Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Ahmad Muhammad Ovais
Jouni Markkula
Markku Oivo
Factors influencing the adoption of e-government
services in Pakistan
Department of Information Processing Science
The Structure of The Presentation
• Motivation
• Background
• Theoretical Fra...
Motivation
• E-government: The use of ICTs to provide access to government information and
delivery of public services to ...
Continue….
• E-government two research streams
• Supply Side (Organizational perspective)
• Demand Side (User perspective)...
Background: E-government in various countries
• Most developed countries benefit from e-government services, but there is ...
Unified Theory of
Acceptance and Use
of Technology
(UTAUT)
(Venkatesh et al. 2003)
Theory of
Planned Behavior
(TPB)
(Ajzen...
Theoretical Framework
Department of Information Processing Science
Amended UTAUT model
Performance
Expectancy
Effort
Expec...
Technology
Acceptance Model
(TAM)
(Davis 1989)
Social Cognitive
Theory
(SCT)
(Compeau and Higgins 1995)
Model of
PC Utiliz...
Technology
Acceptance Model
(TAM)
(Davis 1989)
Model of
PC Utilization
(MPCU)
(Tompson et al. 1991)
Innovation
Diffusion T...
Theory of
Planned Behavior
(TPB)
(Ajzen 1991)
Technology
Acceptance Model
(TAM)
(Davis 1989)
Combined
TAM and TPB
(C-TAM-T...
Theory of
Planned Behavior
(TPB)
(Ajzen 1991)
Combined
TAM and TPB
(C-TAM-TPB)
(Taylor and Todd 1995)
Model of
PC Utilizat...
Research Methodology
• Quantitative research approach
– Web survey
• Question were based on four factor’s of UTAUT model
–...
Characteristics of respondents
Variables Characteristics
f %age
n 115 %
Gender Male
Female
90
25
78%
22%
Age 18-30
31- abo...
Results
Performance
Expectancy (n=32)
Mean
Quick Task completion 4.09
Easier contact 3.75
Time Saver 3.88
Effort Expectanc...
Issues in Facilitating Condition
Department of Information Processing Science
Conclusions
• First study to inspect the broad factors of e-government uptake from a user’s
perspective in Pakistan
• Prev...
References
• Ahmad, M. O., Markkula, J., & Oivo, M. (2012). Factors influencing the adoption of
e-government services in P...
Thank you!
Questions ?
Muhammad.ahmad@oulu.fi
Department of Information Processing Science
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ADOPTION OF E-GOVERNMENT SERVICES IN PAKISTAN

1,357 views

Published on

E-government provides opportunities to deliver various services more effectively and better serve citizens. In developing countries, e-government initiatives provide services that have been previously inaccessible to their citizens. However, e-government initiatives in developing countries are still in their infancy and face a wide range of barriers that restrict wide-spread use. Like many other developing countries, Pakistan has a low level of e-government services adoption. Previous research has investigated e-government services in developing countries from the organizational perspective. However, the research stream suffers from an absence of studies that have investigated e-government from a citizen’s perspective. The success of e-government services depends on government support as well as on citizen’s adoption. This paper aims to fill this gap by exploring the challenges and barriers of e-government services from the user’s perspective. In this study, an amended version of the UTAUT model is used to investigate the factors influencing the uptake of e-government services in Pakistan. The results show that the factors influencing the adoption of e-government services in Pakistan are related to ease of use, usefulness, social influence, technological issues, lack of awareness, data privacy, and trust. Implications for e-businesses and government policy decision makers are also considered in this study.

