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National Disaster management Policy

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Formulation of Disaster Management Policy

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National Disaster management Policy

  1. 1. NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT POLICY LECTURE 3 M Zeeshan Ahad CEC INU
  2. 2. THE PURPOSE Need to clearly define a national disaster management policy; Process for defining this policy; Main elements of such a policy; and Arrangements for monitoring and reviewing the national policy
  3. 3. CLEAR DEFINITION OF NATIONAL POLICY Clear definition of national disaster management policy is essential if a country is to establish and maintain adequate arrangements to deal with all aspects of its disaster threat. This applies to all levels of the national structure and organization—that is, from the national government to the local government or community level. If such a policy does not exist, arrangements to deal with disaster will be ill-defined and inadequate. Consequently, loss of material and human resources will arise; the nation, as a whole, will suffer.
  4. 4. CLEAR DEFINITION OF NATIONAL POLICY A STRONG AND CLEAR POLICY OFFERS MOST, IF NOT ALL, OF THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES: Demonstrated lead from government in disaster-related affairs; Foundation for appropriate legislation and associated regulations; Basis for sound organization and clear allocation of responsibilities; Overall direction for ensuring optimum use of resources against a carefully assessed threat; and National competence and self-reliance that is likely to engender optimum international assistance when the need arises.
  5. 5. THE PROCESS OF POLICY DEFINITION To define a national disaster management policy, it is necessary to consider certain main factors or pillars. For most countries, the following will usually apply: •Defining accurately the disaster threat; •Identifying the effects which are likely to be caused by the threat; •Assessing the resources available to deal with the threat; •Organizational arrangements which are required to prepare for, respond to, and recover from disaster events; •Defining how a national disaster management policy interlocks with other aspects of national policy, especially those concerned with national development and protection of the environment; •Any other specific national factors which may be applicable
  6. 6. THE DISASTER THREAT AND LIKELY EFFECTS Information on the disaster threat and on the effects likely to arise from disaster is contained in Lecture 2. However, for purposes of defining national policy, these two aspects would need to be carefully reviewed. This is necessary to ensure that a correct relationship is established between the threat and its effects on the one hand, and the policy itself on the other hand. For instance, from a purely disaster management viewpoint, the most effective countermeasure to a flood threat may be a policy of prevention based on an extensive flood control system. However, when it comes to national policy, preventive measures of this kind may not be financially feasible.
  7. 7. ASSESSING AVAILABLE RESOURCES It is no use framing a national disaster management policy which is beyond the capacity of available resources. The reverse sense applies; that is, national policy has to be balanced with the various existing resources in terms of equipment, facilities, and personnel. In assessing resources, it is essential to consider the widest range of both government organizations and NGOs. It is also reasonable to take into account resources which are likely to be forthcoming from international sources.
  8. 8. ORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS It is generally accepted that the primary responsibility for dealing with disaster must rest with national government. In addition, an important disaster management concept is to ensure optimum use of existing resources, the majority of which tend to be under government direction. It follows, therefore, that the organizational arrangements needed for dealing with disaster (both before, during, and after a disaster) are best based on the government structure. Indeed, experience has shown that it is neither wise nor effective to try to switch to some special organizational arrangements for disaster purposes.
  9. 9. ORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS Most countries, therefore, use their existing government structure as the basis for dealing with disaster. They then augment this by establishing such specialized agencies or sections as may be deemed necessary; for example, a National Disaster Council (NDC) for policy purposes, a National Disaster Management Office (NDMO) for day-to-day working affairs, and appropriate sections at lower levels of government. Thus, in framing a national disaster management policy, these organizational aspects must be carefully considered and included in the relevant policy statement
  10. 10. INTERRELATION OF NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT POLICY WITH OTHER NATIONAL POLICIES It is well understood and recognized that governments in most countries are, of necessity, concerned with a whole range of major policy areas. These usually include economic and social development, health, education, and so on. Such major policy areas will, necessarily, be prioritized from a government standpoint. It is unrealistic, therefore, to expect that disaster management policy will be prioritized, for instance, in allocating funding and resources that cannot be positively justified Therefore, those responsible for drafting and formulating a national disaster policy must aim to achieve an appropriate balance and interrelationship with other national policies
  11. 11. INTERRELATION OF NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT POLICY WITH OTHER NATIONAL POLICIES Two areas of government policy tend to have mutual interests with disaster management. They are: National development •Disaster and national development are, in reality, closely related. •This especially applies if the disaster threat is significant. For instance, national development planning needs to consider the possible effects that disaster may have on the various programs and projects involved. •In turn, however, such programs and projects may affect the nation’s ability to cope with disaster because while some of them may reduce risk and vulnerability, others can actually increase it. •In addition, disaster events often open subsequent possibilities of improving various aspects of progress and development. This is known as the “disaster-as-a benefit syndrome,”. •These improvements and benefits may be possible in various fields of activity; for instance, building standards, transport systems, town planning, and so on.
