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Construction Oriented Engineering
How construction can derive Engineering to have a cost and schedule effective project execution.

Published in: Design, Business, Technology


  1. 1. Construction Oriented Engineering & Expectation From Others BY: M. Asim Shehzad
  2. 2. Contents Constructability and Its Advantages Construction Oriented Engineering & Objectives Procurement Enabling Engineering Construction Enabling Engineering Expectations From Others
  3. 3. Constructability Constructability is the optimum use of construction knowledge and experience in planning, design, procurement, and construction to achieve overall Project Objectives. OR Putting construction knowledge work early in project development and intertwining that construction knowledge throughout the conceptual, design and procurement phases to allow for the most efficient, practical and cost efficient construction techniques to be used. 3
  4. 4. Basic Objectives Of Constructability Identify and define objectives to enhance the probability of a cost efficient, build able project. Identify the key engineering and procurement deliverables that will have the greatest bearing on the ability to construct the project  Identify where early construction input is needed. Identify construction related enhancements that can improve overall safety, quality, costs and schedule. Identify the major execution challenges. Transfer of constructability information to the next phases of the project.
  5. 5. Key Constructability Issues 1.Schedule is Construction Sensitive. 2.Design is ‘simple’. 3.Design elements are standardized to take advantage of repetition. 4.Design Facilitate fabrication, transportation and installation. 5.Layouts are accessible to fabrication, installation and operation workers, material and equipment. 6.Effect of environmental conditions on construction is minimized. 7.Specifications simplify construction. 8. Accurate Construction estimates that reflect construction methods and strategies. 9.Early construction involvement is considered in developing plans and strategies.
  6. 6. Typical functional Project constructability Organization Project Management Team Construction Manager Technical Manager Project Engineering Manager Project construction Manager Constructability Coordinator Construction Knowledge Resources Company wide Constructability Organization Discipline Lead Discipline Lead Construction Knowledge Resources Project Constructability Organization Discipline Lead
  7. 7. Ability To Influence Cost High Project Duration Ability to Influence Cost Conceptual Engineering Preliminary Engineering Maximum benefits occur when people with construction knowledge and experience become involved early in the project Detailed Design Procurement Maximum Influence Period Construction Start Up Low Constructability
  8. 8. Conclusion Constructability, if properly defined structured and used, will ensure that construction knowledge and experience is used as early as possible in the planning and design process to ensure design and implementation with plan practicality and cost effectiveness. Constructability is simply the utilization of construction knowledge, experience and efficiency into design and execution planning of the project components. Constructability issues touch on virtually all aspects of execution including safety, scheduling, detailed design, procurements, material/equipment delivery, contracting, temporary facilities/infrastructure needs, commissioning and the project management team organization.
  9. 9. Construction Oriented Engineering
  10. 10. COE To execute Engineering work in such a way that enables Procurement and Construction stages. & Provide operational ease to comply with construction strategies.
  11. 11. Objectives Of COE • Achieve Project Objectives-Meet The Construction Schedule • Right Design at Right Time • Avoid Changes & Rework • Comprehensive Design With Minimum Objections From Client • Complete & Clear Design – Constructible & Build able • Material Proposed Is Suitable • Available In Market • Economical To Work With • E is well integrated with P and C Work Processes
  12. 12. EPC Engineering Sequence Studies OM cost estimate Basic Engineering Criteria & Specs MTO Estimate Purchase Requisition Calculations Detailed Engineering  Definitive Design /Estimate Issue “Engineering “Deliverables” to construction Field Changes Produce “As-Built” Project -Close out
  13. 13. EPC Procurement Sequence Develop Bidders Lists Purchase Order Pro-Forma Contracts Pro-Forma Transportation & Logistics. Specifications (Engg.) Quantities (Engg.) Solicit / Evaluate Bids Award P.O. /Contracts Shop Inspections Track Status Expediting Transport & Receive Warehouse Maintain Release to Construction
