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Persian print version wikibooks, open books for an open world

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Persian Language Introduction

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Persian print version wikibooks, open books for an open world

  1. 1. 9/7/2014 Persian/Print version - Wikibooks, open books for an open world II This is a Category II Language. Persian/Print version Contents Cover Introduction — Background to learning Persian Lessons The Alphabet: Lesson 1 ( ١ ) — Introduction to the Persian alphabet ( (ا ب پ ت ث ج چ ح خ Lesson 2 ( ٢ ) — The alphabet (continued) ( (د ذ ر ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ Lesson 3 ( ٣ ) — The alphabet (continued) ( (ع غ ف ق ک گ ل م ن Lesson 4 ( ۴ ) — The alphabet (continued), ligatures, diacritics ( (و ه ی Level 1 grammar: Lesson 5 ( ۵ ) — Introduction to verbs ( (... ،ھستم ،ھست، ...، است Lesson 6 ( ۶ ) — Noun phrases, ezâfe, demonstrative adjectives Lesson 7 ( ٧ ) — Simple past tense, plurality and formality/deference Lesson 8 ( ٨ ) — Negation, negative copula ( (... ،بیستم، بیست Lesson 9 ( ٩ ) — Plural nouns, Arabic plurals, singular verbs with plural inanimate nouns Lesson 10 ( ١٠ ) — Indefinite clitic ی, homographs Lesson 11 ( ١١ ) — Direct objects, prepositions ،بودن ، داشتن Lesson 12 ( ١٢ ) — Present tense, negative present, literary present imperfective Lesson 13 ( ١٣ ) — Personal enclitics for possession or direct object Lesson 14 ( ١۴ ) — Light verbs, causative with کردن vs. suffix انیدن or اندن . Passive with شدن Lesson 15 ( ١۵ ) — Questions: Formal and informal, interrogative adverbs and pronouns Level 2 grammar: Lesson 16 ( ١۶ ) — Perfective aspect Lesson 17 ( ١٧ ) — Comparative and superlative adjectives Lesson 18 ( ١٨ ) — Imperative, subjunctive, conditional Future in colloquial and literary Persian Appendices http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Persian/Print_version 1/71
  2. 2. 9/7/2014 Persian/Print version - Wikibooks, open books for an open world Contribute to this Wikibook This is a Wikibook. Feel free to edit, enhance, correct, and add to it, in any way that will make it a better learning resource. Contribute to this book to make it a good way for new learners to learn Farsi! II This is a Category II Language. Alphabet — The alphabet and transcription Grammar Glossary Further Reading Selected Websites Persian Computing Persian Handwriting Persian Phrases Wikibook Resources Persian - English Wiktionary How to Contribute Planning Next: Introduction to the Persian language course Continue to Introduction to the Persian language course >> Contents http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Persian/Print_version 2/71
  3. 3. 9/7/2014 Persian/Print version - Wikibooks, open books for an open world Contents Cover Introduction — Background to learning Persian Lessons The Alphabet: Lesson 1 ( ١ ) — Introduction to the Persian alphabet ( (ا ب پ ت ث ج چ ح خ Lesson 2 ( ٢ ) — The alphabet (continued) ( (د ذ ر ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ Lesson 3 ( ٣ ) — The alphabet (continued) ( (ع غ ف ق ک گ ل م ن Lesson 4 ( ۴ ) — The alphabet (continued), ligatures, diacritics ( (و ه ی Level 1 grammar: Lesson 5 ( ۵ ) — Introduction to verbs ( (... ،ھستم ،ھست، ...، است Lesson 6 ( ۶ ) — Noun phrases, ezâfe, demonstrative adjectives Lesson 7 ( ٧ ) — Simple past tense, plurality and formality/deference Lesson 8 ( ٨ ) — Negation, negative copula ( (... ،بیستم، بیست Lesson 9 ( ٩ ) — Plural nouns, Arabic plurals, singular verbs with plural inanimate nouns Lesson 10 ( ١٠ ) — Indefinite clitic ی, homographs Lesson 11 ( ١١ ) — Direct objects, prepositions ،بودن ، داشتن Lesson 12 ( ١٢ ) — Present tense, negative present, literary present imperfective Lesson 13 ( ١٣ ) — Personal enclitics for possession or direct object Lesson 14 ( ١۴ ) — Light verbs, causative with کردن vs. suffix انیدن or اندن . Passive with شدن Lesson 15 ( ١۵ ) — Questions: Formal and informal, interrogative adverbs and pronouns Level 2 grammar: Lesson 16 ( ١۶ ) — Perfective aspect Lesson 17 ( ١٧ ) — Comparative and superlative