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Gender and Development in the South: Focus on Pakistan


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Global Discourse, Situated Traditions and Muslim Women’s Agency in Pakistan.
Globalization: Feminization of Poverty and need for Gender responsive social protection in Pakistan

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Gender and Development in the South: Focus on Pakistan

  1. 1. Presented by: Muhammad Faizan Jamil
  2. 2. Global Discourse, Situated Traditions and Muslim Women’s Agency in Pakistan
  3. 3. Feminism Religious Secular
  4. 4. Feminist Movements Invoke Islamic scriptures in support of women’s right Advocate the traditional positions and insisting on the separation of politics and religion
  5. 5. The tendency of both the secular and Islamist women groups to mobilize a diversity of discourse that are neither stricly Islamic and secular. Islamist movements are freely draw upon universalist notion of right, the rule of Law and democracy. Agree??
  6. 6. Is it happening in Pakistan?? Let’s debate
  7. 7. Do you think, the discussion releated to the modernist Islamist women should given open space for conversation?
  8. 8. Women’s role in religious reforms? Women participation in decision making setup?
  9. 9. Politics + Rligion ? Does Politics should separated from religion, What is your personal point of view?
  10. 10. The Hisba bill: Feminism vs Fundamentalism In 2005, Hisba bill was passed by Provincial government of that time (Muthida Majlis-e-Amal). Mandates sharia in the province to promote Islamization Enforce Islamic duties upon Muslims. Appointment of religious ombudsman and Police Force to promote mortality.
  11. 11. These type of Political reforms by religious groups are depicting the agenda to oppress marginalize groups including women. Think Critically . . .
  12. 12. 2nd Portion Globalization: Feminization of Poverty and need for Gender responsive social protection in Pakistan
  13. 13. Globalization means, Enhancing the inter-connection of the worlds' culture, political and economic systems. It is an international movement towards financial, trade, communication and economic integration.
  14. 14. Globalization increases Risks and instabilities. Risk is defined as, improbability of duration, impact, timing or extent of the economic crises which happen due to the globalization and also result in political, social and economic crises.
  15. 15. Globalization cause negative effect on the poor women specially those are working in in-formal economy. Not having any written contract documentation. Having no social security. Low wages. Direct + In-direct economic pressure. Having no advance skills.
  16. 16. Social protection, Consist of policies and programes to reduce poverty of labor class by enhancing their capacity to manage social and economic risks like, unemployment, sexual harassment, sickness etc.
  17. 17. Micro finance support programs
  18. 18. Government funds schemes and it’s Utility?
  19. 19. False consciences: Propagating and making the lower, marginalize class believe that, laws and policies were created to protect the rights of all, when in reality they are the very instrument of exploitation through which the poor are controlled.
  20. 20. Research results bassed on Triangulation of Methodology
  21. 21. Individual Questionnaires Focus group discussion Desk review (Programe documentation) Secondary analysis Key Informate Interviews Methodology
  22. 22. Findings • 98% respondents were having electricity • 45% respondents have water supply • 43% respondents have gas supply Basic Needs • 67% of respondents have cell phones • Most of poor women not even afford landline phones. Other facilities • Only 4% of respondents have any written agriment. Financial agreements
  23. 23. According to Economic survey of Pakistan 2013-14, 61% of the population is living below the poverty line, that is, earning less then $ 2 per day. In south Asia, out of 2 billion population 70% women are suffering from poverty(Doane, 2007). 60 to 80% of the in-formal organizations all over the world where women do not avail social protection(Unifeem, 2009).
  24. 24. Major risks faced by women workers at different levels House hold/Individual (Micro level) Community level (Meso) (Inter) National level (Macro) Illiteracy due to poverty. Decline in household income and welfare. Family restriction to work outside. Lack of men participation in domestic chores. Social stigmas for women. Lack of economic autonomy. Un0written contracts. Non-availability of schools. Gender division of Labor. Conventional thinking regarding job allocation. Social acceptance of domestic violence. Non-acceptability of women authoritative roles. No access to information technology. Limited availability of public trance port. Low investment on social capital. Un-equal distribution of wealth and opportunities. Less control over resources. Patriarchal system of society. Invisibility of women work. Working environment are not women friendly. Lack of Gender main- streaming. Lack of welfare houses.
  25. 25. Administrative, financial and political steps required to be taken to ensure an overall social protection towards poor population of the country. ? Is that a feasible way to proceed these steps in such governing system that consist of hierarchal structure?