  14. 14. EPC Construction Sequence General Construction Plan Site Layout Plan Temporary Facilities Geo-Tech Mass Earth-Work Structural Concrete Structural Steel Equipment (mech. & elect.) Piping Raceway Instrumentation & Control Note: Construction is supported by field Engineers. System Turn-over Start –Up & Commissioning Performance Run Turn-Over to end -user
  16. 16. Concurrent Design Components Engineering is concurrently integrated with Procurement & Construction: Jan Feb Mar April May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov ENGINEERING Bill of Quantity 1 Bill of Quantity 2 Drawings1 Drawings2 PROCUREMENT Vendor Info1 Vendor Info2 CONSTRUCTION 16 Dec
  17. 17. Concurrent Design Components Effect of any delay would squeeze construction time or require an EOT: Jan Feb Mar April May June July ENGINEERING Bill of Quantity 1 Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Delay Bill of Quantity 2 Drawings 1 PROCUREMENT Delay Vendor Info1 Drawings 2 Vendor Info2 Vendor Info2 CONSTRUCTION 17 Construction Squeezed
  18. 18. Construction & Project Success  Construction is a downstream activity  E &P success is generally measured in terms of construction  Construction is intact if E & P components are construction oriented ENGINEERING PROCUREMENT CONSTRUCTION
  19. 19. Impact Of Variables Over Time Stack Holder Influence, Uncertainty and Risk MAX Impact Cost of Changes MIN 0 Engineering Project Procurement Progress Construction Project MAX 10 0 30 10 30 0 60 80 70 3 95 95 10 100% 100% 50 80 95 100% Schedule Control Sensibility Cost Control MIN MAXIMUM CONTROL LIES IN THIS AREA TROUBLE SHOOTING
  20. 20. Critical Engineering Phases Jan Feb Mar April May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec ENGINEERING Initial MTO Final MTO Procurement Enabling Engineering PROCUREMENT Construction Enabling Engineering Const’n Dwgs IFC with HOLD IFC CONSTRUCTION Early Procurement Enabling Engg Early Construction Enabling Engg.
  21. 21. Procurement Enabling Engineering
  22. 22. Procurement Enabling Engineering ENGINEERING Engineering Specialized Equip Data sheet Mech Equip data Sheets MTO’s Piping & Bulk MCC & Panels details . PROCUREMENT Procurement Specialized Equip Order Construction Mech Equip Order MCC Panels Order CONSTRUCTION . . Quantities Decided . . 22 Specialized Equip Erection Piping Work Construction Material Acquired MCC Building Construction
  23. 23. Procurement Enabling Engineering Early Procurement Enabling Phase Long lead items have to be ordered early. All equipment and packages & bulk materials to be purchased soon as their technical definition allows. The earlier the PO’s are placed, sooner the vendor information available for DE with vendors. Challenges: Integration of technical information with vendors.
  24. 24. Procurement Enabling Engineering o Mechanical Equipment o Bulk Materials o Piping & Fittings o Steel Structure o E&I Bulk o E&I Related Procurements o MCC Buildings
  25. 25. Mechanical Equipments Main Process Equipment Rotating Equipment Package Fire Equipment Equipment Major Tasks are:       Determination of Capacities Early release of RFQ’s & TBE’s Long Delivery Time (Dictate project schedule) Functional Requirement & Standard Packages Economy & Operational Spares Vendor shop load & Management Pressure Vessels Heat Exchanger
  26. 26. Equipment RFQ’s / TBE’s Approval Cycle Vendor Management RFQ PFD’s P&ID’ s Heat & Mass Balance Client Review •Data Sheets •Function Specification of main package •Process Philosophy Documents •Process Descriptions •Operation Philosophy •ESD Philosophy •Depressurization Philosophy OK P.O Issued Not OK Vendor Data Vendor Shop Load Deliveries Challenges:  Coordination & Approval Cycle (RFQ’s & TBE’s)  Specs, Budget & Decision making  Vendor Data (GA’s, Connection details and Loads) 26
  27. 27. Piping Bulk Piping covers major portion of construction work that is linked with pre-com and commissioning works. Major concerns are: Material delivery time, Fabrication, Erection, Testing and Painting / Insulation Accuracy level of MTO’s and Reordering duration Piping material specs, availability and economy Purchase terms (type of order) Flaw less Material Management and Control
  28. 28. MTO’s Estimate MTO Estimate stage take off i.e. drawing numbers is not known yet, may be done via flow diagrams, plot plans, equipment lists, sketches etc. Bulk MTO Materials can be identified to a specific drawing/line number. However, Drawings are unchecked . Changes may still occur in design. Material requirements will change. However, It has detailed info, so initial purchase can be done i.e. above 4” main pipes. Final MTO As the project design finalizes, final stage takeoff is performed , and final drawings are issued as “IFC’s” .