adjectives Lesson 18 ( ١٨ ) — Imperative, subjunctive, conditional Future in colloquial and literary Persian Appendices Alphabet — The alphabet and transcription Grammar Glossary Further Reading Selected Websites Persian Computing Persian Handwriting Persian Phrases Wikibook Resources Persian - English Wiktionary Contribute to this Wikibook This is a Wikibook. Feel free to edit, enhance, correct, and add to it, in any way that will make it a better learning resource. Contribute to this book to make it a good way for new learners to learn Farsi! How to Contribute Planning Next: Introduction to the Persian language course Continue to Introduction to the Persian language course >> http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Persian/Print_version 3/71
  4. 4. 9/7/2014 Persian/Print version - Wikibooks, open books for an open world Introduction Welcome to the English Wikibook for learning the Persian Language. This course requires no prior knowledge of Persian. It aims to teach grammar, vocabulary, common phrases, conversational language, and formal/literary Persian. By the end, you should be able to read and write Persian but will probably need a human teacher to help with listening and speaking. The book is meant to be read starting with lesson 1 and moving forward. It will move slowly. The Persian Language Persian (local names: Parsi, Farsi or Dari) is an Indo-European language, the dominant language of the Indo-Iranian language family and is a major language of antiquity. After the 7th century Persian absorbed a great deal of Arabic vocabulary. Persian is the official language of Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. Persian is also a popular language in academia and business. Related languages include Pashto, Kurdish, Ossetian, and Balochi. Urdu and Turkish also have a sizable vocabulary from Persian. Persian or Farsi? Farsi is an Arabized form of the word Parsi, one of the original names in Persian for the Persian language. Since there is no [p] sound in Arabic, Parsi became Farsi after the Arab conquest of Persia. Farsi then became the local name of Persian, but English speakers still call the language “Persian”, just as they say “German”, “Spanish”, and “Chinese” for languages locally called Deutsch, español, and Hanyu. There is considerable opposition to calling Persian Farsi in English and other languages, as is summarized by the following pronouncement on the English name of Persian language by the Academy of Persian language and literature: 1. “Persian” has been used in a variety of publications including cultural, scientific and diplomatic documents for centuries and, therefore, it carries a very significant historical and cultural meaning. Hence, changing “Persian” to “Farsi” would negate this established important precedent. 2. Changing the usage from “Persian” to “Farsi” may give the impression that “Farsi” is a new language, although this may well be the intention of some users of “Farsi”. 3. Changing the usage may also give the impression that “Farsi” is a dialect used in some parts of Iran rather than the predominant (and official) language of the country. 4. The word “Farsi” has never been used in any research paper or university document in any Western language, and the proposal to begin using it would create doubt and ambiguity about the name of the official language of Iran. Persian and English Since Persian and English are both Indo-European languages, many basic Persian words are familiar to English speakers. For example مادر ‹mâdar› (“mother”), پدر ‹pedar› (“father”), and برادر ‹barâdar› (“brother”). Pronunciation http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Persian/Print_version 4/71
