The Jazariyyah Poem for Tajweed Rules (Arabic with English Translation) || Australian Islamic Library
The Jazariyyah (Tajweed) Poem
1. In the hope of pardon and forgiveness from his Lord, All-Hearing.
Muhammad ibn Al-Jazaree Al-Shafi’ee (meaning following the Shafi’ee school of thought)
2. All Praise is due to Allah and May Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon
His Prophet and the chosen one,
3. Muhammad , his family and companions,
and the reciter of Quran together with the one who is devoted to it.
4. And thereafter: this is an introduction
concerning which the reciter of Qur’an is required to learn.
Written with both a fathah and a kasrah, so the reader has the option to choose either one.
5. It is without any doubt required for the recitor
to know before starting recitation:
6. The articulation points )ﹺﺝﺭﺎﺨﻣﻑﻭﺮﺤﹾﻟﺍ( and characteristics of letters )ﹶﺎﺕﻔﺻﻑﻭﺮﺤﹾﻟﺍ(
So that they can articulate in the most eloquent of languages.
7. In order to make clear the application of tajweed and the stops
and that which is written in the (‘Uthmani) copies of the Qur’an,
8. As regards to all those words that are separated and joined in it (in writing in the
and the feminine ‘taa’ ()ﺕ which is not written with a ‘haa’ (.)ـﺔ
Articulation Points of the Letters chapter )ﺏﺎﺑﺝﹺﺭﺎﺨﻣﻭﻑﺮﺤﹾﻟﺍ(
9. The articulation points of the letters are seventeen
According to those who chose it by examination
10. The empty space in the throat and mouth has the alif and its two sisters (i.e. the
wow ﻭ and yaa ﻱ) and they are;
the medd letters which stop with the (stopping of) air.
11. Then from the lowest part of the throat are: ﻫﺎﺀ , ,ﳘﺰﺓ
and from its middle then the ﻋﲔ,ﺣﺎﺀ
12. Its closest (the throat’s area closest to the mouth) are: ﻏﲔ and ﺧﺎﺀ. And the ﻗﺎﻑ:
the deepest part of the tongue above (meaning looking from the mouth inside the mouth,
the ﻗﺎﻑ is deeper), then the :ﻛﺎﻑ
13- Lower (meaning closer to the mouth), and the middle (meaning middle of the tongue),
And the ﺿﺎﺩ from its (meaning the tongue’s) side when it is close;
14. To the molars from its (the sides of the tongue) left or right
And the ,ﻻﻡ its (sides of the tongue) lowest part (closest to the mouth), until it (sides) ends (at the
15. And the ﻧﻮﻥ from its tip (meaning tip of the tongue) it is found under (under the ﻻﻡ,
meaning closer to the mouth),
And the ﺭﺍﺀ is close to it (meaning close to the ﻧﻮﻥ ) it uses the top (meaning the top
of the tip, with the tip).
16. And the ﻃﺎﺀ,ﺩﺍﻝ,ﺗﺎﺀ from it (tip of the tongue from the top side) and from
The upper incisors, and the whistle (meaning the letters that have the inherit characteristics of the
whistle which are ﺻﺎﺩ,ﺯﺍﻱ,ﺳﲔ ) are cozy,
17. from it (meaning the tip of the tongue) and above the two lower incisors.
And the ﻇﺎﻝ,ﺫﺍﻝ,ﺛﺎﺀ with the upper (the upper two front incisors),
18. from the edges of them both (the edges of the two from the upper incisors and the
tongue); and from the inside of the lip,
so the ﻓﺎﺀ with the edges of the towering incisors (front upper).
19. Using the lips are ,ﺑﺎﺀ,ﻣﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻭ
And the ghunnah has the nasal passage as its articulation point.
The Characteristics of Letters chapter )ﺏﺎﺑﺕﹶﺎﻔﺻﻑﻭﺮﺤﹾﻟﺍ(
20. Its (the letters’) characteristics are ( )ﺟﻬﺮ apparent, ( ﺭﺧﺎﻭﺓ / )ﺭﺧﻮ softness, and
( ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﻝ /ﻣﺴﺘﻔﻞ ) lowered
Opened ( ﻣﻨﻔﺘﺢ,ﺍﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ) desisted, ( ﺍﺻﻤﺎﺕ /ﻣﺼﻤﺘﺔ ), and the opposite (of them) say:
[The following are the opposites of these named characteristics and their letters. The first group of characteristics
has the remaining letters left after the opposite characteristic’s letters are taken out.]
21. Its whispered ( ﳘﺲ /ﻣﻬﻤﻮﺱ) (letters are :) “ ﻪﱠﺜﺤﹶﻓﺺﺨﺷﺖﹶﻜﺳ ”,
Its strengthened ( ﺷﺪﺓ /ﺷﺪﻳﺪ) (letters are :) “ ﺪﹺﺟﺃﻂﹶﻗﺖﹶﻜﺑ ”.
22. And between soft and strengthened ( ﺭﺧﻮﻭﺍﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ ) (are the letters :) “ ﻦﻟﺮﻤﻋ ”
And the seven elevated are gathered (ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻼﺀ /ﻋﻠﻮ) (in the phrase of) “ ﺺﺧﻂﻐﺿﹾﻆﻗ ”.
