persons and groups by those who
know the community. Reputed power is determined as the power which is conferred upon
one who is awarded the highest status in that community.
3.Decisional Power:
The decision making process can be observed as decisional power. It
can be seen while observing that who did this job and when? It means the decision
making power can be observed while it is being done.
Types of Social Power:
There are Five Types of Social Power:
1.The Power Of Elite:
The small number of people having a great power is a controlling group
in a society called the elite. The membership in this group is inherited and in some
societies it is acquired. In china ; land owners and military officers are elites.
2. The Organizational Power:
The group solidarity which unites its members into a unit on a
program is an organizational power of the group. It is the power among various social
organization and agencies. The members contest elections for the offices of the
organization due to the power held by these officies.
3. The Power of Coercion and Disruption:
The power of coercion and disruption is one of the
sources of government and certain groups of peoples. Political kidnappings are the
coercive measures to get their prisoners released. This is called power of forceful
coercion.
Strikes, lockout and boycott are also come in this kind of power.
4. Social power of unorganized Masses:
The people live in the masses and masses have a
power. These masses are like secondary groups. The unorganized masses can exert
a decision on social development. They lay a pressure of their demands on
government and get them accepted.
5. The power of Law:
The legitimate power is that which is socially sanctioned. The power
of Crime is not legitimate and not sanctioned by the society.
Law differentiate between right and wrong as judged by the values of the society.
The law provides relationship by stating who may do what to whom.
AUTHORITY:
“Authority is that form of power which order or articulates the actions of other actors
through commander which are effective because those who are commanded regards
the commands as legitimate.”
Acc. To Max weber:
He defined authority “as a ‘legitimate power’ it means power becomes
legitimate it becomes as authority.”
Types Of Authority:
There are three types of authority:
1.Bureaucratic authority:
It rests on formal office or rank. Its examples are the general the
foreman and civil service officer.
2.Traditionalist Authority:
It rests on a belief in sacred norms and traditions which one must
obey. Its examples are the husband, father, prince or Pir Sahib.
3.Charismatic Authority:
It is the authority of an extra ordinary person who is obeyed because of charisma-due to
one’s remarkable wisdom, invincible power. Its examples can be seen in
Muhammad(SAW) and the others prophet of God.
RELATION BETWEEN POWER AND
AUTHORITY:
The permission to use power is called authority. Authority is directed from high to low
among people.
The power and authority are related together. Take law as social power but its
permission to apply in decision making assigns as authority upon the decision maker-
the judge of the court. It means knowledge of law is power and making decision as a
judge is authority.
LEADERSHIP:
DEFINATION:
“Leaders are individuals that, by their actions, facilitate the movement of a group of people
toward a common or shared goal or objective”.
The action of leading people in an organization toward achieving goals.
Leaders do this by influencing employees in several ways.
A Leader:
1. Sets a clear vision for the organization.
2. Motivate employees.
3. Guide employees through the work process.
4.Builds Morale
Setting a Clear Vision:
Influencing employees to understand and accept the future state of organization.
Example:
A unit of young soldiers may not believe in a particular mission ordered by their
commanding officer.
A good leader will influence the soldiers to perform their duties by explaining the vision
and importance of their role in the outcome.
The soldiers now will be more than ready to follow.
Motivating Employees:
To find out enough about the needs and wants of employees, giving them what they
need, and praising them for the job well done.
Example:
While on war, being away from home is the lonely feeling soldiers have. Judging this
situation a good leader can make the difference, even by offering a little chocolate or
candy.
Guiding Employees:
To define their role in work process, provide them with the tools needed to perform
and participate in their efforts along the way.
GOOD LEADER:
A leader who is good at what he does, is able to keep people motivated and inspired,
works for the greater good of society and not just his own personal gains, and is able to
respect his people,
will be successful in creating a positive and happy society.
When people have faith in their leader and feel that they are taken care of, be it
economically or socially or politically, they are in a better frame of mind on the whole.
Good leadership creates a happy society, and a happy society can build a strong nation!
SOCIETY WITH A GOOD LEADER:
Such a society will :
1.Go for accountability across the board.
2.Will lawfully and forcefully eliminate the corrupt elements in the society.
3.Gap between rich and poor will become lesser and lesser.