  29. 29. MTO Stages MTO Stages Manual Designing 3D Modeling Other Modeling Info Accuracy 1st •Plot plan •P&ID’s Plot plan •P&ID’s •Equipment Location and orientation •Pipe racks, •Major piping •operational access •Escape routes •Main E&I cable trays/trenches •Underground sewer stem 70% 2nd 3rd •Piping Layout Plan •P&ID’s IFC ISO’s 60% Model Review 90% Model Review •Major Piping (upto 2” dia) including control valves •Major access ways, ladder, & platforms •Secondary steelworks and bracings •Pipe supports location and types •Local control panels •Fire fighting equipments •Instrument transmitters and outline of junction boxes •Access ways, ladder, platforms •All Piping, •All offline instruments •Issuance of Drawing 85% 95-100%
  30. 30. Material Management & Control Material management should start by importing the Material Requirements (BOM or MTO) from the design system (PDMS, PDS, CAD Works etc) . Objectives: Tracking changes to the requirements as the design progresses. Generation of inquiries and purchase orders for materials. Expediting and recording material deliveries. Control of material deliveries. Control of material issues and movements. Inventory/Stock control management. Management of material traceability. Progress monitoring
  31. 31. Steel Structure Steel structure design drawings for Pipe racks and steel structures indicating the sizes of profiles & dimensions. Required for critical structures like pipe rack. Commercial viability & availability of profiles. Delivery and fabrication time.
  32. 32. E&I Related Procurements  MCC, Power Gen, Switch Gear & UPS, Transformers  Cables 3 AFE  JB’s (Classified) Converter Basic Unit  Control System Motor  Control Valves  MCC Building 3 Inverter
  33. 33. Critical E&I Related Procurement MCC Switch Gear,Power Gen, Transformer, UPS, MCC Building: EPC Engineering Vendor Package Management Building Design Power Producer Consumer List Load List Vendor Packages Piping Layout Main Cable Routing MCC Switch Gear / Vendor HV Substation Panel Layout MV LV Transformer Vendor Civil Architectural Drawings Equipment Arrangement Drawings MCC Building Design UPS Vendor Cable Entry Locations Soil Investigation Report
  34. 34. Building detailed design The EPC Engineers , define building needs and produce guide drawings as mentioned below and outsource detail design. Architectural drawings, showing all dimensions of the buildings (building housing machinery, E&I for technical rooms etc). Equipment dimensions and weight, for the design of supporting floors. Equipment access requirements (size of doors, handling). Building blast resistance requirement. Cable entry requirements: raised/false floor, floor openings. Climate requirements (temperature etc), and equipment heat dissipation. Fire & Gas detectors and equipment layout. Telecom equipment layout (LAN etc.). Tie-in points for connection of the building to the PLANT’s utilities. Other Vendors Involved are: HVAC Vendor does the detailed HVAC design (equipment selection, flow diagram, ductwork routing). Fire & Gas Design. Telecom cable routing. Lighting and small power Design . All the above entail an extensive co-ordination among all these trades , to avoid interferences.
  35. 35. Critical E&I Related Procurement Extensive Coordination between Disciplines, Vendors , Clients and Construction. Finalization of Consumer List.  Finalization of MCC Switch Gear. Economy of the Package. Vendor Data for finalization of MCC Building Design. Challenges: MCC Building Construction is on Critical Path, dependent on coordination among multiple parties and its delay could impact the Pre-Commissioning.