  5. 5. 9/7/2014 Persian/Print version - Wikibooks, open books for an open world Although Persian was influenced by Arabic, English speakers should not find it too difficult to pronounce Persian letters fairly well. Fortunately for English speakers, the glottal stop ء [ʔ] from Arabic is barely pronounced in Persian, and the “emphatic” consonants in Arabic ( ع ح ط ض ص ظ ) are pronounced without the pharyngealization, making them much easier for most native English speakers. It is important to listen to Persian often and to try to use the language. Pronunciation guides can only closely convey the sounds of Persian but are never totally exact, so pronunciation benefits greatly from listening to native speakers. Transcription There are several systems of transcription to represent the sounds of Persian in the Latin alphabet. This book uses the UniPers (also called Pârsiye Jahâni, "Universal Persian") transcription system, which uses the basic Latin alphabet plus a few modified letters (‹â›, ‹š›, ‹ž›, and an apostrophe ‹’›) as a standard phonemic script that is clear, simple, and consistent. Each transcription is enclosed in angle brackets, e.g., ‹fârsi›: Vowels Diphthongs UniPers ‹a› ‹â› ‹e› ‹i› ‹o› ‹u› ‹ow› ‹ey› ‹ay› ‹ây› ‹oy› ‹uy› IPA / æ/ /ɒː/ /e/ /iː/ /o/ /uː/ /ow/ /ej/ /aj/ /ɒj/ /oj/ /uj/ Persian آ، ا ا ای، ا، ه (خوا) وی ای ی و او ا، و ی Consonants UniPers ‹b› ‹c› ‹d› ‹f› ‹g› ‹h› ‹j› ‹k› ‹l› ‹m› ‹n› ‹p› ‹q› ‹r› ‹s› ‹š› ‹t› ‹v› ‹x› ‹z› ‹ž› ‹’› IPA /b/ /tʃ/ /d/ /f/ /ɡ/ /h/ /dʒ/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /p/ /ɣ/ /ɾ/ /s/ /ʃ/ /t/ /v/ /χ/ /z/ /ʒ/ /ʔ/ Persian ه، گ ف د چ ب غ، پ ن م ل ک ج ح ر ق ث، س، ص ت، ش خ و ط ذ، ز، ض، ظ ع، ژ ء Vocabulary and grammar In learning to read or speak any language, the two aspects to be mastered are vocabulary and grammar. Acquiring vocabulary is a matter of memorization. Children learn thousands of words of their native language by the time they are conscious of the learning process, so it is easy to underestimate importance of having a large vocabulary. This process can be reactivated by immersion: moving to where the language is spoken and one’s native tongue cannot be used for daily communication. Without the opportunity to move to a Persian-speaking area, a student must make a substantial effort to learn the meaning, pronunciation, and proper use of words. Be sure to learn all of the vocabulary words in each lesson. Early lessons have simple sentences because the student’s vocabulary is presumably limited, but more complex sentences in later lessons demonstrate more typical Persian. It may be helpful to translate these using a Persian-English dictionary. Access to a print dictionary is very helpful. Other sources of Persian, such as newspapers, magazines, and web sites can help to build vocabulary and to develop a sense of how Persian sentences are put together. Resources The Internet has a wide variety of study resources. You can refer to the appendix of this book for a selection of some of the best sources: Websites Persian - English Wiktionary Also, each new vocabulary term introduced in this course can be looked up easily in the English Wiktionary wherever the dictionary image appears. Click on the image to look up a Persian word wherever you see a link like the following: خوب ‹xub› /ˈxuːb/ (“fine/well/good”) http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Persian/Print_version 5/71
  6. 6. 9/7/2014 Persian/Print version - Wikibooks, open books for an open world Next: Lesson 1 ( ١ ), Introduction to the Persian alphabet Continue to Lesson 1 ( ١ ), Introduction to the Persian alphabet >> The Alphabet The Persian Alphabet: الفبا ‹alefbâ› The six vowels and 23 consonants of Persian are written using a modified version of the Arabic alphabet with four extra Persian letters to represent sounds which do not exist in Arabic. Its Persian name is الفبا ‹alefbâ› , which is the equivalent of the English “ABCs”. Name Pronunciation, ‹UniPers›, [IPA] End Middle Initial Isolated ا — ا ‹â› [ɒː] as in North American English caught, Received Pronunciation father, South African English park, ‹a› [æ] as in cat, ‹o› [o] as in soap or ‹e› [e] as in well ‹alef› ‹be› ‹b› [b] as in big ب ب ب ب ‹pe› ‹p› [p] as in park پ پ پ پ ‹te› ‹t› [t] as in tea ت ت ت ت ‹se› ‹s› [s] as in salad ث ث ث ث ‹jim› ‹j› [dʒ͡] as in jade ج ج ج ج ‹ce› ‹c› [t͡ʃ] as in cheese چ چ چ چ ‹he› ‹h› [h] as in house ح ح ح ح ‹xe› ‹x› [x] as in Bach or Loch خ خ خ خ ‹dâl› ‹d› [d] as in dog د — د ‹zâl› ‹z› [z] as in zoo ذ — ذ ‹re› ‹r› [ɾ] as in rain ر — ر ‹ze› ‹z› [z] as in zoo ز — ز ‹že› ‹ž› [ʒ] as in mirage or French je ژ — ژ ‹sin› ‹s› [s] as in sand س س س س ‹šin› ‹š› [ʃ] as in sugar ش ش ش ش ‹sâd› ‹s› [s] as in sand ص ص ص ص ‹zâd› ‹z› [z] as in zoo ض ض ض ض ‹t› [t] as in tiger ط ط ط ط ‹tâ› ‹zâ› ‹z› [z] as in zoo ظ ظ ظ ظ http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Persian/Print_version 6/71