  12. 12. INTERRELATION OF NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT POLICY WITH OTHER NATIONAL POLICIES Protection of the environment Widespread international concern has prompted most national governments to direct particular attention toward protecting the environment. Since much disaster management activity is concerned with environmental aspects (e.g., flood, drought, cyclone) it is sensible to maintain close collaboration between disaster management and environmental policies. Indeed, some countries are already moving toward a single integrated policy for disaster and the environment.
  13. 13. MAIN ELEMENTS OF NATIONAL POLICY Prevention Measures aimed at impeding the occurrence of a disaster and/or preventing such an occurrence having harmful effects on communities. Constructing a dam or levee to control floodwaters is an example of a preventive measure. Controlled burning off in a bushfire prone area prior to the high-risk season is another example. Mitigation Action taken (usually in the form of specific programs) to reduce the effects of a disaster on a nation or community. For instance, developing and applying building codes can reduce damage and loss in the event of earthquakes and cyclones. The term normally implies that while it may be possible to prevent some disaster effects, other effects will persist and can be modified or reduced if appropriate action is taken.
  14. 14. MAIN ELEMENTS OF NATIONAL POLICY Preparedness Measures which enable governments, communities, and individuals to respond rapidly and effectively to disaster situations. Preparedness measures include formulating viable counter-disaster plans, maintaining inventories of resources, and training of personnel. Response Response measures are usually those taken immediately prior to and following disaster impact. They are directed toward saving life, protecting property, and dealing with the immediate damage and other effects caused by the disaster.
  15. 15. MAIN ELEMENTS OF NATIONAL POLICY Recovery The process by which communities and the nation are assisted in returning to their proper levels of functioning following a disaster. The recovery process can be very protracted, taking 5–10 years or even more. Recovery is usually taken as including other aspects such as restoration and reconstruction. Development The progressive advancement and modernization of societies, in this case as it interrelates with the effects of disaster and with disaster management.
  16. 16. A POSSIBLE POLICY FORMAT In summarizing what has been said concerning the main elements of national policy, a possible policy is given on the following slide. However, the method by which the policy is issued is a matter for individual national choice. For instance, it might be issued by: • Government decree, • Government statement, • Legislation, • Regulation, and • Other means.
  17. 17. NATIONAL DMP The shown image is a general format for Statement of National Disaster management Policy
  18. 18. NATIONAL DMP Continued part of policy
  19. 19. 19 PAKISTAN’S HAZARDS VULNERABILITIES
  20. 20. DISASTER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN
  21. 21. 21 Pakistan’s Disaster Context Diverse topographical features
  22. 22. 22 Pakistan’s Disaster Context  Climatic variations from tropical to temperate with rainfall as little as less than 1˝ to over 150˝ a year
  23. 23. 23 Pakistan’s Disaster Context  Uneven population density
  24. 24. 24 Pakistan’s Disaster Context  Unplanned development in hazard prone areas
  25. 25. 25 Pakistan’s Disaster Context  Poverty feeds into vulnerability
  26. 26. 26 Pakistan’s Disaster Context  Pressure on national resources
  27. 27. 27 Hazards and Disaster
  28. 28. 28 28 DROUGHT FOREST FIRESFLOODS OIL SPILLS