23. (The letters) ﺻﺎﺩ,ﺿﺎﺩ,ﻃﺎﺀ,ﻇﺎﺀ (have the characteristics of) ﺍﻃﺒﺎﻕ /.ﻣﻄﺒﻘﺔ
And the letters in the phrase “ ﺮﹶﻓﻦﻣﺐﹸﻟ ” (have the characteristic of) ﻣﺬﻟﻘﺔ/ﺫﻻﻗﺔ.
24. Its whistle ﺻﻔﲑ (has the letters of) ﺻﺎﺩ,ﺯﺍﻱ,ﺳﲔ .
The ﹶﺔﻠﹶﻘﹾﻠﹶﻗٌ (has the letters) “ ﺐﹾﻄﹸﻗﺪﺟ .” And (the letters of) softness ﺍﻟﻠﲔ (are)
25. ﻭﺍﻭ And ﻳﺎﺀ (that have a) sukoon and a fathah ﻓﺘﺨﺔ
before them. And the drifting ﻑﺍﺮﺤﻧﻻﺍ is correct,
26. On the ﻻﻡ and the ﺭﺍ, and on it (the ,ﺭﺍ the characteristic of) repetition.
And (the characteristic of) spreading ()ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺸﻲ is on the ﺷﲔ , and (the letter) ﺿﺎﺩ has (the characteristic
of ) lengthening ( ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻟﺔ /ﺍﺳﺘﻄﻞ).
Tajweed chapter ﺏﺎﺑﺪﹺﻳﻮﺠﺘﺍﻟ( )
27. The practical application of tajweed is without doubt compulsory
Who does not read the Quran correctly is a sinner. 2
28. Because this (Qur’an) was revealed to us by Allah in this form
And exactly like this (with tajweed) it reached us (from our Prophet, then related in authentic chains over
generations to our present day shuyookh and those with ijaazah).
29. And it (tajweed) is also a beautification of recitation
And an adornment of pronunciation and reading.
30. And it (tajweed) is giving each letter its required rights )ّﻖﺣﹾﺤﻟﺍﻑﺮ(
Of each and every characteristic as well as (giving each letter its) presented rights [or dues] )ّﻖﺤﺘﺴﻣﹾﺤﺮﻟﺍﻑ( ,
Mistakes are of two types ﳊﻦﺟﻠﻲ and ﳊﻦﺧﻔﻲ . The clear and obvious mistakes are labeled as: ﳊﻦﺟﻠﻲ , this type of mistake
should be corrected and avoided because it may lead to change in the meaning, grammar, or incorrect in the Arabic language. ﳊﻦ
ﺧﻔﻲ are the hidden mistakes that one should also make an effort to fix.
31. To take every one (of the letters) back to its origin (i.e. place of articulation),
And to pronounce the equivalent letter in the same way (as you would pronounce that letter).
32. Complete (with all its characteristics) yet without any exaggeration,
Being gentle in pronunciation without any abuse.
33. There exists nothing between (applying the ﺪﻳﹺﻮﺠﺘﺍﻟ ) and leaving it,
Except for a person to exercise (correctly) with his jaws.
The Chapter Mentioning Some Warnings )ﺏﺎﺑﻲﻓﹺﺮﹾﻛﺫﹺﺾﻌﺑﺕﺎﻬﹺﻴﺒﻨﺘﺍﻟ(
34. Make attenuation (tarqeeq) “”ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻖ the letters of istifal “.”ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﻝ
And beware of making (be careful not to make) the letter alif “”ﺍﻷﻟﻒ with velarization (tafkheem )
[when it occurs after a letter of ﹶﺎﻝﻔﺘﺳﺍ ].
35. And the hamzah "ﳘﺰﺓ" (be careful not to give it tafkheem in): ﹶﺍﺪﻤﺤﹾﻟ , ﹶﺃﹸﺫﻮﻋ , ﺍﺎﻧﺪﻫ
ﹶﺍُﷲ and then the ﱠﻼﺍﻟﻡ of (likewise be careful not to give it tafkheem in): ِﷲ , ﹶﻟﺎﻨ ,
36. (Also) ﺘﻴﹾﻟﻭﹶﻠﻒﱠﻄ , ﻋﹶﻠﻰِﷲﺍ and ﻭﹶﻻﻦﻴﱢﻟﺎﻀﺍﻟ ,
And (likewise) the ﻢﻴﻤﹾﻟﺍ of ﻣﺨﻤﺔﺼ and of ﻣﺽﺮ (be careful not to give it tafkhem),
It was written as such in the original version, with a fathah and kasrah on the meem. So one can choose either of the vowels.
37. And [be careful not to give tafkheem to] the ﺎﺀﺒﹾﻟﺍ of ﺑﻕﺮ , ﺑﻞﻃﺎ , ﹺﺑﻢﹺﻬ and ﹺﺑﻱﺬ
and take care on (observing the characteristics of) ﺓﺪﺸﺍﻟ and ﺮﻬﺠﹾﻟﺍ that are
38. In it (i.e. the ﺎﺀﺒﹾﻟﺍ ) and in the ﻢﻴﹺﺠﹾﻟﺍ as in ﺣﺐﺼﺍﻟﺒﹺﺮ ,
ﺭﺑﺓﻮ , ﹸﺍﺟﺖﱠﺜﺘ ,and ﺣﺞ , ﹶﻔﹾﻟﺍﺠﹺﺮ
39. And make clear the letter of qalqalah "ﹶﺔﻠﹶﻘﹾﻠﹶﻘﹾﻟﺍ" when it occurs with a sukoon (unvoweled)
and when stopping on it, (meaning the qalaqalah letter) it should be even clearer (ﺍﻟﻜﱪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻘﻠﺔ ).
