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Contribution of Muslims in the field of Astronomy

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Contribution of Muslims in the field of Astronomy

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Contribution of Muslims in the field of Astronomy

  1. 1. 10/5/2014 Aragha Observatory Founded 1257 J'. «.; /'; IL; .t; ,L. .'. '., :L~_~: g;fi. '{ x, .=)l, ,JL_6)l. >'. ,'}l: lsbl= l' ; '-: ',‘3., ._1a9')&L'>’ol[s, aYJ, f:7¢'f"‘ J>! ,»~ 'w'ww‘. W X9,‘ I. ..u‘»¢Jg’}l'J. ,.=5.li 3.)-| ,.5'-I. .'. -,! *. ".v, i': _.‘LbK; ‘.. -’-’}J_£"' _-u. us, L.; o_, .‘; >:-"; ~.i. .--. bIs, .;. ’n‘. ~l. >. 1. G*‘J, '.»b‘. i’. -**{‘~a5E , L.‘. _.. .9;lJ>, ~c/3y"’. ~.. b‘l). «.. ? 4 ‘»_; .,L: .i_, '._; _. ‘. — 1‘ . - ‘ ‘--. ~b§l, }_X, lI 5:7‘ . y. .)l, ‘ I , _/I~; LvJ_l. ' ‘fi+. /_. j“, .‘ £1»! /;. l~ .1151. V ‘», ‘.~‘ , - . T~'¢b‘Ll;1’_", & __ “: .», .” ~,3}~. 'J: u.v '4,~5_4J'}JJ)l, ° 6;’- v? J._, x,; .u/ ',i. ,~: L‘», v» my ‘I/ =r‘~‘n_l+Ll, {'Jl-I.3“Er-3'*": L'e~Jl-‘v http: //wvvw. islamic-study. org/ astronomy_print. htm Astronomy Printable Astronomy Many of the intellectual sciences were developed as a direct result of Muslims needs to fulfill the rituals and duties of worship. Performing formal prayers, fasting as well as other Islamic duties requires that a Muslim faces and visit Ka'ba, the house of Abraham in Mecca. This is known as "Qib| a." To find Qibla from any part of the globe, Muslims invented the compass and developed the sciences of geography and geometry. Furthermore, fulfillment of the former prayer and fasting also require knowing the times of each duty. Because the prayer and fasting times are marked by an astronomical phenomenon, the science of astronomy underwent a major development. For example, the Muslim's first prayer of the day starts at dawn. Because dawn for each part of the globe is different, a timetable system good for all parts of the globe was invented. Similarly, the second prayer begins at noon, the third prayer starts exactly after noon, the fourth prayer begins just after sunset and the final prayer time is at dusk. Time tables marking prayer times for each region of the globe flooded the Muslim world in fulfillment of their faith. ~’r"-5.3’ LAu. ]; ,7Y". '/LJ'V: “«}‘ 3:” J. -2510}. -/4-‘ ’—~* ~’t“«33-4-r5J:1>'= “.’ -_2,&mm-_= a two _3| _, -:: w.. ‘.-‘. ,g,4l. i.. ‘.; _.- tr (3 l~. ..Lr. -I-min. '2-_--4 -,3 J; r-| -uc. ->'*—‘——'-§r‘': '‘‘ 1: 'LY. @*. .~-'¢» . -7‘ 13¢ dz. ’ Proving Elliptical Orbits 12th Century Another major Muslim duty that was a key to developing astronomy further was the determination of the beginning and the ending of the lunar months for fasting, pilgrimage and the Islamic holidays. These events and many more are marked by certain days of the months of the lunar calendar. For example Ramadan is the 9th month of the lunar calendar. Pilgrimage in Mecca starts in the first of Thu al Hijjah (the 11th month) and lasts for ten days ending in the Great Feast of Sacrifice. The duty of the Pilgrimage to Mecca, that each Muslim must make at least once in his or her lifetime, is directly responsible for the development of the science of geography. Muslims from as far as Malaysia and Indonesia, from Europe and Africa found their ways to Mecca. Arab pilots and the wealth of geographical maps and books developed in the period from the 6th century to the 15th century, were the engine from which the European discoveries of the 15th century were made. Ibn Battutah's 14th century masterpieces provided a detailed view of the geography of the ancient world. 1/6
