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Team dynamics & creativity in team decision making

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Team dynamics & creativity in team decision making

  1. 1. OHT 13.1 Figure 13.7 Role relationships & conflictsSource: Adapted from Miner, J.B., Management Theory, Macmillan (1971) p.47. Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
  2. 2. What are teams?Groups of two or more peoplewho interact and influenceeach other are mutuallyaccountable for achievingcommon objectives andperceive themselves as a socialentity within an organisation Courtesy of the Royal Australian Navy 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 2
  3. 3. Groups versus teams All teams are groups Some groups are just people assembled together Teams have task interdependence whereas some groups do not (eg group of employees enjoying lunch together) Courtesy of the Royal Australian Navy 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 3
  4. 4. Types of teamsPermanent teams  team-based departments  team-based organisation  quality circlesTemporary teams  task forces › temporary teams that investigate a problem  skunkworks › formed spontaneously, using borrowed resources, to develop products or solve problems 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 4
  5. 5. Why informal groups exist Relatedness needs  fulfil need for social interaction  social identity Goal accomplishment Emotional support 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 5
  6. 6. Team effectiveness modelOrganisational and Team Team designteam environment effectiveness• Reward systems •Task characteristics •Team size • Achieve• Communication organisational systems •Team composition goals• Physical space • Satisfy member• Organisational needs Team processes environment • Maintain team• Organisational •Team development survival structure •Team norms• Organisational •Team roles leadership •Team cohesiveness 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 6
  7. 7. Team design elements Task characteristics  better when tasks are clear, easy to implement  task interdependence  share common inputs, processes or outcomes Team size  smaller teams are better  but large enough to accomplish task Team composition  members motivated/competent to perform task in a team environment  team diversity 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 7
  8. 8. Homogeneous vs heterogeneous teamsHomogeneous teams Heterogeneous teams Higher satisfaction  More conflict Less conflict  Slower team development takes longer to agree on Faster team development norms and goals More efficient coordination  Better knowledge and resources for complex tasks Performs better on simple tasks  Tend to be more creative  Higher potential for support outside the team 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 8
  9. 9. Stages of team development Performing Norming Storming Existing teamsForming might regress Adjourning back to an earlier stage of development 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 9
  10. 10. Team norms Informal rules and expectations a team establishes to regulate member behaviours Norms develop through  explicit statements  critical events in team’s history  initial team experiences  beliefs/values members bring to the team 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 10
  11. 11. Changing team norms Introduce norms when forming teams Select members with preferred norms Discuss counterproductive norms Reward behaviours representing desired norms Disband teams with dysfunctional norms 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 11
  12. 12. Causes of team cohesiveness Member similarity External Member challenges interaction Team cohesiveness Team Team success size Somewhat difficult entry 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 12
  13. 13. Team cohesiveness at MitelTrevor Pound couldn’t get awayfor a planned vacation, so otherteam members at Mitel turned hiswork area into a mini paradise.The practical joke illustrates howmembers of cohesive teamssupport each other. © J. Major, Ottawa Citizen 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 13
  14. 14. Team cohesiveness outcomesMembers of cohesive teams want to remain members are willing to share information have strong interpersonal bonds want to support each other resolve conflict effectively are more satisfied and experience less stress © J. Major, Ottawa Citizen 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 14
  15. 15. Cohesiveness and performanceTeam norms support Moderately High firm’s high task task goals performance performanceTeam norms Moderately oppose Low task low task firm’s performance goals performance Low team High team cohesiveness cohesiveness 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 15
  16. 16. The trouble with teams Individuals better/faster on some tasks Process losses cost of developing and maintaining teams Companies don’t support best work environment for team dynamics Social loafing 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 16
  17. 17. Supporting creativity at IDEOEmployees at Animal Logic, theSydney-based visual effectscompany, demonstrate theircreative talent in The Matrix,Moulin Rouge and otherblockbuster films. Hiring peoplewith diverse backgrounds andliving the Aussie culture seems tocontribute to the creative process. Courtesy of Animal Logic 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 17
  18. 18. Creativity definedDeveloping an originalproduct, service or idea thatmakes a socially recognisedcontribution  part of the decision-making process not separate from it  creativity is influenced by Courtesy of Animal Logic both personal competencies and organisational conditions, supported by creativity practices 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 18
  19. 19. Creative process model Verification Insight Incubation Preparation 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 19
  20. 20. Characteristics of creativepeople Intellectual abilities  synthetic, general, practical Relevant knowledge and experience Motivation and persistence Inventive thinking style 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 20
  21. 21. Creative work environment Organisational support  tolerates mistakes  encourages communication  offers job security Intrinsically motivating work  task significance, autonomy, feedback  self-leadership  flow align competencies with job Sufficient time and resources 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 21
  22. 22. Creative practices Redefine Associative Cross- the problem play pollination• Jamming • Chain story • Diverse teams• Review past • Artistic • In-house projects activities presentations• Tell me, • Metaphors • Displayed stranger thinking • Morphological analysis 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 22
  23. 23. Team constraints: groupthink  Tendency for highly cohesive teams to value consensus at the price of decision quality  More common when the team  is highly cohesive  is isolated from outsiders  faces external threat © Photodisc. With permission.  has recent failures  leader tries to influence decision 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 23