40. And (read with attenuation [tarqeeq]) the ﺎﺀﺤﹾﻟﺍ of ﺣﺼﺤﺺ , ﹶﺃﺣﱡﺖﹾﻄ and ﹾﻟﺍﺤﱡﻖ
And (likewise read with attenuation [tarqeeq]) the ﻦﻴِﺴﺍﻟ of ﻢﻴﻘﺘﺴﻣ , ﻳﺴﹶﻥﻮﹸﻄ and ﻳﺴﹶﻥﻮﹸﻘ .
This word was written with both a fathah and a kasrah, so the reader has the option to choose either one.
The ﺕَﺍﺀﺍﺮﺍﻟ chapter ﺏﺎﺑﺕَﺍﺀﺍﺮﺍﻟ( )
41. And attenuate [make tarqeeq of] the letter ﺭﺍﺀ when it has a kasrah.
Likewise (attenuate the ﺭﺍﺀ) if it follows a letter with a kasrah when the ﺭﺍﺀ has a sukoon.
42. If [the ﺭﺍﺀ with a sukoon] it is not before a letter of ﹶﺀﻼﻌﺘﺳﺍﻻ
Or the kasrah (before the ﺭﺍﺀ with a sukoon) is not a fixed one.5
43. There are different allowed ways (the ﺭﺍﺀ having velarization or attenuation [tafkheem or
tarqeeq] in the word): ﹴﻕﺮﻓ due to the ﺓﺮﺴﹶﻛ present (on the ﹶﺎﻑﻘﹾﻟ)ﺍ
And supress the (characteristic of) ﺮﻳﹺﺮﹾﻜﺘﺍﻟ when it (the ﺭﺍﺀ) occurs with a ﺓﺪﺷ .
Meaning, the conditional or temporary kasrah either due to a hamzah wasl, or a conditional/temporary kasrah on a letter
preceding the hamzah al-wasl. (If this happens, then in both cases the ﺭﺍﺀ will be read with velarization [tafkheem])
ﺍﻟﺕﺎﻣﱠﻼ and Other Different Rules ﺏﺎﺑﺍﻟﺕﺎﻣﱠﻼﹴﻡﹶﺎﻜﺣﹶﺃﻭﺮﹶﻔﺘﻣﺔﹶﻗ( )
44. And make velarization [tafkheem] of the laam ()ﺍﻟﻼﻡ in the name of ﺍﷲ
[if the laam ﺍﻟﻼﻡ in the name ﺍﷲ] is preceded by a fathah or a dammah as in ﺪﺒﻋِﷲﺍ
45. And velarize [make tafkheem] the letter (that has the characteristic) of ﹶﺀﻼﻌﺘﺳﺍﻻ and single out
The (letters of) ﺍﻻﻃﺒﺎﻕ are stronger [than the letters that have ﹶﺀﻼﻌﺘﺳﺍﻻ without ﺍﻻﻃﺒﺎﻕ] like [the difference]
between ﹶﻝﹶﺎﻗ and ﺎﺼﻌﹾﻟﺍ.
46. And make obvious the [characteristic of] ﺎﻕﺒﹾﻃِﻹﺍ of [the letter ﱠﺎﺀﻄﺍﻟ in]: ﺣﹶﺃﹾﻄﱡﺖ along with ﺴﺑﹾﻄﺖ
and there is a difference of opinion (in the word) ﻢﱡﻜﹾﻘﹸﻠﺨﻧ 6
47. Take extra caution (in order the letter does not get voweled or a qalqalah on it) on the sukoon of ﻌﺟﹾﻠﺎﻨ ,
ﹶﺃﻧﻌﻤﺖ ,and ﻤﹾﻟﺍﻐﺏﻮﻀ together with ﹶﻠﺿﹾﻠﺎﻨ .7
48. Make clear and obvious the (characteristic of) ﺎﺡﺘﻔﻧﺍﻻ of (the ﱠﺍﻝﺬﺍﻟ of) ﺤﻣﹸﺬﹰﺍﺭﻭ [and the ﻦﻴﺴﺍﻟ of] ﻋﺴﻰ
out of fear of confusing it with ﺤﻣﹸﻈﹰﺍﺭﻮ and ﻋﺼﻰ .
The difference of opinion is in terms of the presence or absence of ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﺀ in the letter ﻕ when merging of the ﻕ into the .ﻛﺎﻑ
This difference is not according to the way we read, therefore ﺣﻔﺺﻋﻦﻋﺎﺻﻢ only reads this word a complete merging of the ﻕ into
the ﻛﺎﻑ only, so a pure ﻛﺎﻑ is only heard.
Another mistake commonly found in the word ﻌﺟﹾﻠﺎﻨ is that the reader makes idghaam or merges the ﻻﻡ into the ﻧﻮﻥ instead of
pronouncing it clearly.