  36. 36. Cable, JB’s (Classified) Cables: Main Cable Routing Cable MTO (HV ,MV ,LV) Equipment Layout JB’s (Classified): Larger Delivery Period. Challenges: Accuracy of Schedule(Cable Drums) Early Ordering Economy
  37. 37. Control Valves & Control System Control Valves: •Process Data Sheets •Hydraulic Studies(line sizing) •Flow Conditions Data Sheets for Motorized Valves Control System: •Specifications •I / O Counts •System Architectural Drawings DCS ESD F&G Challenges: Generally Long Lead Coordination With Vendor Economy
  38. 38. Construction Enabling Engineering
  39. 39. Construction Enabling Engineering ENGINEERING Engineering Foundation Drawings Pipe Rack Civil Work Steel Structure Drawings Building Detailed Drawings Procurement Under Ground Facilities ISO’s Tanks CP Plates PROCUREMENT CONSTRUCTION Construction Foundation Construction Pipe Rack Construction & erection Steel Structure erection 39 Construction of Building Mech Piping work Under Ground Facilities Construction Tanks CP Plates constrction
  40. 40. Construction Enabling Engineering Early Construction Enabling Phase Initiating early construction activities Integrating information from vendors to detail engineering. Must issue IFC design with a provision of time to construction for shop drawing An economical and constructible design. Challenges: engineering development is highly dependent on information from vendors. Earlier activities are in fact designed at the end delays will typically result in idle manpower and equipment, lack of work front, low productivity, impact on critical path
  41. 41. EPC Interfaces & Integration Const,n Phase Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Award Eng’g Completed Early Procurements Early Construction P&ID, Plot Piping Layout Engineering REQ Procurement Const 90% Completion MTO/Const Dwg FDN Dwg Vendor Docs Equipment/Bulk Material P.O Main EQ PO LLI Vendor Dwg Fabrication Jig/Anchor Bolt Catalyst/Chemical Main Delivered Construction Site Development & Pre commissioning & Temp Work. Engineering Project Progress Procurement Construction Project 0 10 0 Comm’g Completed Final Const DWG 30 10 60 30 80 70 0 3 10 Schedule Control MIN Cost Control 41 95 100% 95 MAX Sensibility Start-Up FDN Start 100% 50 80 95 100%
  42. 42. 60 70 80 90 100 Critical Path Of A Typical Project 75 % Piping Material Delivered IFC Plot Plan & P&IDs 50% Equipment Ordered Piping PreFabrication Piping Erection Engineering 30 40 50 Progress % 50 % ISO’s a Mechanical Completion Equipment Erection 10 20 B 0 Time (as % of Project Duration) 0 10 20 Design Office Building Period 30 40 Design Office Peak Period a=Design office peak 50 60 Piping Construction Build-up Material Period 70 80 Piping Erection Peak Period 90 100 Piping Completion B=Piping erection peak
  43. 43. Construction Enabling Engineering • Foundations • Pipe Rack Construction • Piping Work • Underground Facilities • Tank Construction • Road Crossing • MCC Building
  44. 44. Foundations Engineering is the integrator of the equipment vendor data & foundation design Critical Foundations are Pipe Rack Foundations Major Equipment Foundations Process simulations Equipment list & duty Equipment Inquiry & Selection Vendor Engineering Vendor Data & Drawing Getting the design input early Foundation Drawing
  45. 45. Pipe Rack Construction Pipe-rack construction is the predecessor of piping, mechanical installations and E&I works. Consequently optimizing this resource intensive activity will lead to smooth and shorter project duration. Construction management team to develop proactive strategies and alternate solutions to optimize resources for pipe rack construction and installation works.