  24. 24. Team constraints: grouppolarisation  Tendency for teams to make more extreme decisions than individuals  Riskier options usually taken because of gambler’s fallacy believe luck is on their side © Photodisc. With permission. 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 24
  25. 25. Group polarisation process High risk Decision process Team decision Social supportIndividual Persuasionopinions Shifting responsibility Team decision Low risk 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 25
  26. 26. General guidelines for teamdecisions Ensure neither leader nor any member dominates Maintain optimal team size Team norms encourage critical thinking Introduce effective team structures 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 26
  27. 27. Generating constructive controversy Form heterogeneous decision making team Ensure team meets often to face contentious issues Members should take on different discussion roles Team thinks about the decision under different scenarios 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 27
  28. 28. Brainstorming at IDEOIDEO, a leading industrialdesign firm, relies onbrainstorming sessions thatgenerate ideas, usually aboutdesigning products. A typicalsession lasts between one andtwo hours and is attended bythe design team as well asother IDEO engineers withrelevant skills. © E. Luse/San Francisco Chronicle 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 28
  29. 29. Features of brainstorming No criticism Encourage many ideas Speak freely Build on others’ ideas © E. Luse/San Francisco Chronicle 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 29
  30. 30. Effectiveness of brainstorming Early scholars criticised brainstorming  evaluation apprehension and production blocking still exist More favourable view now  less dysfunctional conflict  more task focus  more decision acceptance  more enthusiasm and customer commitment © E. Luse/San Francisco Chronicle  evaluation apprehension not a problem in high trust teams 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 30
  31. 31. Nominal group technique Individual Team Individual activity activity activity Possible Write down Vote onDescribe solutions possible solutionsproblem described solutions presented to others 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione 31
  32. 32. OHT 14.32 Belbin’s team roles• The most consistently successful groups comprise a range of roles undertaken by various members• The constitution of the group itself is an important variable in its success Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
  33. 33. OHT 14.33 Different team roles• Plant • Team worker• Resource investigator • Implementer• Co-ordinator • Completer• Shaper • Specialist• Monitor–evaluator Belbin Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
  34. 34. OHT 14.34 Belbin’s evolved roles: PlantTeam-role contribution Allowable weaknesses• Creative • Ignores details• Imaginative • Too preoccupied to• Unorthodox communicate• Solves difficult effectively problems Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
  35. 35. OHT 14.35 Belbin’s evolved roles: Resource investigatorTeam-role contribution Allowable weaknesses• Extrovert • Over-optimistic• Enthusiastic • Loses interest once• Communicative enthusiasm has• Explores passed opportunities• Develops contacts Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
  36. 36. OHT 14.36 Belbin’s evolved roles: Co-ordinatorTeam-role contribution Allowable weaknesses• Mature • Can be seen as• Confident manipulative• A good chairperson • Delegates personal work• Clarifies goals• Promotes decision- making• Delegates well Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
  37. 37. OHT 14.37 Belbin’s evolved roles: ShaperTeam-role contribution Allowable weaknesses• Challenging • Can provoke others• Dynamic • Hurts other’s feelings• Thrives on pressure• Has the drive & courage to overcome obstacles Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
  38. 38. OHT 14.38 Belbin’s evolved roles: Monitor-evaluatorTeam-role contribution Allowable weaknesses• Sober, strategic & • Lacks drive & ability discerning to inspire others• Sees all options • Overly critical• Judges accurately Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
  39. 39. OHT 14.39 Belbin’s evolved roles: Team workerTeam-role contribution Allowable weaknesses• Co-operative • Indecisive in crunch• Mild situations• Perceptive & diplomatic • Can be easily influenced• Listens• Builds• Averts friction• Calms the waters Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
  40. 40. OHT 14.40 Belbin’s evolved roles: ImplementorTeam-role contribution Allowable weaknesses• Disciplined • Somewhat inflexible• Reliable • Slow to respond to• Conservative & new possibilities efficient• Turns ideas into practical actions Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
  41. 41. OHT 14.41 Belbin’s evolved roles: CompleterTeam-role contribution Allowable weaknesses• Painstaking • Inclined to worry• Conscientious unduly• Anxious • Reluctant to delegate• Searches out errors & • Can be a nit-picker omissions• Delivers on time Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
  42. 42. OHT 14.42 Belbin’s evolved roles: SpecialistTeam-role contribution Allowable weaknesses• Single-minded • Contributes on only a• Self-sharing narrow front• Dedicated • Dwells on• Provides knowledge technicalities & skills in rare supply • Overlooks the ‘big picture’ Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
  43. 43. OHT 14.43 Constructing the perfect team• The group work in such a way that adds up to a sum greater than the individual parts (synergy)• If business people are happy to accept that group effort is always better than individuals working in isolation, then Belbin’s research may help in constructing the perfect teamWhite Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
  44. 44. OHT 14.44 Figure 14.2 Communication networks Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
  45. 45. OHT 14.45 Figure 14.3 Communication networks & simple task complexitySource: Baron/Greenberg, Behaviour in Organisations: Understanding Managing, Third edition, Prentice-Hall Inc., UpperSaddle River, NJ. Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
  46. 46. OHT 14.46 Figure 14.3 Communication networks & complex task complexitySource: Baron/Greenberg, Behaviour in Organisations: Understanding Managing, Third edition, Prentice-Hall Inc., UpperSaddle River, NJ. Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005
  47. 47. OHT 14.47 Task functions within groupsFunctions within a group that are directedtowards –• Problem solving• The accomplishment of the tasks of the group• The achievement of its goals• Production activities Mullins: Management and Organisational Behaviour, 7th edition © Pearson Education Limited 2005

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