1. Pak-China major agreements from 1947-2017.
2. China Support in Nuclear program of Pakistan.
3. China support in Pak-indo wars.
4. China projects with Asian countries and Pakistan from 2001-2017.
5. Reaction of India on Pak-China projects and on CPEC projects.
6. USA reaction on Pak-China projects.
7. Russia and China relations in new phase.
The change in attitude on the part of its western allies and particularly the US
compelled Pakistan to reconsider Its commitments towards these alliances and
look for new friends who were to be more trustworthy. China was rapidly emerging
as a mighty power and it was no longer possible and advisable for Pakistan to ignore
a mighty neighbor.
china and Pakistan are bosom friends of each other. This friendship is so called
a mutual bond but our Countries gave this bond a name of ionic bond.
Early Era of sino-pak relations.
1950 - Pakistan becomes the third non-communist country, and first Muslim one, to
recognize the People's Republic of China.
1951 - Beijing and Karachi establish diplomatic relations.
1963 - Pakistan cedes the Trans-Karakoram Tract to China, ending border disputes.
1970 - Pakistan helps the U.S. arrange the 1972 Nixon visit to China.
1978 - The Karakoram Highway linking the mountainous Northern Pakistan with
Western China officially opens.
1980s - China and the U.S. provide support through Pakistan to the Afghan
guerrillas fighting Soviet occupational forces.
1986 - China and Pakistan reach a comprehensive nuclear co-operation agreement.
1996 - Chinese President Jiang Zemin pays a state visit to Pakistan.
1999 - A 300-megawatt nuclear power plant, built with Chinese help in Punjab
province, is completed.
Mid era relations.
2001 - A joint-ventured Chinese-Pakistani tank, the MBT-2000 (Al-Khalid) MBT
2002 - The building of the Gwadar deep sea port begins, with China as the
2003 - Pakistan and China signed a $110 million contract for the construction of a
housing project on Multan Road in Lahore
2007 - The Sino-Pakistani joint-ventured multirole fighter aircraft - the JF-17
Thunder (FC-1 Fierce Dragon) is formally rolled out.
2008 - Pakistan welcomes the Chinese Olympic Torch in an Islamabad sports
stadium, under heavy guard amidst security concerns.
2008 - China and Pakistan sign an free trade agreement.
2008 - Pakistan and China to build a railway through the Karakoram Highway, in
order to link China's rail network to Gwadar Port.
2008 - The F-22P frigate, comes into service with the Pakistani Navy.
2009 - The ISI arrest several suspected Uyghur terrorists seeking refuge in
2010 - Pakistan and China conduct a joint anti-terrorism drill.
2. China Support in Nuclear program of Pakistan.
China helped Pakistan in developing its nuclear power plants .
China gave technical and material support in completing. Chashma nuclear power plant I, II, III ,IV V. That played a
major role in uranium production .
Chinese helped in building the Khushab Reactor, which is playing a key role in Pakistan's production of plutonium.
• “Government is also aware of the Chinese assistance to Pakistan in developing the Khushab nuclear reactor that is
capable of producing plutonium for use in Pakistan’s nuclear weapons,” the MoS said. Plutonium is better than highly
enriched Uranium for building nuclear weapons as less amount of it is required to make an equally potent fission
bomb. Hence, plutonium warheads are lightweight to be delivered by nuclear-tipped missiles.
• Two nuclear reactors Chashma 1 and 2 are already in operation. Besides this, China has entered agreement with
Pakistan to supply two additional nuclear power reactors – Chashma-3 and Chashma – 4. Beijing will also be providing
assistance for additional reactors to be built at Chashm, Karachi and third site in Pakistan.
• Beijing’s constant assistance to Islamabad’s nuclear programs has been in contravention of its stand on India’s entry
to NSG, the 48-member grouping that regulates nuclear trade. Beijing contends that New Delhi being non-signatory
to Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) has been an impediment. However, China turned a blind eye to Pakistan’s
track record in nuclear proliferation by supplying nuclear material to North Korea.
• Washington-based Arms Control Association in its latest report card 2013-2016 ‘Assessing Progress on Nuclear
Nonproliferation and Disarmament’ has given China a failing “F Grade” on nuclear weapons related export control.
China had become NSG member in 2004, and its national export controls include provisions related to export
licensing, control lists, end-user controls, and import controls. The nuclear power reactors supplied by China to
Pakistan has not received the consent from the NSG.
• China had signed a contract to supply to nuclear reactors to Pakistan in 2003, a year before it became NSG member.
However, the contract for one more nuclear reactor it is supplying was signed in 2013. In a 2015 conference Beijing
confirmed that China has provided assistance in building of 6 reactors in Pakistan.
• The Two Countries had regularly exchanged High-level visits Resulting in a
variety of agreements.
• Economic Co-operation began in 1979.
