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Pembuatan Vinil Klorida

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Sintesa Vinil Klorida menggunakan ethylene

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Pembuatan Vinil Klorida

  1. 1. VCM (Vinyl Clhorida Monomer) By : Ronny Pasulima & M.Fitriyadi
  2. 2. Overview  VCM dikenal denganVinil Klorida.  Berdasarkan produk2 yang dihasilkan dalam industri petrokimia VCM termasuk dalam kategori Produk Antara. Vinil Klorida mempunyai nama lain : - Chloroethene; - Chlorethene; - Chloroethylene; - Ethylene monochloride; - Monochlorethene; - Monochloroethylene; - Vinyl chloride monomer; - Vinyl C monomer  Sintesis pertama kali 1830 – 1834 olehV.Regnault.
  3. 3. Molekul (Vinyl Chloride Monomer ) H Cl C C H H Rumus Molekul C2H3Cl
  4. 4. Properties Properties Value Titik Lebur -154 0 C Titik Didih -14 0 C Titik Nyala - 78 0 C Ignation Temp. 472 0 C Tekanan Uap 2943 mmHg pada 25 0 C Kerapatan Uap 2,2 Berat Jenis 0,9106 Sumber : www.kelair.bppt.go.id
  5. 5. Pembuatan  PembuatanVCM dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan salah satu dari senyawa berikut : 1. Ethylene CH2=CH2 2.Acetylene C2H2 3.Ethane C2H6
  6. 6. Pembuatan VCM dari Ethylene 1. - Direct Chlorination CH2=CH2 + Cl2 ClCH→ 2CH2Cl - Oxychlorination CH2=CH2 + 2 HCl + 1 ⁄2 O2 ClCH→ 2CH2Cl + H2O. 2.Thermal Cracking ClCH2CH2Cl CH→ 2=CHCl + HCl
  7. 7. Diagram Alir T Vaporizer Tanki HE Furnace Reactor Waste Heat Boiler HE Compressor Condensor Kolom Distilasi Kolom Distliasi Pressure Tank Pressure Tank EDC 5,5 atm Temp. 150°C HCl VCM EDC Recyle
  8. 8. Kondisi Operasi Kondisi Operasi Reaktor Suhu 4500 C – 5500 C Tekanan 5 atm Sifat Reaksi Endotermis Kondisi Proses Non Isotermal – Non Adiabatis Pemanas Pembakaran langsung bahan bakar dalam furnace
  9. 9. Kegunaan  Bahan Baku Pembuatan PVC (PolimerVinil Klorida)  Pada masa laluVCM digunakan sebagai Refrigeran
  10. 10. TERIMA KASIH
  11. 11.  Dlm prosesnya minyak bumi dan gas alam yang diolah dalm industri petrokimia menghsilkan produk2 sbg brkt: 1.Produk Hulu 2.Produk Antara 3.Produk Hilir  VCM masuk kategori produk antara karenaVCM dapat diolah lebih lanjut menjadi produk akhir/produk jadi.  Contohnya : etilbenzena-stirena,dikloroetilen-vinil klorida, isopropilalkohol, sikloheksana-kaprolaktam, ammonia, butena, etanol-asetaldehid, alkil benzena, akrilonitril, polietilena, isopropilalkohol.
  12. 12.  Sentesis I :V.REGNAULT (1830-1834), dehydrochlorinating 1,2-dikhloroetana dengan kalium beralkohol.  Sintesis II : BILTZ (1902), dengan thermal cracking dari senyawa yang sama.  Sintesis III : KLATTE (1912), hydrochlorination katalitik acetylene.  Pada 1940-1950, acetylene dapat digantikan sebagian oleh ethylene, dimana vinil klorida diproduksi oleh klorinasi langsung ke 1,2-dikhloroetana dan berikutnya thermal cracking.
  13. 13.  Perusahan yang memproduksiVCM : Dow Chemical Co., Monsanto Chemical Co. dan Shell Oil Co. (Menggunakan Ethylene)  Produsen Indonesia : PT Asahimas Chemical (PT.ASC) dan PT.Satomo Indovyl Monomer (PT.SIM)  Dengan menggunakan plasticizer dan karena efisiensi energi yang tinggi, PVC telah menjadi salah satu industry polimer yang paling penting. Meskipun merupakan salah satu polimer tertua, kesiapan persediaan, produksi relatif murah oleh pabrik besar, dan pembangunan berkelanjutan dari formulasi baru dengan penggunaan yang luas menjadi daya tarik di masa depan. Beberapa pabrikVCM dibangun sebelum tahun 1986. Karena situasi bahan baku dan pasar, pabrik baru akan terletak terutama di negara-negara penghasil minyak atau di negara-negara berkembang.
  14. 14.  Production from acetylene  Acetylene reacts with anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas over a mercuric chloride catalyst to give vinyl chloride:  C2H2 + HCl CH→ 2=CHCl  The reaction is exothermic and highly selective. Product purity and yields are generally very high.
  15. 15.  Production from ethane  The conversion of ethane to vinyl chloride can be performed by various routes:[9]  High-temperature chlorination:  C2H6 + 2 Cl2 C→ 2H3Cl + 3 HCl  High-temperature oxychlorination:  C2H6 + HCl + O2 C→ 2H3Cl + 2 H2O  High-temperature oxidative chlorination:  2 C2H6 + 3 ⁄2 O2 + Cl2 2 C→ 2H3Cl + 3 H2O
  16. 16. Direct chlorination  EDC (Ethylene dichloride) is prepared by reacting ethylene and chlorine.[8] In the presence of iron(III) chloride as a catalyst, these compounds react exothermically:  CH2=CH2 + Cl2 ClCH→ 2CH2Cl  This process results in high purity EDC and high yields. Dissolved catalyst and moisture must be removed before EDC enters the vinyl chloride production process.
  17. 17. Oxychlorination  Vinyl chloride plants use recycled HCl to produce more EDC via oxychlorination, which entails the reaction of ethylene, oxygen, and hydrogen chloride over a copper(II) chloride catalyst to produce EDC:  CH2=CH2 + 2 HCl + 1 ⁄2 O2 ClCH→ 2CH2Cl + H2O.  The reaction is highly exothermic.  Due to the relatively low cost of ethylene, compared to acetylene, most vinyl chloride has been produced via this technique since the late 1950s. This is despite the lower yields, lower product purity and higher costs for waste treatment. By-products of the oxychlorination reaction, may be recovered, as feedstocks for chlorinated solvents production. One useful byproduct of the oxychlorination is ethyl chloride, a topical anesthetic.
  18. 18. Thermal cracking  When heated to 500 °C at 15–30 atm (1.5 to 3 MPa) pressure, EDC vapor decomposes to produce vinyl chloride and anhydrous HCl.  ClCH2CH2Cl CH→ 2=CHCl + HCl  The thermal cracking reaction is highly endothermic, and is generally carried out in a fired heater. Even though residence time and temperature are carefully controlled, it produces significant quantities of chlorinated hydrocarbon side products. In practice, EDC conversion is relatively low (50 to 60 percent).The furnace effluent is immediately quenched with cold EDC to stop undesirable side reactions.The resulting vapor-liquid mixture then goes to a purification system. Some processes use an absorber- stripper system to separate HCl from the chlorinated hydrocarbons, while other processes use a refrigerated continuous distillation system.

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