  7. 7. 9/7/2014 Persian/Print version - Wikibooks, open books for an open world ‹'eyn› ‹'› [ʔ] as in uh-oh ع ع ع ع ‹qeyn› ‹q› [ɣ] Voiced velar fricative.ogg or [ɢ], Voiced uvular stop.oga غ غ غ غ ‹fe› ‹f› [f] as in France ف ف ف ف ‹qâf› ‹q› [ɣ] Voiced velar fricative.ogg or [ɢ], Voiced uvular stop.oga ق ق ق ق ‹kâf› ‹k› [k] as in kid ک ك ك ک ‹gâf› ‹g› [g] as in golf گ گ گ گ ‹lâm› ‹l› [l] as in love ل ل ل ل ‹mim› ‹m› [m] as in music م م م م ‹nun› ‹n› [n] as in new ن ن ن ن ‹vâv› ‹w›, ‹u›, ‹o› and ‹v› as in و — و ‹he› ‹h› [h] as in horse ه ھ ھ ھ ‹ye› ‹y› [j] as in year or ‹i› [iː] as in free ى ی ی ى Transcription UniPers is used as a guide to pronunciation in this book: Vowels Diphthongs UniPers ‹a› ‹â› ‹e› ‹i› ‹o› ‹u› ‹ow› ‹ey› ‹ay› ‹ây› ‹oy› ‹uy› IPA / æ/ /ɒː/ /e/ /iː/ /o/ /uː/ /ow/ /ej/ /aj/ /ɒj/ /oj/ /uj/ Persian آ، ا ا ای، ا، ه (خوا) وی ای ی و او ا، و ی Consonants UniPers ‹b› ‹c› ‹d› ‹f› ‹g› ‹h› ‹j› ‹k› ‹l› ‹m› ‹n› ‹p› ‹q› ‹r› ‹s› ‹š› ‹t› ‹v› ‹x› ‹z› ‹ž› ‹’› IPA /b/ /tʃ/ /d/ /f/ /ɡ/ /h/ /dʒ/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /p/ /ɣ/ /ɾ/ /s/ /ʃ/ /t/ /v/ /χ/ /z/ /ʒ/ /ʔ/ Persian ه، گ ف د چ ب غ، پ ن م ل ک ج ح ر ق ث، س، ص ت، ش خ و ط ذ، ز، ض، ظ ع، ژ ء Pronunciation Most letters in this system of transcription can be pronounced like their English equivalents, but some deserve special attention: Persian letter Pronunciation آ ا ژ خ ر Differing Systems of Transcription http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Persian/Print_version 7/71
  8. 8. 9/7/2014 Persian/Print version - Wikibooks, open books for an open world There are several different systems of transcription in use for Persian, and no one official system. This can cause difficulties when more than one textbook is consulted, and may lead an absolute beginner to confuse the different letters. There are too many differences to be listed here, but it is useful to be familiar with the most significant examples: Some common differences include: آ ‹â› listen may be transcribed as ā, á, A, aa, or a. For example, بابا ‹bâbâ› may be written elsewhere as bābā, bábá, bAbA, baabaa, or baba. In texts where ‹â› is transcribed as a, the short ‹a› sound may be written as æ or there may be no written distinction between the long and short sounds. Short ‹a› listen may be transcribed as æ, especially in texts where a represents long ‹â›. For example, ابر ‹abr› may be written elsewhere as æbr and بابا ‹bâbâ› as baba. چ ‹c› may be transcribed as ch or č. For example, چطور ‹cetor› may be written elsewhere as chetor or četor. خ ‹x› may be transcribed as kh. For example, خوب ‹xub› may be written elsewhere as khub. ش ‹š› may be transcribed as sh or s. For example, شما ‹šomâ› may be written elsewhere as shoma or soma. Long ‹u›, may be transcribed as oo. For example, دوست ‹dust› may be written elsewhere as doost. Duplicate Letters Diacritical Markings Name Pronunciation Symbol Hamze ء Alef hamze أ Vâv hamze ؤ Alef Tanvinً ا Tashdidً Short "a" ـَ Short "o" ـُ Short "e" ـِ This section of the Persian Language Wikibook is a stub. You can help Wikibooks by expanding it (https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php? title=Persian/Print_version&action=edit). (See the Persian course Planning page.) Lesson One In this lesson, you will learn basic greetings, the first nine Persian letters, connecting letters, and unwritten vowels. Dialogue: ‹salâm!› Shirin sees her friend Arash in passing and greets him: The dialogues in lessons 1 through 3 are shown in UniPers, a system of writing the Persian language in the Latin alphabet. In later lessons, the native Persian script is shown along with a transcription. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Persian/Print_version 8/71