49. Observe (the characteristic of) ﺓﺪﺸﺍﻟ in the ﹶﺎﻑﻜﹾﻟﺍ and ﺎﺀﺘﺍﻟ
As in: ﺮﺷﹸﻜﻛﻢ , ﺘﺗﱠﻰﻓﻮ and ﻓﺘﻨﹰﺔ .
50. If the first (letter) of ﹶﻥﻼﺛﺎﻤﺘﻤﹾﻟﺍ [two like letters] and ﻥﺎﺴﹺﻧﺎﺠﺘﻤﹾﻟﺍ [two similar letters] has a sukoon
Then make ﺇﺩﻏﺎﻡ (merge) as in: ﹾﻞﹸﻗﺭﺏ and ﹾﻞﺑﱠﻻ ; and make clear without any merging:
51. [the ﻳﺎﺀ in] ﻲﻓﹴﻡﻮﻳ together with [the ﻭﺍﻭ in] ﺍﻮﹸﻟﹶﺎﻗﻢﻫﻭ ,[the ]ﻻﻡ ﹾﻞﹸﻗﻢﻌﻧ ,
[and also make clear with no idhgaam these letters which have close articulation points] ﻪﺤﺒﺳ ,
ﹶﻻﹾﻍﹺﺰﺗﺎﻨﺑﻮﹸﻠﹸﻗ and ﻪﻤﹶﻘﺘﹾﻟﹶﺎﻓ.8
The letters that are close in articulation point that one needs to be careful to pronounce clearly with no merging (idhgaam) are:
the ﺣﺎﺀ and هﺎء in: ﻪﺤﺒﺳ, ﺍﻟﻐﲔ and ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻑ in ﹶﻻﹾﻍﹺﺰﺗﺎﻨﺑﻮﹸﻠﹸﻗ , and ﺍﻟﻼﻡ and ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺀ in ﻪﻤﹶﻘﺘﹾﻟﹶﺎﻓ.
The ﺎﺩﻀﺍﻟ and the ﱠﺎﺀﻈﺍﻟ Chapter ﺏﺎﺑﺍﺩﺎﻀﻟِﺀﱠﺎﻈﺍﻟﻭ( )
52. And the ﺎﺩﻀﺍﻟ with (the characteristic of) ﹶﺔﻟﹶﺎﻄﺘﺳﺍﻻ and its articulation point,
is distinguished from the ﱠﺎﺀﻈ,ﺍﻟ and all of them [all the ﱠﺎﺀﻈﺍﻟ that occur in the Qur’an] are mentioned as
53. In [the words] ﻦﻌﱠﻈﺍﻟ , ﱠﻞﹶﻇ , ﺮﻬﱡﻈﺍﻟ , ﹾﻢﻈﻋ , ﹾﻆﻔﺤﹾﻟﺍ ,
ﹾﻆﹶﻘﻳﹶﺃ , ﺮﻈﻧﹶﺃ , ﹾﻢﻈﻋ , ﺮﻬﹶﻇ , ﹾﻆﻔﱠﻠﺍﻟ ,
54. ﺮﻫﹶﺎﻇ , ﹶﻰﻈﹶﻟ , ﺍﻅﻮﺷ , ﹾﻢﻈﹶﻛ , ﺎﻤﹶﻠﹶﻇ ,
ﺍﹾﻆﹸﻠﹾﻏ , ﹶﻡﻼﹶﻇ , ﹾﺮﻔﹸﻇ , ﺮﻈﺘﻧﺍ , ﺎﻤﹶﻇ ,
55. ﺮﹶﻔﹾﻇﹶﺃ , ﹰﺎّﻨﹶﻇ however it occurs [meaning wherever and in whatever form each of these words occur in
the Qur’an, i.e. with attached pronouns],and (the word) ﹾﻆﻋ except,
ﻦﻴﻀﻋ , (the word) ﱠﻞﹶﻇ in ﺳﻮﺭﺓﻞﺤﻨﺍﻟ and (ﱠﻞﹶﻇ ) in ﻑﺮﺧﱡﺰﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ are the same, (meaning both written with ﱠﺎﺀﻈﺍﻟ)
56. ﺖﹾﻠﹶﻇ , ﻢﺘﹾﻠﹶﻇ , and in ﻡﻭﱡﺮﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ (the word) ﺍﻮﱡﻠﹶﻇ
The same (word is found) in ﺮﺠﺤﹾﻟﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ, (the word) ﺖﱠﻠﹶﻇ as well as ﱡﻞﹶﻈﻧ in ﺳﻮﺭﺓﺍﺀﺮﻌﱡﺸﺍﻟ ,
57. ﻦﹾﻠﹶﻠﹾﻈﻳ , ﹰﺍﺭﻮﹸﻈﺤﻣ together with [the word] ﺮﻈﺘﺤﻤﹾﻟﺍ ,
ﺖﻨﹸﻛًّﹶﻈﺎﻓ and all [forms and derivatives of the word] ﹶﺮﻈﻨ.ﺍﻟ
58. Except in ﻞﻳﻭ (meaning ﺍﳌﻄﻔﻔﲔ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ), ﹾﻞﻫ (meaning ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ )ﺳﻮﺭﺓ, the first ﺓﺮﺿﺎﻧ (it occurs in
ﺔﻣﺎﻴﻘﹾﻟﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ ) the first one is read with a ﺿﺎﺩ whereas the second is read ﺓﺮﻇﺎﻧ),
And (the word) ﻆﻴﻐﹾﻟﺍ not the one in ﺪﻋﺮﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ and ﺩﻮﻫ is shortened (to a ﺎﺩﺿ) 9
59. (The word) ﹼﻆﺤﹾﻟﺍ not the one in ّﺾﺤﹾﻟﺍﹶﻰﻠﻋﺎﻡﻌﹶﻃ [not the ﺽ],
and the difference (in recitation) concerning (the word) ﻦﻴﹺﻨﹶﻇ is sublime.10
60. And when the two (letters i.e. the ﺎﺩﻀﺍﻟ and the ﱠﺎﺀﻈﺍﻟ ) meet it is necessary to make clear and
distinct [the articulation points for both letters],
[as demonstrated in the words] ﺾﹶﻘﻧﹶﺃﻙﺮﻬﹶﻇَ and ﱡﺾﻌﻳﻢﻟﱠﺎﻈﺍﻟ
61. And in (the following words) ﺮﹸﻄﺿﹸﺍ , ﺖﹾﻈﻋﻭ together with ﻢﺘﻀﹶﻓﹶﺃ ,
And distinguish the ﺎﺀﻬﹾﻟﺍ in ﻢﻬﻫﺎﺒﹺﺟ and ﻢﹺﻬﻴﹶﻠﻋ .