4.Employment opportunities are created for the masses.
5.Good Values of a Leader flow into the mindset of society.
6.The values held by the leader always flow downward towards the subordinates and the
common people.
POVERTY:
Definition:
Most Comprehensive definition of Poverty was given by “LEWIS”:
“Poverty not only as economic deprivation, or the absence of
something but also as a way of life, the personal of sub-cultural values and attitudes
passed down from generation to generation.”
WHO IS POOR?
Acc. To World Bank “A person earning less than One US DOLLAR(139.22 rupees
Pakistani) a day is called poor.”
Causes of Poverty:
There is a number of causes of poverty which are given below:
1.Lack of getting benefit with Natural Resources:
We are unable to get economic resources from the natural environment gifted by
God to us. It is the land, hills, mountains, rivers and falls from which we can get wealth by our technical skills.
2.Lack Of Hard Work Leads to Drug Addiction:
Such people who avoid hard work lead a life of poor man and mostly indulge in
drug addiction. They get into Heroine , churs and other things of abuse.
3.Anti-Social Habits:
Jobless and workless people also fall into such habits which are anti social like, gambling ,
drinking , cheating , theft and robbery. Such peoples. Such people feel themselves satisfied in associates of
these types.
4.Wastage of Economic Resources:
Another cause of poverty is wasting the economic resources. If the savings
are not protected , the family faces problems in future.
5.Illiteracy:
Illiteracy is also a major reason of poverty as illiterate person possesses less potential and skills. He is
not well groomed and trained for getting better economic and social status in a society.
IMPACTS OF POVERTY:
1.Caused Crime:
When Resources are not enough to meet the basic needs of life, people sometimes do not
abide by the law and commit crime. Due to poverty, economic crimes are committed in society such as
robbery, dacoit etc.
2.Beggary:
Poverty creates beggar in society. Most of the beggars in society are begging due to poverty.
3.Social Evils:
Poverty creates social evils in society. Due to this, people are unable to follow the norms and
values of society. In results they become the victim of social evils.
4.IlL Health:
Poverty negatively strikes on the health of the poor. It is observed that poor do not enjoy better
health. They are the victim of epidemics like malaria,cholera and other sever diseases.
5.Low social status:
due to above mentioned consequences and impacts of poverty. Poor people don’t enjoy better
social status in society. They are consider as a lower bottom of society.
SOLUTION OF POVERTY:
Following are the solutions of poverty:
1.Elimination of unemployment:
People should be given job. It should be effort of the Govt. that no one should remain
unemployed.
2.Technical education to beggar:
Those who are poor and beggar may be given technical education. In this way their potential will
be utilized in a better way.
3.Promotion of education:
Importance and benefits of education and literacy may be conveyed to people because
education enables individuals to get better jobs in society.
4.Reduce population growth rate:
The most important step is to reduce population growth. There should be harmony between
economic growth and population growth. Without stopping it every step taken to reduce poverty will be
useless.
CULTURAL RELATIVISIM:
DEFINITION:
“Cultural relativism is the idea that a persons beliefs, values, and practices should be
understood based on the persons own culture rather than be judged against the
criteria of an other.”
This is one of the most fundamental concepts in sociology as it recognized and
affirms the connections between greater social structure and trends and the
everyday lives of individual people.
ORIGIN AND OVERVIEW OF
CULTURAL RELATIVISM:
The concept of cultural relativism as we know and use it today was established as an
analytic tool by German-American Anthropologist Franz Boas In the early 20th
century.
In the context of early social science, cultural relativism became an important tool for
pushing back on the ethnocentrism that often tarnished research at that time, which
was mostly conducted by white, wealthy, western man, and often focused on people
of color, foreign indigenous populations and persons of lower economic class than
the researcher.
Ethnocentrism:
Ethnocentrism is the practice of viewing and judging someone’s else culture based
on the values and beliefs of ones own. From this standpoint, we might frame other
cultures as weird , exotic , and even as a problem to be solved. In contrast, when we
recognize that the many cultures of the world have their own beliefs, values and
practices that have developed in particular historical, political, social, material and
ecological context and that it makes sense that they would differ from our own and
that none are necessarily right or wrong or good or bad, then we are engaging the
concept of cultural relativism
Example Of Cultural Relativism:
Cultural Relativism explains why, for example, what constitutes breakfast varies
widely from place to place. What is considered a typical breakfast in Turkey, is quite
different from what is considered as typical breakfast in the U.S. or Japan.
Power and authority