  29. 29. 29 29 INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS TRANSPORTATION ACCIDENTSTSUNAMIS CHEMICAL ACCIDENTS
  30. 30. 30 30 LAND SLIDES
  31. 31. 31 31 EARTHQUAKE
  32. 32. 32 32 1737 1897 1950 19051935 1819 1881 1803 1833 1934 1945 1941 2001 EARTHQUAKES OF GREATER THAN M=7.5 OCCURRED IN THE REGION
  33. 33. 33 33 Chaman: Balochistan EARTHQUAKE IN PAKISTAN – 1892 6.8 MAGNITUDE
  34. 34. 34 34 Before After Town Hall Lahore Himachal Pradesh 19,727 EARTHQUAKE KANGRA 1905 7.8 MAGNITUDE
  35. 35. 35 35 Railway Station 35,000 deaths Lytton Road 35,000 deaths EARTHQUAKE IN QUETTA – 1935 7.7 MAGNITUDE
  36. 36. 36 36
  37. 37. 37 37 SEISMIC ZONES OF PAKISTAN EARTHQUAKE/ SEISMIC
  38. 38. 38 38 TSUNAMIS
  39. 39. 39 39 KarachiPasni 8.3 Wave Height 40 ft Casualties 4000 21 Nov 21: 56 UTC PASNI TSUNAMI - 1945 (MAKRAN COAST)
  40. 40. 40 40 EARTHQUAKE 2005
  41. 41. 41 41 Mardan Peshawar Rwp Mzd Isd Abbotabad Arja Rwkt Bagh Mansehra Batgram Balakot GHB Pattan Kaghan Mingora Gilgit Kalam AREA AFFECTED-30,000 SQ KM 7.6 FAULT LINE 100 KM LONG •HUMAN LOSS - 73,338 •INJURED - 1,28,309 •FAMILIES AFFECTED- 500,000 TOTAL POPULATION : 3.5 M
  42. 42. 42 CATEGORY DESTROYED/ DAMAGED TOTAL HOUSES 6,00,152 7,87,583 EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES 7,669 18,095 STUDENTS DEAD 1,1456 HEALTH INSTITUTES 574 782 ROADS 4,429 KMs (37.02 %) 1,1963 KMs  MOST OF THE UTILITIES LIKE TELECOM, WATER SUPPLY & ELECTRICITY WERE OUT OF ORDER  200 MILLION TONS DEBRIS TO BE MANAGED DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKE
  43. 43. 43 Why DRR Important for Pakistan Since then: •2 Cyclones •2 Floods •2 Earthquakes •2 Land Slides •1 Complex Emergency  Pakistan a disaster prone country – compounded by frequency and nature of disaster  Erosion of Economic Growth and Social Capital  Unsustainable Development – Pakistan a developing country with emphasis on infrastructure development  Difficult to achieve Poverty Reduction Goals 5Years
  44. 44. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 1 4 2 1 2 3 1 4 4 5 5 3 3 3 6 5 5 5 8 10 7 4 11 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Count Year Source: Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) – Annual Disasters Statistical Review 2006, Brussels, May 2007 44 Why DRR Important for Pakistan
  45. 45. Types of Disasters in Pakistan 21 22 50 12 1 10 15 1 4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 WindStorm Earthquake Flood LandSlides Famine Epidemic Extreme Temperature Insect Infestation Drought Frequency 1956 -2006 Source: Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) – Annual Disasters Statistical Review 2006 45 Why DRR Important for Pakistan
  46. 46. 46 46     PRE - EARTHQUAKE - 05 INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
  47. 47. 47 47 MANDATE. “THE “FEDERAL RELIEF COMMISSION” SHALL CO-ORDINATE AND MONITOR THE RELIEF EFFORTS. HE SHALL REPORT DIRECTLY TO THE PRIME MINISTER. ALL AGENCIES CONCERNED WITH THE RELIEF AND REHABILITATION EFFORTS, INCLUDING CABINET, HEALTH, INTERIOR, FOREIGN AFFAIRS, COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION DIVISIONS SHALL FUNCTION THROUGH HIM AND FORM A PART OF THE TEAM. ARMED FORCES SHALL ALSO BE A PART OF THE TEAM” EARTHQUAKE – 2005 AND FORMATION OF FEDERAL RELIEF COMMISSION (FRC)
  48. 48. 48 48 • MULTI-LATERAL DIMENSIONS • ALL SPHERE OF LIFE • INSTITUTIONS • INFRASTRUCTURE • SOCIETY, FACILITIES RECONST • INSTITUTION AND LEGAL ARRANGEMENTS • HAZARD AND VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT • TRAINING, EDUCATION AND AWARENESS • MULTIHAZARD EARLY WARNING SYSTEM • EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEM • CAPACTIY DEVELOPMENT PREP & MITIGATION •RELIEF LOGISTICS •RESTORATIONS •SOCIAL/CIVIC ORDER •REVIVAL OF SYSTEMS •BUILDING CAPACITIES REC & REHAB • PSYCHO, PHYSICAL TRAUMA • SOCIO- ECONOMIC FALL OUTS • DISPLACED PEOPLE • IMPLICATIONS OF DEVASTATION AND DESTRUCTION • EVACUATIONS • DAMAGE CONTROL • HEALTH, FOOD, SHELTER CONSEQUENCE MGMT, RESCUE & REL RESPONSE MECHANISM DISASTER MANAGEMENT SPECTRUM