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ADOPTION OF E-GOVERNMENT SERVICES IN PAKISTAN

  1. 1. Ahmad Muhammad Ovais Jouni Markkula Markku Oivo Factors influencing the adoption of e-government services in Pakistan
  2. 2. Department of Information Processing Science The Structure of The Presentation • Motivation • Background • Theoretical Framework • Research Methodology • Results • Conclusions
  3. 3. Motivation • E-government: The use of ICTs to provide access to government information and delivery of public services to citizens and business partners. • Around 98% of governments worldwide have websites. • 173 out of 190 countries use contemporary ICTs to deliver services (UN, 2010). • low-level of adoption of e-government services in developing countries. • Currently a large segment of the published research was conducted in developed countries, less in developing countries e.g., Pakistan Department of Information Processing Science
  4. 4. Continue…. • E-government two research streams • Supply Side (Organizational perspective) • Demand Side (User perspective) • Existing e-government literature ignores the users perspective. • The success of e-government depends on the citizens willingness to adopt. • In Pakistan context existing e-government studies focus on supply side. Department of Information Processing Science
  5. 5. Background: E-government in various countries • Most developed countries benefit from e-government services, but there is still much room for improvement globally (UN, 2010). Department of Information Processing Science Country E-government ranking in South Asia 2005 2008 2010 Maldives 77 95 92 Sri Lanka 94 101 111 India 87 113 119 Pakistan 136 131 146 Bhutan 130 134 152 Bangladesh 162 142 134 Nepal 126 150 153 Afghanistan 168 167 168 E-government usage in various countries Australia 46% Canada 48% Finland 49% Ireland 26% Poland 27% Hungary 23% Singapore 53% Kuwait 23% Taiwan 40% US 52%
  6. 6. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) (Venkatesh et al. 2003) Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen 1991) Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis 1989) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) (Compeau and Higgins 1995) Combined TAM and TPB (C-TAM-TPB) (Taylor and Todd 1995) Model of PC Utilization (MPCU) (Tompson et al. 1991) Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) (Moore and Benbasat 1991) Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbein and Ajzen 1975) Motivation Model (MM) (Davis et al. 1992) Attitude toward behavior Subjective norm Perceived usefulness Perceived ease of use Subjective norm Extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation Attitude toward behavior Subjective norm Perceiver behavioral control Attitude toward behavior Subjective norm Perceiver behavioral control Perceived usefulness Job-fit Complexity Long-term consequences Affect towards use Social factors Facilitating conditions Relative advantage Ease of use Image Visibility Compatibility Results Demonstrability Voluntariness of use Outcome expectations – performance Outcome expectations – personal Self-efficacy Affect Anxiety Department of Information Processing Science Theoretical Framework
  7. 7. Theoretical Framework Department of Information Processing Science Amended UTAUT model Performance Expectancy Effort Expectancy Social Influence Facilitating Condition E-government services adoption
  8. 8. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis 1989) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) (Compeau and Higgins 1995) Model of PC Utilization (MPCU) (Tompson et al. 1991) Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) (Moore and Benbasat 1991) Motivation Model (MM) (Davis et al. 1992) The degree to which an individual believes that using the system will help him/her to attain gains in job performance. (Perceived usefulness, use will benefit me?) i.e. Using the system would improve my job performance. Outcome Expectations Relative Advantage Job-fit Extrinsic Motivation Perceived Usefulness Performance Expectancy Effort Expectancy Social Influence Facilitating Condition E-government services adoption Department of Information Processing Science
  9. 9. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis 1989) Model of PC Utilization (MPCU) (Tompson et al. 1991) Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) (Moore and Benbasat 1991) The degree of ease associated with the use of the system. (Perceived ease of use, should be easy to use?) i.e. Learning to operate the system would be easy for me. Perceived Ease of Use Complexity Ease of Use Performance Expectancy Effort Expectancy Social Influence Facilitating Condition E-government services adoption Department of Information Processing Science
  10. 10. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen 1991) Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis 1989) Combined TAM and TPB (C-TAM-TPB) (Taylor and Todd 1995) Model of PC Utilization (MPCU) (Tompson et al. 1991) Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) (Moore and Benbasat 1991) Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbein and Ajzen 1975) The degree to which an individual perceives that important others believe he or she should use the new system. i.e. People who are important to me think that I should use the system. Subjective Norm Subjective Norm Subjective Norm Subjective Norm Social Factors Image Performance Expectancy Effort Expectanc y Social Influence Facilitating Condition E-government services adoption Department of Information Processing Science
  11. 11. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen 1991) Combined TAM and TPB (C-TAM-TPB) (Taylor and Todd 1995) Model of PC Utilization (MPCU) (Tompson et al. 1991) Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) (Moore and Benbasat 1991) The degree to which an individual believes that an organizational and technical infrastructure exists to support use of the system.(I will have help if needed?) i.e. I have the resources necessary to use the system. Perceived Behavioral Control Perceived Behavioral Control Facilitating Conditions Compatibility Performance Expectancy Effort Expectancy Social Influence Facilitating Condition E-government services adoption Department of Information Processing Science
  12. 12. Research Methodology • Quantitative research approach – Web survey • Question were based on four factor’s of UTAUT model – Performance expectancy – Effort Expectancy – Social Influence – Facilitating condition • The measurement was based on five-point Likert-type scale • Pakistani university students were selected as the survey population • Communication channel – Personal email and various groups on social media websites for Pakistani students – Universities mailing list Department of Information Processing Science
  13. 13. Characteristics of respondents Variables Characteristics f %age n 115 % Gender Male Female 90 25 78% 22% Age 18-30 31- above 100 15 86.9% 13% Education Bachelor Master PhD 49 58 08 42.6% 50.4% 07% Preferred Communication Channel Online (e-services) Direct govt. offices Telephone & Subsidiaries 84 20 09 73% 17% 10% Department of Information Processing Science • Almost all of the respondent are experience user of internet and have own internet connection
  14. 14. Results Performance Expectancy (n=32) Mean Quick Task completion 4.09 Easier contact 3.75 Time Saver 3.88 Effort Expectancy (n=32) Mean Easy to learn 3.84 Easy to use 3.81 Useful 4.00 Cost Effective 3.94 Clear Interaction 3.59 Social Influence (n=32) Mean More prestige by using e- government services 3.41 People who are important suggest me to use 3.31 Mean= 3.9 Mean= 3.8 Mean= 3.3 Department of Information Processing Science Performance Expectancy Effort Expectancy Social Influence Facilitating Condition E-government services adoption
  15. 15. Issues in Facilitating Condition Department of Information Processing Science
  16. 16. Conclusions • First study to inspect the broad factors of e-government uptake from a user’s perspective in Pakistan • Previous studies are mainly concerned with the organizational and services development point of view • Existing research and this study shows few factors which leads to low level of e- government services adoption : – Lack of citizen’s awareness/knowledge – Poorly updated government websites – Lack of Proper help and guidelines – Lack of Infrastructure (i.e. Internet connection problem’s) – Lack of Trust on existing government and it’s services Department of Information Processing Science
  17. 17. References • Ahmad, M. O., Markkula, J., & Oivo, M. (2012). Factors influencing the adoption of e-government services in Pakistan. In Proceedings of the 9th European, Mediterranean & Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems. • Ahmad, M. O., Markkula, J., & Oivo, M. (2013). Factors affecting e-government adoption in Pakistan: a citizen's perspective. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 7(2), 225-239. Department of Information Processing Science
  18. 18. Thank you! Questions ? Muhammad.ahmad@oulu.fi Department of Information Processing Science

×