More Related Content

What's hot

Riggs Prismatic Model
Riggs Prismatic ModelRiggs Prismatic Model
Riggs Prismatic Modelsarashah295
 
Summary of Social Contract Theory by Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau
Summary of Social Contract Theory by Hobbes, Locke and RousseauSummary of Social Contract Theory by Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau
Summary of Social Contract Theory by Hobbes, Locke and RousseauA K DAS's | Law
 
Political obligation
Political obligationPolitical obligation
Political obligationMahesh Patil
 
PPT on Behaviouralism
PPT on BehaviouralismPPT on Behaviouralism
PPT on BehaviouralismMamta Pareek
 
Political participation
Political participationPolitical participation
Political participationMahesh Patil
 
Power and authority
Power and authority Power and authority
Power and authority Vishal kakade
 
Local government presentation
Local    government presentationLocal    government presentation
Local government presentationFaizan Shabbir
 
Theory of sovereignty
Theory of sovereigntyTheory of sovereignty
Theory of sovereigntyraj kishor
 
Theory on principle of separation of powers
Theory on principle of separation of powers Theory on principle of separation of powers
Theory on principle of separation of powers Udisha Singh
 
Behaviouralism ppt slideshare
Behaviouralism ppt slideshareBehaviouralism ppt slideshare
Behaviouralism ppt slideshareneethulekshmy
 
Concept of authority
Concept of authorityConcept of authority
Concept of authorityMahesh Patil
 
Forms of government (merits and demerits)
Forms of government (merits and demerits)Forms of government (merits and demerits)
Forms of government (merits and demerits)manish shivale
 

What's hot (20)

Riggs Prismatic Model
Riggs Prismatic ModelRiggs Prismatic Model
Riggs Prismatic Model
 
Legitimicy1
Legitimicy1Legitimicy1
Legitimicy1
 
Summary of Social Contract Theory by Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau
Summary of Social Contract Theory by Hobbes, Locke and RousseauSummary of Social Contract Theory by Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau
Summary of Social Contract Theory by Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau
 
Bureaucracy
Bureaucracy Bureaucracy
Bureaucracy
 
Political obligation
Political obligationPolitical obligation
Political obligation
 
Liberty
Liberty Liberty
Liberty
 
PPT on Behaviouralism
PPT on BehaviouralismPPT on Behaviouralism
PPT on Behaviouralism
 
Political participation
Political participationPolitical participation
Political participation
 
Power and authority
Power and authority Power and authority
Power and authority
 
Local government presentation
Local    government presentationLocal    government presentation
Local government presentation
 
Theory of sovereignty
Theory of sovereigntyTheory of sovereignty
Theory of sovereignty
 
Elite theory
Elite theoryElite theory
Elite theory
 
Locke
LockeLocke
Locke
 
Theory on principle of separation of powers
Theory on principle of separation of powers Theory on principle of separation of powers
Theory on principle of separation of powers
 
C5 - Political Culture
C5 - Political CultureC5 - Political Culture
C5 - Political Culture
 
Executive
Executive Executive
Executive
 
Behaviouralism ppt slideshare
Behaviouralism ppt slideshareBehaviouralism ppt slideshare
Behaviouralism ppt slideshare
 
Concept of authority
Concept of authorityConcept of authority
Concept of authority
 
political system.pptx
political system.pptxpolitical system.pptx
political system.pptx
 
Forms of government (merits and demerits)
Forms of government (merits and demerits)Forms of government (merits and demerits)
Forms of government (merits and demerits)
 

Similar to Power and authority

4681 assignment.docx
4681 assignment.docx4681 assignment.docx
4681 assignment.docxNasir152222
 