  9. 9. 9/7/2014 Persian/Print version - Wikibooks, open books for an open world Arash and Shirin are using a casual style of speech typically among friends. Later lessons will use various styles of speech, including some for more formal situations. The Persian Alphabet The Persian language has six vowel sounds and twenty-three consonant sounds. Old Persian was written using its own cuneiform alphabet. Other scripts were used in later stages of the language, and eventually the Arabic alphabet was adopted. The sounds of Persian are different from Arabic, though, so four letters were added for Persian sounds that do not exist in Arabic ( پ ‹pe›, چ ‹ce›, ژ ‹že›, and گ ‹gâf›), and letters for several foreign Arabic sounds are pronounced like their closest Persian approximation. Thus, the twenty-nine sounds of Persian are written in the Perso-Arabic script, which has thirty-two letters and is called الفبا ‹alefbâ›, named after its first two letters (similar to "ABCs" in English). It is a cursive script, written from right to left like Arabic, opposite of the English direction. The letters are presented in the first four lessons of this book, followed by a summary of the whole alphabet in the "Alphabet summary" section of Lesson 4. The Coat of Arms of Tajikistan The two forms of ‹alef›: Shirin : ‹salâm, âraš!› “Hello Arash!” Arash : ‹salâm, širin! cetori?› “Hello, Shirin! How are you?” Shirin : ‹mersi, xubam. tow cetori?› “Thank you, I’m fine. How are you?” Arash : ‹man xubam.› “I'm fine.” Explanation Vocabulary ‹salâm› IPA: /sæˈlɒːm/ — “peace” a common greeting like “hello” in English ‹cetori› /t͡ʃeˈtoɾiː/ — “how are (you)” (informal, used among friends) ‹tow› /tow/ — “you” (informal) ‹mersi› /'meɾsiː/ — “thanks” ‹man› /mæn — “I, me” ‹xubam› /ˈxuːbæm/ — “(I) am fine/well/good” Culture Point: The Tajik (тоҷикӣ) language Not all dialects of Persian are written using the Perso-Arabic alphabet taught here. The Tajik (тоҷикӣ) language, spoken mainly in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, is a variety of Persian written in the Cyrillic alphabet. The language diverged from Persian as spoken in Afghanistan and Iran as a result of political borders, geographical isolation, and the influence of Russian and neighboring languages. The standard language is based on the north-western dialects of Tajik, which were influenced by the neighboring Uzbek language. Tajik also retains numerous archaic elements in its vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar that have been lost elsewhere in the Persian world. ا ‹alef› The first letter in Persian is ا ‹alef›. http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Persian/Print_version 9/71
  10. 10. 9/7/2014 Persian/Print version - Wikibooks, open books for an open world آ At the ا beginning of a word (on the right side), alef has two forms. The form on the far right here with the madde (the small "hat" on top: ) is written as a tall, vertical stroke from top to bottom آ followed by the madde on top written from right to left as a straight ( - ) or curved ( ~ ) line. This ‹â› form represents a doubled اا alef ( ). It is pronounced with the long vowel sound /ɒː/ (IPA), transcribed here as ‹â›. That is, it has a long duration and is produced with rounded lips and the tongue low and far back in the mouth, like a slow version of the vowel in the Queen's English pronunciation of hot, American English caught, or South African ا English park. When the first letter of a word is alef without a "hat" ( ), it is read as a short vowel: ‹a› (IPA: /æ/) as in at, ‹e› (/e/) as in end or ‹o› (/o/) as in open, as will be seen in later examples. When alef ا appears later in a word (after the first letter), it is always written without the "hat" ( ) and it always represents long ‹â›. Distinguishing a and â: Decide whether the ‹alef› in the following words stands for (short) ‹a› or (long) ‹â›. You do not need to be able to read the whole word at this stage. To see the correct answer, click “[show ▼]”. آب (long) ‹â› اتو (short) ‹a› اسب (short) ‹a› آن (long) ‹â› Writing practice Get out a pen and paper and practice writing آ ‹alef madde› and ا ‹alef›. Remember to write from right to left and to keep the base lines even. آ آآآ ا ااا

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