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Book Review - Tabaqat Ibn Saad


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Book Review - Tabaqat Ibn Saad

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Book Review - Tabaqat Ibn Saad

  1. 1. ISSN: 2186-8492, ISSN: 2186-8484 Print Vol. 1. No. 3. August 2012 ITS METHODOLOGY AND CRITICAL ANALYSIS University of Peshawar; Islamia College University, AWKUM, Mardan, & KUST, The book of Ibne Sa’ad named “Al-Tabaqat” is a scholastic treasury which consists of eight volumes. The first two volumes are specified for Seera of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The rest of the six volumes consists of the scholastic, political, Military and religious activities of the companions of the Prophets and their disciples which covers the first two Islamic centuries. “Al-Tabaqat” has been considered one of the ancient and very valuable sources of Seera. Ibne Sa’ad was the disciple of Al-Waqidi. Therefore his biggest source of knowledge is Al-Waqidi’s book “Al-Maghazi”, Specially the Madani Era of the life of the Holy Prophet is dependent upon the said book. Apart from it, this book reflects the complete sociological picture of the initial Islamic age with full details i.e. the first two Islamic centuries. Keywords: Seerat, Seera or sear, Maghazi, Ghazwat. Jihad, Hadith 180 | P a g e IBNE SA’AD’S “AL-TABAQAT”: Dr. Ata ur Rehman, Dr. Janas Khan, Dr. Hafiz Hifazatullah, Dr. Karim Dad, Hafeez ullah, Nasrullah Khan University of Malakand; Institute of Islamic and Arabic Studies, PAKISTAN. ABSTRACT (株) リナアンドルナインターナショナル 日本 小山市 INTRODUCTION Muhammad bin Sa’ad Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Sa’ad bin Maniae Al-Hashami Al-Basari (230-H) was a leading and reliable religious scholar of Sear-o-Maghazi, history, hadith and fiqa. He was a scribe of Waqidi, thence was known as such. (1) Compilers who had objections on Waqidi, declared Ibne Saad as a reliable person. Khatib Al-Bughdadi(463-H) writes: “We consider Muhammad as an equitable person, his hadith proves his sincerity and is an indication to attain certainty in verification of the narratives” (2) Abu Ali Hussain bin Muhammad ( 289H) says: “Ibne Sa’ad was a learned man, narrated many Ahadiths. He wrote books in Gharibul Hadiths (unique narratives) and Islamic Fiqa” (3) Khatib Al-Bughdadi writes:
  2. 2. ASIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES & HUMANITIES ISSN: 2186-8492, ISSN: 2186-8484 Print Vol. 1. No. 3. August 2012 “He is the one amongst the learned, pursuit and with best character. He had classified the period of Sahaba (Companions of Prophet) and Tabe’en (Companions of Sahaba) till his own age, arranged nicely and preferably in a big volume” (4) Tabqat-ul-kubra, his book which consists of eight volumes is in the real sense a literacy treasury, the first two volumes are specified for Seerat-e-Nabvi (Prophet’s life) and the history of early prophets. They are linked with Prophet (Muhammad PBUH) as ancestors. Thereafter the Prophet’s childhood, the symptoms of prophecy, prevailing before and after his inspiration, including the preliminary conditions that existed at the time of his invitation to the people to believe in Islam, till the hijra to Madina, have been discussed. In the period of Madina, after mentioning his commands, the visit of Arab delegates to Madina, the lifestyle, ghazawat and his sad demise with funeral rites, patrimony, etc. Ibne Sa’ad also arranged the funeral notes in his book. Moreover the extensive information, Ibne Saad had collected regarding Shamail (qualities) Dalail (proof) and Fazail (merits) are quoted as specimen in the literature of the concerned fields. The remaining volumes of the book Tabqat-ul-Kubra, which are not only helpful in perfection of Seerat of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) but also contains the merits and qualities of Muslim Jurists of Madina, Sahaba and Tabeen, and the incidents and the oral agreements of the prophet. Ibne Saad, though had used the narratives of Musa bin Uqba, Abu Ma’asher, Ibne Ishaque, Ibne Hisham, Kalbi and Abdullah bin Muhammad, yet was the scribe of Waqidi, thus his book “Al- Maghazi” was the main source of his (saad’s) information and more particularly in the description of occurrences of Madina, he remained Waqidi’s dependent. (5) Ibne Sa’ad in his description never forgets to inform us about the minute and particular parts of an event, as he informs us that whose funeral prayer was led by whom and who took him down in the grave showing the date and year of the event. Similarly he gave even the list of those Muslims who had hiddenly offered