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Memory, Learning & Perception


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Published in: Business, Technology, Education

Memory, Learning & Perception

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Memory, Learning, and Perception Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  2. 2. Chapter Spotlights How consumers accept, retain, and retrieve market information from memory The relationship between learning processes and marketplace behavior How perceptions affect consumers’ buying behavior Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  3. 3. Memory Two sources of product information:  External environment: packaging, labels, POS displays, prices, other marketing information  Memory: past experiences, word-of-mouth, family preferences  Associative network of nodes (concepts) and links (connections)  Scripts: information organized in memory around different types of events or episodes (e.g., a restaurant script) Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  4. 4. How Information is Capturedand Stored in Memory Memory processing areas:  New information is initially captured in sensory memory.  processing is shallow; capacity is limited  Information is transmitted from sensory memory to short-term (ST)memory.  Analyzing and assigning meaning; limited capacity to a finite number of chunks (units of memory); information may be rehearsed to retain its meaning  Information rehearsed in ST memory is transmitted to long-term (LT) memory for storage and retrieval as needed; LT memory capacity is unlimited Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  5. 5. Information Retention It refers to the amount of material previously learned that is remembered Forgetting – the loss in retention of material previously learned Retention affected by:  Incoming information  The person receiving the information Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  6. 6. Retention: Characteristics ofIncoming Information and Processing Repetition or rehearsal Relevance Competing information (new information competes with old; ad “clutter” issue) Completeness of information (Zeigarnik Effect – if incomplete, info retained for later completion) Time (lapsed time since exposure) Mood (positive mood impact) Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  7. 7. How Retention is Influencedby the Information Recipient Consumer familiarity or experience  Being more familiar with a product category increases the chances of remembering information about new or existing brands  Affects way information is organized in memory Consumer motivation  Higher motivation to process info is positively related to doing so at deeper levels of memory and to retain info longer and more accurately. Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  8. 8. How Information is Retrievedfrom Memory Retrieval cues – “self-” or “externally-” generated (sensory images: sounds, shapes, colors, smells,etc.) Interference from competing cues (make cue to stand out) Consumer’s state of mind: higher retrieval levels occur when info processing and retrieval mood and/or interest levels match Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  9. 9. Information Storage inMemory – Processing EffectsRecall of numerically-coded information is better than verbal information“Surface-level processing” (“sensory”) occurs when there is no analysis of meaning. Consumer judgment error rate higher.“Meaning-level processing” (“semantic”) implies analysis of meaning. Consumer judgment error rate lower. Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  10. 10. Learning – Probability Theory Learning  formation of habits formed and changed through experience with products or services Strength of habit depends upon the amount of reinforcement it receives Probability models are used to predict the formation of habits:  Brand loyalty  Brand acceptance  Brand switching  New product forecasting Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  11. 11. Learning – Behavior Analysis The relationship between marketers and consumers often resembles a negotiation Several behavior modification principles (BMPs) are used by marketers to induce consumers to buy their products and services. Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  12. 12. Learning – Behavior Analysis(continued) Classical conditioning –learning results from a relationship between a stimulus and a response  Pavlov and his salivating dogs: a conditioned stimulus (the ringing bell before each feeding) results in a conditioned response (salivation)  Marketing applications  Higher order conditioning and celebrity advertising  Strength of the unconditioned stimulus  Number of pairings  Forward versus backward versus simultaneous conditioning  New versus existing products Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  13. 13. Learning – Behavior Analysis(continued) Operant conditioning – a process in which the frequency of occurrence of a bit of behavior is modified by the consequences of the behavior  Especially relevant in low involvement purchases  Rewards & punishments AND consumer behavior Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  14. 14. Learning – Behavior Analysis(continued) Generalization – the tendency to respond in similar ways to similar stimuli. Discrimination – the process through which consumers restrict their range of responses and attach themselves to a particular brand. Modeling – the process through which an individual learns a behavior by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of this behavior. Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  15. 15. Learning – Cognitive Theory Emphasis is on thinking rather than the doing aspects of learning. Four stages:  Formulation of hypotheses (specific testable assumptions) about products or brands  Exposure to evidence (passive or active)  Encoding of the evidence  Integration of earlier hypotheses with new information into beliefs  Familiarity, ambiguity, motivation Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  16. 16. Cognitive Theory andMarketing Strategies for market leaders (topdogs)  Reinforcement  Blocking  Explaining Strategies for market underdogs  Disruption  Facilitating trial Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  17. 17. Perception Perception is the way in which an individual gathers, processes, and interprets information from the environment. Two views of consumer perception  Sensory perception  Gestalt theory of perception Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  18. 18. Sensory Perception It is governed by the five senses: sight, smell, sound, touch, and taste It focuses on product specific sense attributes and how these are understood and evaluated by consumers. Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  19. 19. Factors Affecting SensoryPerception Stimulus factors (examples)  Visual cues: color, shape, and size  Aural cues: tempo and pitch  Olfactory cues (taste + smell): sweet, bitter, salty, and floral  Tactile cues: soft, coarse, and silky Individual Response Factors  Sensory acuity: the capacity to recognize and differentiate among certain sensory cues; the “limin”  Sensory preferences: sensory product features are perceived and evaluated based on those liked or disliked  Consumer expectation: affects how product features are likely to be perceived/evaluated. When features match expectations this yields more positive preference outcomes Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  20. 20. Gestalt Theory of Perception Gestalt principle: the whole adds up to more than the sum of its parts People perceive “form” above all else The form may remain constant even though some specific features of it may change (color, tempo, etc.) – “variations on the same theme” Applications: size, actual/illusion of motion, bordering for ads or displays while really the same Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  21. 21. What do you perceive? Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  22. 22. Factors Influencing GestaltPerception Stimulus factors: color and contrast, size, intensity, position, isolation, and unity Individual response factors: interest, involvement, needs, values, and cognitive set Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  23. 23. How consumers InterpretPerceptions Categorization: the psychological process through which a consumer compares the perception of a product with a mental representation of that product in memory.  Analytic versus non-analytic (meeting or not meeting required attributes to “fit”)  Marketing implications for new products or innovations Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  24. 24. Consumer Attributions It refers to the process through which people connect events and behavior with causes. Forms of attribution  Product perception (a product problem)  Self-perception (questioning oneself)  Person perception (questioning others motives) Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  25. 25. Perceptions of Product/ServiceQuality Perceived quality – a perceptual outcome generated from processing product or service features (benefits delivered) that leads the consumer to make inferences about the quality of that product or service Dimensions of perceived quality for durable goods: ease of use, versatility, durability, serviceability, performance, and prestige Perceived high quality  product satisfaction Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  26. 26. Risk Perception/RiskReduction It refers to a perceptual process and behavior outcomes generated from the perception of risk in the purchase or a product or service Components of risk:  Severity of consequences (how bad will it be)  Uncertainty related to those consequences (what are the chances the consequence will occur) Risk reduction strategies: behaviors to reduce their perception of risk in purchase situations Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  27. 27. Price Perception Consumers perceive a price as either high or low on the basis of a comparison with an internal price (or referent price). Price perceptions and the social judgment theory – “regions”  “Assimilation” (acceptable) and “contrast” (too high or low) Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002
  28. 28. Perceived Value  The trade-off between product benefits and product costs.Perceived value = perceived benefits / perceived costs Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2002