The difference between the letters ﺽ and ﻅ is the long stick on the ﻅ , so the shortening refers to the lack of the "stick”.
In some of the different qira’aat the word ﺑﻀﻨﲔ in aayah 24 of surah At-Takweer is read with a ﻇﺎﺀ- ﺑﻈﻨﲔ
The ﻥ and ﻡ with a Shaddah and ﹺﻢﻴﻤﹾﻟﺍﺔﻨﻛﺎﺴﺍﻟ
62. Make clear the ghunnah of the ﻥﻮﱡﻨﺍﻟ and
ﻢﻴﻤﹾﻟﺍ when they occur with a shaddah; and read with ﹶﺎﺀﻔﺧِﻹ:ﺍ
63. the ﻢﻴﻤﹾﻟﺍ when it is has a sukoon and meets the
(letter) ﺎﺀﺒﹾﻟﺍ according to the preferred view of the scholars [of Qur’anic recitation].
64. And make ﺎﺭﻬﹾﻇِﻹﺍ (meaning make the ﻢﻴﻤﹾﻟﺍ clear and obvious if it follows) any of the remaining
letters, (meaning all the letters except ﻢﻴﻤﹾﻟﺍ and ﺎﺀﺒﹾﻟﺍ)
and be careful not to make ﹶﺎﺀﻔﺧِﻹﺍ (of ﺍﳌﻴﻢﺍﻟﺴﺎﻛﻨﺔ ) when it meets [is followed by] the letters ﺍﻭﻮﹾﻟﺍ and
The Chapter on the Rules of ﻦﻳﹺﻮﻨﺘﺍﻟ and ﻥﻮﱡﻨﺍﻟﺔﻨﻛﺎﺴﺍﻟ
65. The rules for the ﻦﻳﹺﻮﻨﺘﺍﻟ and ﺎﻛﻨﺔﺴﺍﻟ ﻥﻮﱡﻨﺍﻟ consist of:
ﺎﺭﻬﹾﻇِﻹﺍ (clear and obvious), ﺍﹶﺎﻡﻏﺩِﻹ (merging), ﹾﺐﻠﹶﻘﹾﻟﺍ (change) and ﹶﺎﺀﻔﺧِﻹﺍ (hide).
66. Upon meeting the letters of throat make ﺎﺭﻬﹾﻇِﻹﺍ [meaning make clear the ﹺﻮﻨﺘﺍﻟﻦﻳ and ﻥﻮﱡﻨﺍﻟﺔﻨﻛﺎﺴﺍﻟ ]; and
[meaning merge the ﻦﻳﹺﻮﻨﺘﺍﻟ and ﻥﻮﱡﻨﺍﻟﺔﻨﻛﺎﺴﺍﻟ ] when followed by the letters ﱠﻡﻼﺍﻟ and ﺍﺀﺮﺍﻟ without ﺔﻨﹸﻏ
[meaning nasalized sound] a required (merging).
67. And make ﹶﺎﻡﻏﺩِﻹﺍ (of the ﻦﻳﹺﻮﻨﺘﺍﻟ and ﻥﻮﱡﻨﺍﻟﺔﻨﻛﺎﺴﺍﻟ ) with a ﺔﻨﹸﻏ into (the letters of the group) "ﻦﻣﻮﻳ" ,
except when within a single word as in: ﺎﻴﻧﺩ and ﺍﻥﻮﻨﻋ.
ﹾﺐﻠﹶﻘﹾﻟﺍ (which means change) is applied when it (the ﻦﻳﹺﻮﻨﺘﺍﻟ and ﻥﻮﱡﻨﺍﻟﺔﻨﻛﺎﺴﺍﻟ ) meets the letter ﺎﺀﺒﹾﻟﺍ
with a ﺔﻨﹸﻏ;
and likewise is ﹶﺎﺀﻔﺧِﻹﺍ (hiding) is applied with the remaining letters [meaning the letters remaining
after taking out the letters of ﺎﺭﻬﹾﻇِﻹﺍ (clear and obvious), ﹶﺎﻡﻏﺩِﻹﺍ (merging), and ﹾﺐﻠﹶﻘﹾﻟﺍ (change)].