Concepts of Power and Authority and Sources of power-2.pptx
Concepts of Power and Authority and Sources of power-2.pptxConcepts of Power and Authority and Sources of power-2.pptx
Concepts of Power and Authority and Sources of power-2.pptxASWATHYMV3
 
ADS509_CHAPTER 1 (2).pdf
ADS509_CHAPTER 1 (2).pdfADS509_CHAPTER 1 (2).pdf
ADS509_CHAPTER 1 (2).pdfalia147808
 
Sharad Kothari
Sharad KothariSharad Kothari
Sharad Kotharisfih108
 
Understanding Cultural Society and Politcs- ECON-SOCIETY
Understanding Cultural Society and Politcs- ECON-SOCIETYUnderstanding Cultural Society and Politcs- ECON-SOCIETY
Understanding Cultural Society and Politcs- ECON-SOCIETYMicahTeatro
 
DUMAUG_INTRODUCTION TO POLITICS
DUMAUG_INTRODUCTION TO POLITICSDUMAUG_INTRODUCTION TO POLITICS
DUMAUG_INTRODUCTION TO POLITICSjundumaug1
 
political institution.pptx
political institution.pptxpolitical institution.pptx
political institution.pptxAshleyFajardo5
 
Chapter 13 Government & Law
Chapter 13 Government & LawChapter 13 Government & Law
Chapter 13 Government & LawEdmundo Dantes
 
ss10_unit3
ss10_unit3ss10_unit3
ss10_unit3Mr. Park
 
Political ideologies.pptx
Political ideologies.pptxPolitical ideologies.pptx
Political ideologies.pptxjinkylucas4
 
UCSP-Q2-WEEK2.pptx
UCSP-Q2-WEEK2.pptxUCSP-Q2-WEEK2.pptx
UCSP-Q2-WEEK2.pptxGerald129734
 
Politics and government(sociology)
Politics and government(sociology)Politics and government(sociology)
Politics and government(sociology)Md. Sajib Chowdhury
 
Chapter 9 Social Stratification (Introduction of Sociology and Anthropology)
Chapter 9 Social Stratification (Introduction of Sociology and Anthropology)Chapter 9 Social Stratification (Introduction of Sociology and Anthropology)
Chapter 9 Social Stratification (Introduction of Sociology and Anthropology)markedchaser
 
Chapter9socialstratification 140413080244-phpapp02
Chapter9socialstratification 140413080244-phpapp02Chapter9socialstratification 140413080244-phpapp02
Chapter9socialstratification 140413080244-phpapp02socijalac
 
Regimes, Power and Legitimacy
Regimes, Power and LegitimacyRegimes, Power and Legitimacy
Regimes, Power and LegitimacyAntonio Delgado
 
Politics-Power-and-Society in the phippines
Politics-Power-and-Society in the phippinesPolitics-Power-and-Society in the phippines
Politics-Power-and-Society in the phippinesnorbertodecastro1
 

Similar to Power and authority (20)

4681 assignment.docx
4681 assignment.docx4681 assignment.docx
4681 assignment.docx
 
Politics
PoliticsPolitics
Politics
 
Concepts of Power and Authority and Sources of power-2.pptx
Concepts of Power and Authority and Sources of power-2.pptxConcepts of Power and Authority and Sources of power-2.pptx
Concepts of Power and Authority and Sources of power-2.pptx
 
ADS509_CHAPTER 1 (2).pdf
ADS509_CHAPTER 1 (2).pdfADS509_CHAPTER 1 (2).pdf
ADS509_CHAPTER 1 (2).pdf
 
Sharad Kothari
Sharad KothariSharad Kothari
Sharad Kothari
 
Understanding Cultural Society and Politcs- ECON-SOCIETY
Understanding Cultural Society and Politcs- ECON-SOCIETYUnderstanding Cultural Society and Politcs- ECON-SOCIETY
Understanding Cultural Society and Politcs- ECON-SOCIETY
 
Chapter 14 powerpoint
Chapter 14 powerpointChapter 14 powerpoint
Chapter 14 powerpoint
 