  2. 2. 10/5/2014 Astronomy Printable AI Bitruji A | Making the Pilgrimage As in the other sciences, astronomers in the Muslim lands built upon and greatly expanded earlier traditions. At the House of Knowledge founded in Baghdad by the Abbasid caliph Mamun, scientists translated many texts from Sanskrit, Pahlavi or Old Persian, Greek and Syriac into Arabic, notably the great Sanskrit astronomical tables and Pto| emy's astronomical treaties, the Almagest. Muslim astronomers accepted the geometrical - - - structure of the universe that was expounded by Ptolemy. He Star Llst In Arable’ stated that the earth rests motionless near the center of a series of eight spheres which encompass it but then faced the problem of reconciling the theoretical model with Aristotelian physics and physical realities derived from observation. Hebrew and Latin Astrolabe Iw. .. . I’. n . ... ... i.. ... .. | ..L N41 :3.. . -u. .. .vu. I*af- , ,v, _< ‘In-u. .. . «. - 1.4 J 1), ... » u . .'».4.4.‘. ' 1.. .. lg-uyfi um. ..‘ ; .. 41-» M. mm. ..s' Mnmuz J». u. ... .. .1.. . M. “ nu. A-. ' 1.. .: ‘n. .. :1.. . . -v. n . ..r_. = II. .v~r'lL- I ‘C-In-. —~ -- . rm‘. -I . . , , , ,, Scholars Discussing Elliptical Orbits and the E’”P50id Earth Big Dipper Illustration 12th Century ibn-Ahmad 15th Century Some of the most impressive efforts to modify Ptolemaic theory Elliptical Orbits were made at the observatory founded by Nasir al-Din Tusi in and the Ellipsoid Earth 1257 at Maragha in northwestern Iran. His work was continued 12th Century by his successors at Tabriz and Damascus. Later, with the assistance of Chinese colleagues, Muslim astronomers worked out planetary models that depended solely on combinations of uniform circular motions. http: //wvvw. isIamic-study_org/ astronomy_print. htm 2/6
  3. 3. 10/5/2014 A. pn_. gn—-—u~~, ¢.. u -by-man. -1.. h—n-- u-antral: -nu: -1oau—n ‘unam--u--Q Astronomical Tables and Charts 15th Century Pgvvtu lhrlbhyu-dhnnntatnn than-any :51-dnllfidaun Do’-gush-andllul-a-uocnnalahvuvwond-In-ad: -gm .5-. --. ... ..o. .a. ... -.u. A.. a.. ... ..I. ,.L my . .~. m.. .. mg. ~mu. . . .I~. ... .4.. ... .v, .-. a.i. .I. ..n. ,r_. a—. 'obnu5oIcinAnL6ohau(unolm-IL--I-put-Iulnb mm: -.. .l. l-luv-—u—uuv, nl-lint-n--4-ale‘-lo; nun». -norm vr. .s. ..A. .-team! -.o. o-gnqyuuun. n. .,. ... -5.5.-. .a. ,i. ..4.A. ... ..u. .;. ~.A. .up. r.-. «l. .u i. .4». m——. .u,4-. -.0.-. ¢.n. ..y. ... -.21--| .psa-a -~r—. a-gnu-. .u. .A. ..-u. ..n. .. u‘». .5.. ... —.. .,a. sgL The Great Observatory at Samarkand, Uzbekistan Founded 1420 http: //wvvw. islamic-study. org/ astronomy_print. htm Astronomy Printable Ipuho fig-insaltulounu-u’. .JlI4.l--I--| uTanaI4‘EAlu Day the uK"Ia~ M. 'lLnrv-In Yahy Sn: -svuA(’nv-uvy Q-nw. —«naq--ung-u—dpAg. -n-l-u—-uu-. I.A- -an-taxi BA-é-. .d~-Ar-—I-an-Ad-n I1--purl-III: finichllvwflvnlllfii-luvszu--uldvnaurlubnvqnsxau -~u. .um. -n—Anmpumnpsu&I. - S-aw. ‘-Ar. .l. . u-. ..a. .