  46. 46. Pipe Rack Construction Drawings are issued with sizing of members with consideration of material delivery time and shop fabrication drawings. For pre-fabrication structure, the supplier will produce all shop drawings and erection details. In case of pre-fabrication structure a coordination is required to finalize rack foundation 46
  47. 47. Piping Construction Piping is a critical activity, so issuance of piping ISO’s is crucial. Construction require further time to translate design ISO’s into spooling drawings. Additionally, effective installation of piping will require availability of pipe supports. Challenges: Work Front in the start is less w.r.t. available ISO’s and Material Frequent changes as the design is not freeze in the beginning Manufacturing support in a bulk is a production challenge
  48. 48. Piping Work Green Const,n Phase Piping ISO’s 50%ISO’s Yellow Final ISO’s Pipe Supports 75% Piping Material delivered 30% Equipment Arrived Procurement (Piping) Construction Red 100% Material 100% Equipment MC Re-Order Spooling Drawing (Piping) Pipe Supports Fabrication 30% Fabrication Mechanical Completion Pre-Com Pipe Fabrication COM U/G Must Complete Pipe Erection Pre-Com Start 3D Modeling 3D Modeling Isometrics Major Activities 4” above piping on racks & sleepers Early Pre-Comm – Golden Joints Spooling Drawings U/G piping Must Finish Spooling Drawings Stress Analysis Small bore field piping must start Stress Analysis Stress Analysis Blast Studies Conflict Resolution Blast Studies Blast Studies As built modifications 48 Isometrics 3D Modeling Isometrics Spooling Drawings
  49. 49. Underground Facilities Underground networks are major cause of delay in construction activities. All underground networks such as drainage, sewage pipes with associated pits, pipe support foundations, cable trenches in paved areas, inspection pits, gutters and oil water pits etc.
  50. 50. Underground Facilities Civil Works Installation drawings complete with all underground objects and networks, are required very early, as its pre-requisite for mechanical works to proceed. Plant erection cannot proceed for lack of access until underground facilities are installed and area is backfilled. Installation on pipe-rack and structural works cannot proceed until all undergrounds are laid and the cranes have access. 50
  51. 51. Tanks CP & Construction Civil Foundation Soil Reactivity Test CP Design & Approvals Work Order & CP-Materials Tank Design and MTO Tank Plates Delivery Plate Rolling & Fabrication Tank Welding & Erection Clean Doors, Nozzles, VBT & Hydro testing Sand Blasting & Painting Insulation & Cladding Box-Up 51
  52. 52. Tanks Construction Challenges Challenges: Early Vendor Selection & Issuance of WO Material Procurement A series of long & Interdependent Activities Involvement & Interdependencies of Multiple Parties Stringent QC Requirements Qualified Manpower Dependency Congested Surrounding Access Changes Cause Resource Idling High Risk Job Any Rework Involve Huge Volume of Work 52
  53. 53. MCC Building Construction Soil Investigation Substation Layout Excavation Lean Concrete Detailed Building Erection Mechanical Installation of Equipment Earth Mesh Connections Equipment Testing Cable Laying Cable Continuity Check  Cable Termination Testing & Pre-commissioning Challenges: Late finalization of building design Long list of activities and finishing details Its start is dependent on design parameters and end is driving the pre-com activities.
  54. 54. Expectation From Others
  55. 55. Integrating Construction Integrate the work processes Develop Engineering/Construction Strategies Constructability reviews Pre-fabrication Engineering schedule to match construction priorities/sequences Engineering deliverables tailored to construction execution needs.
  56. 56. Changes Avoid Changes Sources of changes Inherited/Open technical issues Design development & reviews Client’s new requirements 3rd party at interface Avoidable/ Unavoidable ? Resist avoidable changes-Contractual management Impact of changes is exponential with time: implement early! System to identify all impacts and track implementation of changes.
  57. 57. Expectations A cohesive participation of stack holders internal interface management.
  58. 58. Inter-Functional Coordination Project Control CPM Schedule Budget Trends Interface / Data exchange Procurement Engineering Specifications Quantities Material Requisitions Design Drawings Purchase Order Work Orders Transportation & Logistics Ex-Works/ Inspection Expediting Receiving / Releasing Construction Constructability Construction Planning Resource-Planning
  59. 59. Other Expectations Plan must be based on Up-to date BOQ quantities to plan adequate resources Visibility of actual progress against the up-dated work volumes( Let 100%" keep changing till end)  Precisely Engineering monitoring and indisputably identified. Earned progress must be supported with milestone e.g. PO issued for a non-due and non LLI could show wrong status. Vendor info must be monitored for all equipments and packages for further development of detailed engineering. Piping MTO’s status must be monitored in actual figures. Engineering issued and actual executed quantities must be monitored as well. The biggest constraint is out-of-sequence issues: engineering may have issued drawings with generating work (such as lack of access or prerequisite for another work).
  60. 60. On Behalf of Construction Management LOGO