DUMAUG_INTRODUCTION TO POLITICS
DUMAUG_INTRODUCTION TO POLITICSDUMAUG_INTRODUCTION TO POLITICS
DUMAUG_INTRODUCTION TO POLITICS
 
political institution.pptx
political institution.pptxpolitical institution.pptx
political institution.pptx
 
Chapter 13 Government & Law
Chapter 13 Government & LawChapter 13 Government & Law
Chapter 13 Government & Law
 
ss10_unit3
ss10_unit3ss10_unit3
ss10_unit3
 
11social institutions
11social institutions11social institutions
11social institutions
 
Political ideologies.pptx
Political ideologies.pptxPolitical ideologies.pptx
Political ideologies.pptx
 
UCSP-Q2-WEEK2.pptx
UCSP-Q2-WEEK2.pptxUCSP-Q2-WEEK2.pptx
UCSP-Q2-WEEK2.pptx
 
Politics and government(sociology)
Politics and government(sociology)Politics and government(sociology)
Politics and government(sociology)
 
Chapter 9 Social Stratification (Introduction of Sociology and Anthropology)
Chapter 9 Social Stratification (Introduction of Sociology and Anthropology)Chapter 9 Social Stratification (Introduction of Sociology and Anthropology)
Chapter 9 Social Stratification (Introduction of Sociology and Anthropology)
 
Chapter9socialstratification 140413080244-phpapp02
Chapter9socialstratification 140413080244-phpapp02Chapter9socialstratification 140413080244-phpapp02
Chapter9socialstratification 140413080244-phpapp02
 
IPS 03.pptx
IPS 03.pptxIPS 03.pptx
IPS 03.pptx
 
Regimes, Power and Legitimacy
Regimes, Power and LegitimacyRegimes, Power and Legitimacy
Regimes, Power and Legitimacy
 
Politics-Power-and-Society in the phippines
Politics-Power-and-Society in the phippinesPolitics-Power-and-Society in the phippines
Politics-Power-and-Society in the phippines
 

Recently uploaded

CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxAnupam32727
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipKarl Donert
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineCeline George
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...DhatriParmar
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Osopher
 
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxComparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxAvaniJani1
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Projectjordimapav
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfPrerana Jadhav
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesVijayaLaxmi84
 
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxMan or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxDhatriParmar
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Association for Project Management
 
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPAn Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 

Recently uploaded (20)

CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
 
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxComparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
 
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
 
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptxMan or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
Man or Manufactured_ Redefining Humanity Through Biopunk Narratives.pptx
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
 
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical VariableChi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
 
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTAParadigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
 
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor HISPOL Quiz-6th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPAn Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
 