  49. 49. 49 49 UN/US/NATO INTL ORGs/NGOs PROVINCES MINISTRIES GOVT DEPTS FOREIGN SPPUBLIC/VOLUNTEERS EXPATRIATES PHILANTHROPIST ARMY WB/ IDB/ ADB /IMF MILITARY COMPONENT STRATEGIC LEADERS GROUP CIVILIAN COMPONENT FMNS PAF PIA, RAILWAYS, NLC, WAPDA, UTILITY STORES, PTCL, SCO, ERC, NCMC LOG AVN MED ISPR ENGRS FEDERAL RELIEF COMMISSIONER COORDINATION MECHANISM
  50. 50. 50 50 National Response - Concept Base DISTRIBUTION POINTS BY AIR/RD/TRAIN FWD BASES BY AIR/HEL/ROAD FOREIGN COUNTRIES DOMESTIC SOURCES NODES NODESNODES NODES NODESNODES NODES Base Base IOs/NGOs HELs, ANIMAL TRANSPORT MAN PACK , LIGHT VEHICLES •FORWARD TO REAR ------ HIGHER TO LOWER •HUTMENTS, HAMLETS, HOUSES LEVEL OP
  51. 51. 51 HEALTHHEALTH -- WHO FOOD/NUTRITION WFP, UNICEF SHELTER -- IOM CAMP MANAGEMENT - UNHCR WATER, SANITATION- UNICEF PROTECTION, EDUCATION UNICEF LOGISTICS -- WFP EARLY RECOVERY -- UNDP SAFETY, SECURITY -UNDSS INFO, TELECOMM WFP, UNICEF FOOD SHELTERS CAMP MANAGEMENT EDUCATION INFRASTRUCTURE LOGISTICS PROTECTION RESCUE, RELIEF & RECOVERY CLUSTER APPROACH
  52. 52. 52 LESSONS LEARNT FROM EQ 2005
  53. 53. 53      LESSONS LEARNT FROM EQ 2005
  54. 54. 54 FOCUSED APPROACH LEAN STRUCTURE FLEXIBLE CAPACITIES NEED FOR A PERMANENT LESSONS LEARNT FROM EQ 2005
  55. 55. 55    LESSONS LEARNT FROM EQ 2005
  56. 56. 56 QUICK & SMOOTH RESPONSE  HAVE SOPs  ESTABLISH COORDINATION CENTERS  SHARE INFORMATION  USE COMMON DATABASE  TRAIN SEARCH AND RESCUE TEAMS (REDUCING TIME OF EXECUTION CAN REDUCE THE COST OF MANAGING A CATASTROPHE) LESSONS LEARNT FROM EQ 2005
  57. 57. 57   LESSONS LEARNT FROM EQ 2005
  58. 58. 58 DEPENDENCY SYNDROME UPLIFT COMMUNITIES FROM CYCLE OF DEPENDENCY INTO SELF-RELIANCE REGENERATION OF SOCIAL AND CULTURAL COHESION LESSONS LEARNT FROM EQ 2005
  59. 59. 59      LESSONS LEARNT FROM EQ 2005
  60. 60. 60 POST EQ 2005 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
  61. 61. 61   PROMULGATED IN DEC 2006  CALLS FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF DM ENTITIES AT FEDERAL, PROVINCIAL AND DISTRICT LEVELS  NDMC HEADED BY THE PM (POLICY MAKING BODY) AND NDMA AS EXECUTIVE ARM  NDMA RESPONSIBLE TO MANAGE COMPLETE SPECTRUM OF DM AT NATIONAL LEVEL  FOR DM, ALL AGENCIES - FOREIGN OR DOMESTIC - SHALL WORK THROUGH NDMA POST EQ 2005 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
  62. 62. 62 62 National Disaster Management Commission (NDMC) DIFFERENT TIERS OF THE SYSTEM National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) Provincial/ Regional Disaster Management Commission (PDMCs) Donors, UN, NGOs, Media Media, Banks, Insurance & Private sector Federal Ministries, Departments, Technical Agencies Provincial/ Regional Disaster Management Authorities (PDMAs) District/ Municipal Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) Tehsil Structures POST EQ 2005 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
  63. 63. 63 63             POST EQ 2005 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
  64. 64. 64 64 Dir HR & Procurement Dir Finance & Accounts Recovery & Rehabilitation/ Re-const Wing Co-opted Members Ops Wing Ops Centre Avn Med Log Engrs Ops SO Aviation Wing SUMMARY •Officers - 26 •Supporting Staff - 85 Total - 111 NDMA ORGANOGRAM Dir Ops/ Coord Prep Chairman Military Wing POST EQ 2005 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