It also called iqlaab; either term is acceptable.
In the iqlaab or qalb, the noon as-saakinah or tanween changes into a meem saakinah, and read with a ghunnah.
The Lengthening Chapter ﺏﺎﺑﺪﻤﹾﻟﺍ( )
69. The ّﺪﻤﹾﻟﺍ (lengthening) occurs as ﹺﻡﺯﹶﻻ (compulsory), ﹺﺐﺟﺍﻭ (required)
And ﺰﺋﺎﺟ (allowed) and both (the lengthening) and shortening have been affirmed [in the allowed
or ﺰﺋﺎﺟ lengthening].
70. The ﹺﻡﺯﹼﻼﺍﻟ (compulsory) is when after a ﻑﺮﺣﱟﺪﻣ (medd letter)13
there is a ﻦﻛﺎﺳ in both states (i.e. while continuing reading or stopping) and is lengthened for six
71. The ﹺﺐﺟﺍﻮﹾﻟﺍ [required lenghtening] is when it (the ﻑﺮﺣﺪﻤﹾﻟﺍ or medd letter) comes before a hamzah,
joined (meaning a medd letter is followed immediately by a hamzah) if they are together in one word.
72. The ﺰﺋﺎﺠﹾﻟﺍ [allowed lengthing] is when it occurs separately (meaning when the medd letter and
the hamzah meet but in two different words). 14
or (another type of lenghtening when) stopping on a phrase due to a temporary sukoon ( ﻣﺪﻋﺎﺭﺽ ).
The “medd” letters or ﺣﺮﻭﻑّﺪﺍﳌ are: the alif preceded by a fathah, the ya’ saakinah preceded by a kasrah, and the wow saakinah
preceded by a dhammah. Anytime any of these three letters occur under these conditions, it is a “medd” letter, which means a
This medd (lengthening) occurs when the ﻑﺮﺣﺪﻤﹾﻟﺍ is the last letter of the first word and the hamzah is the first letter of the
The Chapter on Knowing the Stops and Starts ﺏﺎﺑﺔﹶﻓﹺﺮﻌﻣﻒﹾﻗﻮﹾﻟﺍِﺀﺍﺪﺘﺑﻻﺍﻭ( )
73. And after (having the knowledge of) the tajweed of the letters,
It is without doubt necessary to have the knowledge of the stops
74. and the starts. And they (meaning the stops and starts ) are thus divided into
three (categories): ّﻡﺎﺗ (complete stop/start), ﻑﹶﺎﻛ (sufficient stop/start) and ﻦﺴﺣ (good stop/start) .
75. They (all three) refer to what is complete (a stop that is complete in meaning), then if there be
no attachment (to what comes after it in meaning or grammar then this stop is ﻭﻗﻒﺗﺎﻡ )
or (when) there is an attachment in meaning (this type of stop is ﻭﻗﻒﻛﺎﰲ ), then start (with what follows).
76. The complete ّﺎﻡﺘﺍﻟ [stop]15
and ﻲﻓﹶﺎﻜﹾﻟﺍ –the sufficient [stop]16
, and in grammar [if there is an
attachment to what comes after in meaning and grammar], then it is forbidden (to start with what
Except when stopping at the end of an aayah then it is allowed (to start with the beginning of the next
ayah). For then it is ﻦﺴﺤﹾﻟﺍ 17
The complete stop( ّﺎﻡﺘ)ﺍﻟ is the stop that has no attachment to what comes after in meaning or grammar.
The sufficient stop (ﻲﻓﹶﺎﻜﹾﻟﺍ ) is attached to what comes after in meaning, but not in grammar. The rule for these two stops (the
complete stop and the sufficient stop) is that it is allowed to stop and then start with that which comes next.
The rule for ﻦﺴﺤﹾﻟﺍ is that it is good to stop on it, but not good to start on what follows it except if the occurs to be at the end
of an aayah then it is allowed to start with what follows, because stopping at the end of an aayah is sunnah.
77. That which is not complete is repulsive (ﺢﻴﺒﹶﻗ ) [stop],
And there is the compelled (or forced)18
stop for which the reciter should start [afterwards]with
what preceded it.
78. There does not exist in the Qur’an a stop that is necessary
nor a stop that is prohibited except for a reason (for its prohibition).
The Chapter on the [words written] Separated and Joined ﺏﺎﺑﹺﻉﹸﻮﻄﹾﻘﻤﹾﻟﺍﹺﻝﻮﺻﻮﻤﹾﻟﺍﻭ( )
79. Know the ﻉﻮﹸﻄﹾﻘﻤﹾﻟﺍ [those written separately as two different words]and the ﻝﻮﺻﻮﹶﳌﺍ [those words
written as one word] and the ﺎﺀﺘﺍﻟ (the female ﻫﺎﺀ which is written as ﺕ )
In the Qur’anic copy of the Imam (referring to the Uthmani script) in what follows.