Power and authority

  • 1. “IN THE NAME OF ALLAH WHO IS MOST COMPASSIONATE AND MERCIFUL.”
  • 3. Presented By:  M. Awais Kaleem  Rizwan Haider  Umair Javed  Hammad Qureshi  Ahzam
  • 4. TOPICS:  POWER AND AUTHORITY  LEADERSHIP ROLE IN BRINGING CHANGES IN SOCIETY  POVERTY ISSUES IN PAKISTAN  CULTURAL RELITIVISM
  • 5. POWER & AUTHORITY: POWER: According To Weber’s: “The ability of an individual or group to achieve their own goals or aims when others are trying to prevent them from realising them.” Weber argued that power can take a variety of forms: A person’s power can be shown in the social order through their status, in the economic order through their class and in the political order through their party. Thus class, status and party are each aspects of the distribution of power within the community. “Power is a mean to gets things done.”
  • 6. SOCIAL POWER MODELS: There are three types of social power models: 1.Potential Power: It is a power which is assumed to go with certain positions or situations in the community and society. This is the “power elite” as the mayor of corporation hold upon his members. 2. Reputed Power: It is the power ascribed to certain persons and groups by those who know the community. Reputed power is determined as the power which is conferred upon one who is awarded the highest status in that community. 3.Decisional Power: The decision making process can be observed as decisional power. It can be seen while observing that who did this job and when? It means the decision making power can be observed while it is being done.
  • 7. Types of Social Power: There are Five Types of Social Power: 1.The Power Of Elite: The small number of people having a great power is a controlling group in a society called the elite. The membership in this group is inherited and in some societies it is acquired. In china ; land owners and military officers are elites. 2. The Organizational Power: The group solidarity which unites its members into a unit on a program is an organizational power of the group. It is the power among various social organization and agencies. The members contest elections for the offices of the organization due to the power held by these officies. 3. The Power of Coercion and Disruption: The power of coercion and disruption is one of the sources of government and certain groups of peoples. Political kidnappings are the coercive measures to get their prisoners released. This is called power of forceful coercion. Strikes, lockout and boycott are also come in this kind of power.
  • 8. 4. Social power of unorganized Masses: The people live in the masses and masses have a power. These masses are like secondary groups. The unorganized masses can exert a decision on social development. They lay a pressure of their demands on government and get them accepted. 5. The power of Law: The legitimate power is that which is socially sanctioned. The power of Crime is not legitimate and not sanctioned by the society. Law differentiate between right and wrong as judged by the values of the society. The law provides relationship by stating who may do what to whom.
  • 9. AUTHORITY: “Authority is that form of power which order or articulates the actions of other actors through commander which are effective because those who are commanded regards the commands as legitimate.” Acc. To Max weber: He defined authority “as a ‘legitimate power’ it means power becomes legitimate it becomes as authority.”
  • 10. Types Of Authority: There are three types of authority: 1.Bureaucratic authority: It rests on formal office or rank. Its examples are the general the foreman and civil service officer. 2.Traditionalist Authority: It rests on a belief in sacred norms and traditions which one must obey. Its examples are the husband, father, prince or Pir Sahib. 3.Charismatic Authority: It is the authority of an extra ordinary person who is obeyed because of charisma-due to one’s remarkable wisdom, invincible power. Its examples can be seen in Muhammad(SAW) and the others prophet of God.
  • 11. RELATION BETWEEN POWER AND AUTHORITY: The permission to use power is called authority. Authority is directed from high to low among people. The power and authority are related together. Take law as social power but its permission to apply in decision making assigns as authority upon the decision maker- the judge of the court. It means knowledge of law is power and making decision as a judge is authority.
  • 13. DEFINATION: “Leaders are individuals that, by their actions, facilitate the movement of a group of people toward a common or shared goal or objective”. The action of leading people in an organization toward achieving goals. Leaders do this by influencing employees in several ways.
  • 14. A Leader: 1. Sets a clear vision for the organization. 2. Motivate employees. 3. Guide employees through the work process. 4.Builds Morale
  • 15. Setting a Clear Vision: Influencing employees to understand and accept the future state of organization. Example: A unit of young soldiers may not believe in a particular mission ordered by their commanding officer. A good leader will influence the soldiers to perform their duties by explaining the vision and importance of their role in the outcome. The soldiers now will be more than ready to follow.
  • 16. Motivating Employees: To find out enough about the needs and wants of employees, giving them what they need, and praising them for the job well done. Example: While on war, being away from home is the lonely feeling soldiers have. Judging this situation a good leader can make the difference, even by offering a little chocolate or candy.
  • 17. Guiding Employees: To define their role in work process, provide them with the tools needed to perform and participate in their efforts along the way.
  • 18.