  65. 65. 65   MEMBERS. CHIEF MINISTER, LEADER OF OPPOSITION & A NOMINEE OF THE LEADER OF OPPOSITION  FUNCTIONS. SAME FUNCTIONS AT PROVINCIAL LEVEL AS OF NDMC AT NATIONAL LEVEL   SECRETARIAT OF PDMC  DEALS WITH WHOLE SPECTRUM OF DRM AT PROVINCIAL LEVEL  PERFORMS SAME FUNCTIONS AT PROVINCIAL LEVEL AS OF NDMA AT NATIONAL LEVEL POST EQ 2005 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
  66. 66. 66   ACTS AS FIRST RESPONDER  DEALS WITH WHOLE SPECTRUM OF DRM AT DISTRICT LEVEL  IMPLEMENT NATIONAL / PROVINCIAL POLICIES AND STRATEGIES AT DISTRICT LEVEL  MOBILIZES RESOURCES AT DISTRICT LEVEL  GIVE DIRECTIONS/GUIDELINES TO DISTRICT DEPARTMENTS / ORGANIZATIONS FOR PREVENTION AND MITIGATION OF DISASTERS POST EQ 2005 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
  67. 67. 67  NINE PRIORITY AREAS IDENTIFIED  ESTABLISH AND STRENGTHEN (INSTITUTIONS AND CAPACITIES)  NATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENT  TRAINING  AWARENESS  MULTI HAZARD EWS  MAINSTREAMING DRR INTO DEVELOPMENT  COMMUNITY BASED DRR INITIATIVES  EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEMS  CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT FOR POST DISASTER RECOVERY POST EQ 2005 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
  68. 68. 68 POST EQ 2005 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS NDMF TO BE UTILIZED TO DEAL WITH WHOLE SPECTRUM OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTS ARE ALSO REQUIRED TO ESTABLISH SIMILAR FUNDS UNDER THE RESPECTIVE PDMAS NIDM CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT WILL CATER FOR DOMESTIC / REGIONAL TRAINING AND RESEARCH NEEDS DRM COURSES STARTED UNDER THE NIDM WHILE INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSTITUTE WILL BE INITIATED SHORTLY
  69. 69. 69   HRD FOR DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT  DRM PLANNING  DRR MAINSTREAMING  COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES  RESPONSE PROJECT – PEER & USAR KEY DRM INITIATIVES
  70. 70. 70   FULL OPERATIONALIZATION OF PDMAS AND DDMAS IN 50 HIGH RISK DISTRICTS  COMPLETION OF NATIONAL RISK ASSESSMENT EXERCISE  RISK SENSITIVE DEVELOPMENT POLICY AND PLANNING  COMMUNITY BASED MITIGATION PROGRAMMES IN 50 DISTRICTS  HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN DRM  RAISING PUBLIC AWARENESS  EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT KEY DRM INITIATIVES
  71. 71. 71 Contingency Plans Winter Contingency Plan Cyclone Contingency Plan (for Karachi City) Monsoon Contingency Plan 2007-2008 Industrial & Chemical Accidents Contingency Plan (advanced stage of finalization) Marine Oil/Chemical Spill Contingency Plan Technical Contingency Plan KEY DRM INITIATIVES
  72. 72. 72   MAPPING OF HAZARD RISKS IN PAKISTAN  DEVELOP GUIDELINES & STANDARDS FOR RESPONSE  EQUIP NATIONAL AND PROVINCIAL EMERGENCY OPERATION CENTRES WITH ESSENTIAL IT EQUIPMENT  PREPARE NATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE PLAN, DEVELOP DEPARTMENTAL SOPS FOR DISASTER RESPONSE  DEVELOP AN INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR DISASTER RESPONSE KEY DRM INITIATIVES
  73. 73. 73     CHALLENGES
  74. 74. Analysis of Natural Disasters in Pakistan (1987-2006) S # Disaster Type People Homeless People Killed People Injured People affected Total affected Total Damage 000$ % Rankin g 1 Wind Storm 22,597 11,654 1,183 1,057,000 1,080,780 4,100 2 6 2 Earth-quake 2,853,585 142,812 88,096 1,294,429 4,236,110 5,019,255 8 2 3 Flood 8,927,685 11,702 1,262 38,669,447 47,598,394 2,746,030 86 1 4 Land Slides 3,100 384 114 200 3,414 - 0 7 5 Famine - - - 300,000 300,000 - 1 4 6 Epidemic - 283 211 16,275 16,486 - 0 5 7 Extreme Temp - 1,406 324 250 574 - 0 8 8 Drought - 223 - 2,269,300 2,269,300 2,47,000 4 3 Total 11,806,967 168,464 91,190 43,606,901 55,505,058 8,016,385 Flood 2010 1,744,471 1,984 2,946 20,184,550 20,184,550 10,000,000 74
  75. 75. 75 THANK YOU
  76. 76. • • •

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