funeral prayer at Dar-ul-Arqam and likewise informs his readers about the outcome of the brotherhood between Ansars and the refugees of Macca, telling them about the full detail of help given by Ansars to them (6) Further, Ibne Sa’ad approaches to Tabqat (order in ranking) are like an innovators and before narrating any narrative, he prefers to discuss the certification, to verify its correctness. However the fact, that Maqtoo (cut off) hadith and Mursal (dropping ones teacher) both kinds of narratives are found in Tabqat, nevertheless be disregarded, as it is no way difficult for the well informed, to test and verify these, in the light of their certificates. (7) Ibne Sa’ad narrates the different narratives of Seerat-o-Maghazi in an arranged style for instance, pointing out to Hashim Kalbee’s writing, that the one who took part in the battle of Badar was Saib bin Mazuan and was not the one known as Saib bin Usman bin Mazuon. Ibne Saad reviewing this not only blames Kalbi for the mistakes but he also clarifies the error. According to him, all the writers know this fact that ibne Usman bin Mazuon had taken part in Leena and Luna International, Oyama, Japan. Copyright © 2012 www. P a g e | 181
  3. 3. ISSN: 2186-8492, ISSN: 2186-8484 Print Vol. 1. No. 3. August 2012 all the battels including the battle of Badar and Uhad. From this incident, it shows Ibne Sa’ad’s keen observation and criticism on others. (8) The use of verses by Ibne Sa’ad in his book Tabqat is nominal, however he had used variously some of verses in Khutbat (addresses) (9) and he had also cited Quranic verses as evidence in support of some of the events. In short, he had, in his book Tabqat, besides discussing the Seerat Nabvi, also collected information relating to social intercourse of primal period of the Muslims so magnificently, which scattered parts if gathered will be sufficient for framing a complete picture, surrounding almost the three long centuries of the age. (10) 182 | P a g e (株) リナアンドルナインターナショナル 日本 小山市 CONCLUSION Ibne Sa’ad may be the first Author who collected “The Signs of the Prophethood”. This proved to be a mile stone for the future writers on “Proofs of the Prophethood”. One part of the said book consists of “The Manners” of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). This also proved to be the first step on this topic for the coming authors. This book is an exemplary publication about the life histories of the renowned personalities and is also a unique and valuable source of Seera. This book reflects a complete picture of the scholastic, political and religious activities of the companions of the Holy Prophet and their disciples which covers the first two Islamic centuries. Ibne Sa’ad merges different Assaneed (chains of narrators) about a historical event rather than narrating an event in many ways. In this way he facilitates his readers from the repetition about a single event. REFERENCES 1. Alfahris, Ibne Nadeem Ravi Offist Printing Tehran, Iran 1973 Page 111 Tarikh Baghdad 321/5 2. Tehzib-ul-Tahzib 119/5. Tarikh-e-Baghdad 321/5 3. Ibid, 4. Ibid, 5. Ancients book on Seerat Nabvi and their compilers, Urdu translation 784/1 6. Al-Tabaqat Al-Kubra 114, 115/1 7. Kutab Tabqat, Tarikh and Aasma-ur-Rijal main Sirat ka Manhaj, Dr. Suhail Hassan, Shashmahi Al-Seera Al-A’alami, Karachi, May 2001, Page 183 8. Al-Tabaqat Al-Kubra 402/3 9. Ibid, 165, 166/1
  4. 4. ASIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES & HUMANITIES ISSN: 2186-8492, ISSN: 2186-8484 Print Vol. 1. No. 3. August 2012 10. Tabqat Ibne Sa’ad, Seerat Nabi Ka Qadim makhiz, Dr. Nisar Ahmad Farooqee, Risala Leena and Luna International, Oyama, Japan. Copyright © 2012 www. P a g e | 183 Naqoosh Rasul number Shumara 130, December 1982. Page 555 BIBLIOGRAPHY Al-Fahris, Ibne Nadeem, Ravi Offist Printing Tehran, Iran 1973. Tarikh Baghdad, Khateeb Baghdadi, Hafiz Abu Bakar Ahmad bin Ali, Maktaba Al-Sa’ada, Egypt, 1349H. Tahzib-ul-Tahzib, Ibne Hajar, Ahmad bin Ali Al-Asqalani, Dar Ahya Al-Turas Al-Arabi, Beirut, 3rd Edition, 1993. Seerat-e-Nabvi, (ancients books), Jozeph Horovitz, Urdu Translation, Dr. Nisar Ahmad Faroque, Bi-Annual Urdu journal “Nuqoosh” Rasul Number, No130, Idara-e-Farogh-e-Urdu, Lahore, December, 1982. Al-Tabqat Al-kubra, Ibne Sa’ad, Abu Abdullah Muhammad Bin Sa’ad Al-Basari, Dar-ul-Fikar, Beirut, 1st Edition, 1994. Kutab Tabqat, Tareekh aur Aasma-ur-Rijal main Seerat ka Manhaj, Dr. Suhail Hassan, Bi- Annual Urdu journal “Al-Seera Al-A’alami”, Karachi, Edition, May 2001. Tabqat-e-Ibne Sa’ad, Seerat Nabi Ka Qadim makhiz, Dr. Nisar Ahmad Farooqee, Urdu Journal “Naqoosh”, Rasul number, Edition No. 130, December 1982.