80. Separate in ten words "ﹾﻥﹶﺃﹶﻻ" (meaning the words are written separately as two words in ten
places which are): with ﺄﺠﹾﻠﻣ 19
, ﹶﻻﻪﹶﻟﹺﺇﱠﻻﹺﺇ 20
81. ﺍﻭﺪﺒﻌﺗ in ﻦﻴﺳﺎﻳ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ (aayah 70) and the second place in ﺩﻮﻫ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ (aayah 26),
ﻦﹾﻛﹺﺮﺸﻳ (ﺔﻨﺤﺘﻤﻤﹾﻟﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :14), ﻙﹺﺮﺸﺗ 21
, ﻦﹶﻠﺧﺪﻳ 22
, ﺍﻮﹸﻠﻌﺗﹶﻰﻠﻋ 23
Some reasons for a compelled or forced stop are sneezing, coughing, or an unanticpated running out of breath.
ﺔﺑﻮﺘﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ : 118
ﺩﻮﻫ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :14
ﺳﻮﺭﺓﺍﳊﺞ : 26
ﹶﻢﻠﹶﻘﹾﻟﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ : 24
ﺎﻥﺧﱡﺪﺍﻟ :ﺳﻮﺭﺓ 19
82. ﺃﻥﹶﻻﺍﻮﹸﻟﻮﹸﻘﻳ 24
, ﹶﻻﹸﻝﻮﹸﻗﹶﺃ 25
; and (separate the words) "ﹺﻥﺇﻣﺎ" [with a kasrah on the hamzah]
in ﺪﻋﺮﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ (aayah 40), 26
and join the "ﹾﻥﹶﺃﺎﻣ" with a ﺔﺤﺘﹶﻓ (on the hamzah)27
; and (the words) “ "ﻦﻋﺎﻣ :
83. separate in ﺍﻮﻬﻧ 28
(and write separately) "ﻦﻣﺎﻣ" in ﻡﻭﱡﺮﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ: 28 and ﺎﺀﺴﻨﺍﻟ:25
and there is a difference [in the copies of the Qur’an as to whether the word "ﻦﻣﺎﻣ" is written
ﻣﻘﻄﻮﻋﺔ or] in ﻦﻴﻘﻓﺎﻨﻤﹾﻟﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :10 (and separate) "ﻡﹶﺃﻦﻣ" in ﺲﺳﹶﺃ 29
(as well as in)
84. ﺖﹶﻠﺼﹰﻓ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ (aayah 40), ﺎﺀﺴﻨﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ (aaayah 109) and ﺢﺑﱢﺬﺍﻟ (i.e. ﱠﺎﺕﻓﺎﺼﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ aayah 11), (and separate)
"ﹾﻥﹶﺃﻢﹶﻟ" with a ﺔﺤﺘﹶﻓ (on the hamzah)31
, and (write separate) "ﱠﻥﹺﺇﺎﻣ" with the ﺓﺮﺴﹶﻛ (on the hamzah)
85. In ﺎﻡﻌﻧَﻷﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ (aayah 134) and (separate) "ﱠﻥﹶﺃﺎﻣ" with the ﺔﺤﺘﹶﻓ (on the hamzah) in ﹶﻥﻮﻋﺪﻳ both of
in ﺳﻮﺭﺓﺍﻷﻧﻔﺎﻝ : 41 and ﻞﺤﻨﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ : 95.
ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ : 169 and in aayah 105 for ﹶﻻﹸﻝﻮﹸﻗﹶﺃ in the same surah
There is one place not mentioned in the poem in which there is a difference in the copies of the Qur’an as to whether the
word "ﹾﻥﹶﺃﹶﻻ" is written separately or joined [ ﹼﻻﺃ] which is in ﺳﻮﺭﺓﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ . All the remaining places the word "ﹾﻥﹶﺃﹶﻻ" are written
All the remaining places the words "ﹾﻥﹺﺇﺎﻣ" are written joined together: ّﻣﺇﺎ
These two words are always written joined ()ﻣﻮﺻﻮﻟﺔ as ّﺎﻣ.ﺃ
ﺍﻷﻋﺮﺍﻑ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ : 177
ﺔﺑﻮﺘﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :109
These two words occur only two times in the Quran, both in surah Al-Baqarah, and both times they are written as two
These two words are written as two separate words wherever they occur in the Quran.
Meaning in ّﺞﺤﹾﻟﺍ 26:ﺳﻮﺭﺓ and ﺎﻥﻤﹾﻘﹸﻟ .03:ﺳﻮﺭﺓ
There is a difference in the different copies of the Qur’an as to whether "ﱠﻥﹶﺃﺎﻣ" is written joined or separately in the words in
the aayaat that follow.
86. And [separate in writing] "ﱢﻞﹸﻛﺎﻣ" in ﺘﹾﻟﹶﺄﺳﻩﻮﻤ 34
and it differs35
in ﺍﻭﱡﺩﺭ 36
and likewise (there is a difference as regards to the words) ﺎﻣ ﺲﹾﺌﹺﺑ in ﺎﻤﺴﹾﺌﹺﺑ ﹾﻞﹸﻗ 37
places where the words ﺎﻣ" "ﹾﺲﺌﹺﺑ are written) joined are as follows:
87. ﹺﻲﻧﻮﻤﺘﹾﻔﹶﻠﺧْ 38
and ﺍﻭﺮﺘﺷﺍ 39
. Separate (the words) "ﻲﻓﺎﻣ" in ﻲﺣﻭﹸﺃ 40
, ﻢﺘﻀﹶﻓﹶﺃ 41
ﺖﻬﺘﺷﺍ and both
88. The second ﻦﹾﻠﻌﹶﻓ 44
, also in ﺖﻌﹶﻗﻭ (ﺔﻌﻗﺍﻮﹾﻟﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :61), in ﻡﻭﱡﺮﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :28,
both places in ﻞﻳﹺﺰﻨﺗ (ﺮﻣﱡﺰﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :30) and in ﺍﺀﺮﻌﱡﺸﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ : 147 and join what is besides these
ﺳﻮﺭﺓﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ : 34
The difference is in the different copies of the Qur’an as to whether the words "ﱢﻞﹸﻛﺎﻣ" are written joined as one word or
separately as two words.
ﺳﻮﺭﺓﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺀ : 91. There are three other places which are not mentioned in this poem that are written differently in the various
copies of the Qur’an for the word "ﱢﻞﹸﻛﺎﻣ" . Another scholar, Sheikh Ibraheem As-Samanoodiyy wrote in the following lines
Which means: And (separate) "ﱢﻞﹸﻛﺎﻣ" in ﻩﻮﻤﺘﹾﻟﹶﺄﺳ (in ﺳﻮﺭﺓﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ : 34) and there is a difference (in the various copies of the Qur’an as to
the word "ﱢﻞﹸﻛﺎﻣ" being written separately or joined) in ﻛﻞﻣﺎﺎﺟ (in ﻮﻥﻨﻣﺆﻤﹾﻟﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :44) and (the word) ﺍﻭﱡﺩﺭ ﻛﻞﻣﺎ (in ﺎﺀﺴﻨﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :91) and
(the word) ﻲﻘﹾﻟﹸﺃ ﻛﻞﻣﺎ (in ﹾﻚﻠﻤﹾﻟﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :8) and (the word) ﻛﻞﻣﺎﹶﺖﻠﺧﺩ (in ﺍﻑﺮﻋﺍﻷ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ 28)
in ﺓﺮﹶﻘﺒﹾﻟﺍ 39:ﺳﻮﺭﺓ
in ﺍﻑﺮﻋَﻷﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :150
in ﺓﺮﹶﻘﺒﹾﻟﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :90
in ﺎﻡﻌﻧَﻷﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :165
in ﺭﻮﱡﻨﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :14
in ﺎﺀﻴﹺﺒﻧَﻷﺍ 201:ﺳﻮﺭﺓ
Meaning in ﺓﺪﺋﺎﻤﹾﻟﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :48 and ﺎﻡﻌﻧَﻷﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :240.
The second place where this word comes in ﺓﺮﹶﻘﺒﹾﻟﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :240.
89. Join "ﻤﺎﻨﻳﹶﺃ" 45
as in ﻞﺤﻨﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :76 (join as well) and there is a difference (in the copies of the
described in ﺍﺀﺮﻌﱡﺸﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ: 42, ﺍﺏﺰﺣَﻷﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ : 61and ﺎﺀﺴﻨﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :78.
90. Join "ﻢﱠﻟﹺﺇ" in ﺩﻮﻫ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ (aayah 14), ﻦﱠﻟﹶﺃﹶﻞﻌﺠﻧ 47
, (also join) ﹶﻼﻴﹶﻜﻟ : ﺍﻮﻧﺰﺤﺗ 49
, ﺍﻮﺳﹾﺄﺗﹶﻰﻠﻋ 50
91. As well as [ﹶﻼﻴﹶﻛ]in ّﺞﺤﹾﻟﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ , in ﻚﻴﹶﻠﻋﺝﺮﺣ 51
. And separate [in writing]
"ﻦﻋﻦﻣ" in ُﺀﺎﺸﻳ 52
, ﻦﻣﱠﻰﻟﻮﺗ ( ﻦﻋﻦﻣ in ﻢﺠﻨﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ:29) and (separate) "ﻡﻮﻳﻢﻫ" 53
92. (And write separately the words) "ﹺﻝﺎﻣﹶﺍﺬﻫ" 54
ﻦﻳﺬﱠﻟﺍ ( ﹺﻝﺎﻣﻦﻳﺬﱠﻟﺍ ) and ِﺀﹶﻻﺆﻫ ( ِﺀﹶﻻﺆﻫ ﹺﻝﺎﻣ) 56
(The word) “ ﻭﻻﺕﺣﲔ ” 57
is forbidden to pronounce according to the Imam as joined into one
ﺓﺮﹶﻘﺒﹾﻟﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :115
as to ﺎﻤﻨﻳﹰﺃ written as two words or one
ﱠﻦﻟﹶﺃ ْin ﺔﻣﺎﻴﻘﹾﻟﺍ 3:ﺳﻮﺭﺓ
ﹶﻼﻴﹶﻜﻟ in ﺪﻳﺪﺤﹾﻟﺍ 32:ﺳﻮﺭﺓ
ﺮﻓﹶﺎﻏ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :16 and ﺎﺕﻳﹺﺭﱠﺍﺬﺍﻟ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :14
In ﻒﻬﹶﻜﹾﻟﺍ ﺳﻮﺭﺓ :49 and in ﹶﺎﻥﻗﺮﹸﻔﹾﻟﺍ 8:ﺳﻮﺭﺓ