¢. ,.. ..A.4., -.. ..4Au«-4-«A. »-. ».n. .u. :.. u.. x-. h-A-arm-u-n-uno, sx. -.a. ,.. —A. -suu. ~.-nun mu. ._r, u.n. .n-. u.--n. ... a-A-'-.1 —-. ... ... |.a. nn-= -ut-A-nun. Astronomical Handbook 16th Centu ry Astrolabe The astronomical tables compiled at Maragha served as a model for later Muslim astronomical efforts. The most famous imitator was the observatory founded in 1420 by the Timurid Prince, Ulughbeg at Samarkand in Central Asia, where the astronomer Ghiyath al-Din Jamshid al-Kashi worked out his own set of astronomical tables. He used sections on diverse computations and eras, the knowledge of time, the course of the stars, and the position of the fixed stars to determine his tables. Essentially Ptolemaic, these tables have improved parameters and structure as well as additional material on the Chinese Uighur-calendar. They were widely admired and translated even as far away as England, where John Greaves, professor at Oxford, called attention to them in 1665. 3/6
  4. 4. 10/5/2014 Astronomy Printable Mn-an Wuuhq will ll Anldry Sphnu. MS llhmtml {rum u. ..4.a. ... ..n. ..A . m.. u. .‘. a x. .,. ; r. ..4.. ~. ... ..1-4.. ... . fhuulnq oylinmncbonrt-us‘ munutdnguulln npvnuvhgvuu . .h .1 units . ..A. - .5. . .,. .u. . . i. v. ... ... n. -mu. LI! .. ... ... .i . ..u y-hank ad rhr-aha; -it dnnhonu-n¢. In-giuwtnehalen -(&1.IuI'rlnAa| £Iv! HtIh¢IIQ': Iu&VIm. IhIl: dannHc¢ . .c. ... ... .5 ‘Law 11-. a'. ... .-. r.. _ . .. ..-i. ... ... .. Duane- Q27-ptnl-cnnguudi-v-vnan—gILr! ~p&vIrnAlnar'-1:: -hug o~J-¢ddruuTbtIu~v: i': |voII| umVi£nm‘«Llll-uvIIlutn- , ..-.5 . _.. .—. ...4 .1. ‘.5. .4.» . .,; ..m. .. .-. ,.. a. Astronomers Working with Astronomical Instruments 16th Century lg-:1-rv A I 'Auuv~vaI»<uu4w ‘yuan. A-nu. 45.4 .4 LL 3.. .. s. -.. m.. .u. u.. ... a.. r.. ..-. .. vs. -u——. .q-.1~». u.r-mu-A-n. ..-cc. --. -—, -. --«I-m-—p-Jn)u: .:: .b-g. -In». -.a. ».. «o. &p. &— 4:. ‘-4-n_. -4»-5-- ’-no. rum-udu-an-. nu. -.. .4.4u -om. ..-uawv. .4-u-nu. Astrolabe http: //wvvw. islamic-study. org/ astronomy_print. htm The Dragon (Tanin) An example of a Muslim astronomer was Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni (973 - 1048), who was a Persian Muslim polymath of the 11th century. His experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni (973 - 1048) five hundred years before the Renaissance. Al—Biruni was well- known in the Muslim world. He was a scientist, an anthropologist, an astronomer, an astrologer, an encyclopedist, mathematician, pharmacist, philosopher, and historian. George Sarton, the father of the history of science, described al-Biruni as: "One of the very greatest scientists of Islam, and, all other considered, one of the greatest of all times. " — George Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, Vol. 1, p. 707. A. I. Sabra desribed al-Biruni as: "One of the great scientific minds in all of history. " - A. 1. Sabra, Ibn al-Haytham, Harvard Magazine, September-October 2003. Al—Biruni also commented on the eclipse of the moon. There is a crater on the moon named after him. Encyclopedia Britannica 4/6