  • 19. GOOD LEADER: A leader who is good at what he does, is able to keep people motivated and inspired, works for the greater good of society and not just his own personal gains, and is able to respect his people, will be successful in creating a positive and happy society. When people have faith in their leader and feel that they are taken care of, be it economically or socially or politically, they are in a better frame of mind on the whole. Good leadership creates a happy society, and a happy society can build a strong nation!
  • 20.
  • 21. SOCIETY WITH A GOOD LEADER: Such a society will : 1.Go for accountability across the board. 2.Will lawfully and forcefully eliminate the corrupt elements in the society. 3.Gap between rich and poor will become lesser and lesser. 4.Employment opportunities are created for the masses. 5.Good Values of a Leader flow into the mindset of society. 6.The values held by the leader always flow downward towards the subordinates and the common people.
  • 23. Definition: Most Comprehensive definition of Poverty was given by “LEWIS”: “Poverty not only as economic deprivation, or the absence of something but also as a way of life, the personal of sub-cultural values and attitudes passed down from generation to generation.” WHO IS POOR? Acc. To World Bank “A person earning less than One US DOLLAR(139.22 rupees Pakistani) a day is called poor.”
  • 24. Causes of Poverty: There is a number of causes of poverty which are given below: 1.Lack of getting benefit with Natural Resources: We are unable to get economic resources from the natural environment gifted by God to us. It is the land, hills, mountains, rivers and falls from which we can get wealth by our technical skills. 2.Lack Of Hard Work Leads to Drug Addiction: Such people who avoid hard work lead a life of poor man and mostly indulge in drug addiction. They get into Heroine , churs and other things of abuse. 3.Anti-Social Habits: Jobless and workless people also fall into such habits which are anti social like, gambling , drinking , cheating , theft and robbery. Such peoples. Such people feel themselves satisfied in associates of these types. 4.Wastage of Economic Resources: Another cause of poverty is wasting the economic resources. If the savings are not protected , the family faces problems in future. 5.Illiteracy: Illiteracy is also a major reason of poverty as illiterate person possesses less potential and skills. He is not well groomed and trained for getting better economic and social status in a society.
  • 25. IMPACTS OF POVERTY: 1.Caused Crime: When Resources are not enough to meet the basic needs of life, people sometimes do not abide by the law and commit crime. Due to poverty, economic crimes are committed in society such as robbery, dacoit etc. 2.Beggary: Poverty creates beggar in society. Most of the beggars in society are begging due to poverty. 3.Social Evils: Poverty creates social evils in society. Due to this, people are unable to follow the norms and values of society. In results they become the victim of social evils. 4.IlL Health: Poverty negatively strikes on the health of the poor. It is observed that poor do not enjoy better health. They are the victim of epidemics like malaria,cholera and other sever diseases. 5.Low social status: due to above mentioned consequences and impacts of poverty. Poor people don’t enjoy better social status in society. They are consider as a lower bottom of society.
  • 26. SOLUTION OF POVERTY: Following are the solutions of poverty: 1.Elimination of unemployment: People should be given job. It should be effort of the Govt. that no one should remain unemployed. 2.Technical education to beggar: Those who are poor and beggar may be given technical education. In this way their potential will be utilized in a better way. 3.Promotion of education: Importance and benefits of education and literacy may be conveyed to people because education enables individuals to get better jobs in society. 4.Reduce population growth rate: The most important step is to reduce population growth. There should be harmony between economic growth and population growth. Without stopping it every step taken to reduce poverty will be useless.
  • 28. DEFINITION: “Cultural relativism is the idea that a persons beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on the persons own culture rather than be judged against the criteria of an other.” This is one of the most fundamental concepts in sociology as it recognized and affirms the connections between greater social structure and trends and the everyday lives of individual people.
  • 29. ORIGIN AND OVERVIEW OF CULTURAL RELATIVISM: The concept of cultural relativism as we know and use it today was established as an analytic tool by German-American Anthropologist Franz Boas In the early 20th century. In the context of early social science, cultural relativism became an important tool for pushing back on the ethnocentrism that often tarnished research at that time, which was mostly conducted by white, wealthy, western man, and often focused on people of color, foreign indigenous populations and persons of lower economic class than the researcher.
  • 30. Ethnocentrism: Ethnocentrism is the practice of viewing and judging someone’s else culture based on the values and beliefs of ones own. From this standpoint, we might frame other cultures as weird , exotic , and even as a problem to be solved. In contrast, when we recognize that the many cultures of the world have their own beliefs, values and practices that have developed in particular historical, political, social, material and ecological context and that it makes sense that they would differ from our own and that none are necessarily right or wrong or good or bad, then we are engaging the concept of cultural relativism
  • 31. Example Of Cultural Relativism: Cultural Relativism explains why, for example, what constitutes breakfast varies widely from place to place. What is considered a typical breakfast in Turkey, is quite different from what is considered as typical breakfast in the U.S. or Japan.