  5. 5. 10/5/2014 Astronomy Printable said this about al Biruni: ". ..in full Abu ar-Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni Persian scholar and scientist, one of the most learned men of his age and an outstanding intellectual figure. ... Possessing a profound and original mind of encyclopaedic scope, al-Biruni was conversant with Turkish, Persian, Sanskrit, Hebrew, and Syriac in addition to the Arabic. " Here is some of al Biruni's work regarding the moon eclipse. Igwv 1.4» A I5-t: rrvIl: <rvnvm~ '3]~lvrL~. l Axe-~l: }-4 gm 'l. '.. l. .1 51.. ., -. .' ; .. . ... .. . u. . I. . . ... ... ... ... ... ..~. .rs. ... .. s . -.. ... .v. .. -0 ‘. ... ... —« “I. .. r. .. -: ... ... .a . z '~.2. . ..-. ..>. .. n. .. .1.. .4m. :1. m. .. . ... .. x.. . .m . ..L. —., : . -m. - . .« nu. .. ‘hm u. .. . .v'. :.. . ,1.. . . ... ..L.1.. .. ... . . . .5.. . , »,~—. 5,15.-. ...1.. ... c.i. -x. - rumlrlmvn IN ; ... .--. .n. ~.. .« . v.'~. ... I.. .--, .-. ». .n. .x. ,.. ..i . .1., ... . . ... l. n. .. ... .14.. .. . . . .-. . ... ,.. i. dxl. 2.. . , ... ... .. av . ... ... . u. .J. ... . r. . 5.. .». .. .. .v. ..r . -.: « 1.. . vvrvruruugvh 5.. .“. .. . ... ..~. i.. .._. r.. .-. ... A . . . .l arm. -.. ... ..i . .4. 15th Century Spherical Astrolabe ‘ 1.. .?’ . . .4’. -we 1-= ~»»‘<l-"“ , -,I, ‘a . ... .?¥}‘ 1.. .; 1-1 1;. « -9 ‘ “'11, ‘ Al r, ... ... ,_, A: An. up . ..i. . 0.. . «; ‘.. ..—. n.—tx-. .x l'l. r.u; -lmv. -.i£. -A. y. ... ... .., 1., » . ... .~. r. .., . . , Astrolabe with a Date Converter 18th Century http: //wvvw. islamic-study. org/ astronomy_print. htm 7"9'-{. ,;. ,I’‘_£-éal; ,L)J; e »: _.a‘. '., -,. ’. ., ¢:. .. L-11., "-L14 ulw--m—. ‘-': ‘*' -12 —, ~, ir _, :4.. ;‘»; _5i; Lei. Y-. .-: _-4i_/ *_ g_; ,ll. .:. :l , Ugiiti -Q“-‘.3-. -4 44‘ 1- . ,l-'g{! ,:_-i. éh-_y¥. -I. :_-J n. v'-r‘-Nu‘; e. -'. ~. ,'-. I1s; .}-‘*»': i'. *t"~A'35.5=». 's; u-= ".~. .:-‘-' i‘liVl'/ u-: l~""~r. e'u<. ~‘: -§5.‘1I>-(1'¢l{, J(l‘—‘i-:9-'. >v 74 3.. .. «.>. <.~4-'_», E,‘l-L1l(l. ;‘; “,"_'l. ,‘. “<, _ "3'-"3Nyl“. v"'33-(', v5'°v‘->"(3;5.>"°£~? :-“U3’I""' | ii1k, J“»&’&”: s i. .kh. ; . . , . _, ,,: .:7,, ~_-‘_~: ... :_'&. ‘.’. I'. ;.. .»_. -,, ,_, -{. ... _._, ',. . (. ‘3(; .;: l;gJ, .; d(l: ua; - ‘I . 4 . f)'e’; _~. {-), ,11,_. .;ir, ,.; ;,_: §.q'; _. __yJ3,1 . J'. :.r_', .,. /.i'. .,-l, i.: .,l-: -.u(, .|ha. ..; ,.‘+ =1-2 a, :a‘, ==~¢. %«-: ~=—», ~'Au= -.~*--~»sL. .e - 4 , '~; »:-'; r.'m-we‘-‘s-’= "'e' _, '-£5-l~,1a, l:sl1«_'w_. -gt‘. -,g', =~‘l"-'-‘»«, “=. ‘-. .= . fly -'-Ki, k.t-3‘-’a: ‘>~. -~b-W-': v’1"""£"’ . "'| -l""1é""”""'3"““: Y" : V"$‘! .‘h-5 1 V $~. v-. 4a‘-‘-. .l"xl'-*‘J.5"cII, ra,7,-, -'-‘-“ ‘. :3(, .’n'*" ’~’. >'s'—I~; -, i.-1-! ‘-'. ---I» >, ‘*». “=. -»-9-I -I-E»~s. l~t'= *.ee»’= "*-». ‘ra» " ~: —'_, .'. :‘_-s“_. ';‘| -‘yI. 'vl"-. i‘IL‘4—""§. ‘.-'4'-"X_, :—*’£-‘, -~"‘~= ->. s' ~*-". :'*"-""3l>< . ..>. __. :.'_3_l)_é. ,:. ,‘, .-.1-. .,. Ja. .'.1.. __. ’ .1-. .'~ ‘S: l . 9‘ 7, ‘ . 6. its . -,. .-. ' V--a . 5 v *_u ‘,1’ -‘*-<>J““"Eo'~’*-‘L2 9-: :_; V _. '.. . ‘ "“"’Ju5' V‘ An illustration from Beruni's in Persian. It shows different phases of the moon. 5/6
  6. 6. 10/5/2014 http: //wvvw. islamic-study. org/ astronomy_print. htm Astronomy Printable 6/6

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