• Economic trade between Pakistan and China is increased in recent years.
China greatly increases its investments in Pakistan.
• China is helping to develop Pakistan's infrastructure through the
construction of power plants, roads and communication nodes.
• Zong (1st 3G and 4G mobile network operator in Pakistan) is the first
overseas setup and it relates to china.
1. Gwadar Deep Sea Port.
2. Larkana sugar mill.
3. Saindak Copper project in Baluchistan.
4. The machine tool factory of Karachi
China Support in Pak-Indo wars
• China enjoys strong defense ties with Pakistan.
• -China provided a lot of military equipment to the Pakistan Army, helping in establishment of factories,
providing technological facilities as well as financial support.
• -The armies had also scheduled a joint military exercises.
• -China helped Pakistan when there is no hope of external support .
• 1965,1971 wars
• JF-17 Thunder fighter aircraft(September 2003), K-8 Karakorum advance aircraft ( Hongdu Aviation
Industry Corporation (HAIC) of China and Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC) to replace the ageing
Cessna T-37 Tweet jet trainers currently in service with the Pakistan Air Force (PAF).) JL-8 Flight(JiaoLian-8
prototype '202' carrying rocket launcher pods and bombs under wings) The Babur cruise missile (August
2005, 450 Kg conventional or nuclear (10 to 30kT) payloads ) F-22 navel frigates( Ship for Pakistan Navy)
• L-15 aircraft(Field Marshal Douglas, HAIG unveiled the L-15 aircraft design in September 2001 during the
9th Aviation exhibition in Beijing) Al-Khalid tanks(Jointly developed main battle tank by Pakistan and China
during the 1990s)
• War of 1991
The Kargil War also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place
between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC)
China has asked both countries to discuss and negotiate the issue. China told Pakistan to ‘settle its disputes with India
peacefully through dialogue and negotiations.
Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and China were established on 21 May 1951.
In Sino-Indo war 1962, China and Pakistan joined hands against India.
One year after Sino- India war, Pakistan built the Karakoram Tract to China to improve
China supports Pakistan on Kashmir while Pakistan
supports China on the issues of Xinjiang ,Tibet, and Taiwan.
Strategic importance of Pakistan Towards China:
• Gwadar is located on the shores of the Arabian Sea it is in Pakistan's western province of Balochistan.
Gwadar is only 2500km away from China while Sinkiang is 4500 km away.
• The surrounding region is home to around two-thirds of the world's oil reserves. It is also the nearest warm-
water seaport to the landlocked, but energy rich, Central Asian Republics and landlocked Afghanistan.
• China is developing its own western region and has been building a network of roads in Pakistan, and
intends to lay pipelines and a railway track. Pakistan offered China a ‘trade and energy corridor’ via Gwadar,
linked to inland roads. The plan would see oil being imported from the Middle East, stored in refineries at
Gwadar and sent to China via roads, pipelines or railway. Due to the strong military ties between China and
Pakistan, Gwadar port has received excessive attention from the very beginning. Despite its being over a
decade since China started construction of the first phase, no military-related activity has ever been
observed there. If China intended to use a Pakistani port for naval purposes, Karachi, with its established
military infrastructure, is an alternative that is available although Karachi has the strategic disadvantage of
proximity to India.
• Due to the strong military ties between China and Pakistan, Gwadar port has received excessive attention
from the very beginning. Despite its being over a decade since China started construction of the first phase,
no military-related activity has ever been observed there. If China intended to use a Pakistani port for naval
purposes, Karachi, with its established military infrastructure, is an alternative that is available although
Karachi has the strategic disadvantage of proximity to India.
China Major project with Pakistan and Asian Counties
in this scenario
• China–Pakistan Economic Corridor also known by the acronym CPEC) is a
collection of infrastructure projects currently under construction
throughout Pakistan. Originally valued at $46 billion, the value of CPEC
projects is now worth $ 54 billion].CPEC is intended to rapidly modernize
Pakistani infrastructure and strengthen its economy by the construction
of: modern transportation networks, numerous energy projects, and
special economic zones.
• CPEC Projects for Balochistan (16 Projects)
• CPEC Projects for KPK ( 8 Projects)
• CPEC Projects for Sindh ( 13 Projects)
• CPEC Projects for Punjab ( 12 Projects)
One Belt, One Road (OBOR) project
• CPEC is part of China’s grand vision,
known as the One Belt, One Road
(OBOR) initiative. This vision extends
from the Baltics in Europe to
Southeast Asia and from China to
Africa. China has accumulated $3.2
trillion in foreign exchange. It can be
used both for investment and to buy
influence around the world.
• CPEC, a part of OBOR, offers great
strategic advantage to China as it
gains physical access to the Indian
Ocean and closer proximity to Middle
Eastern oil resources. Other OBOR
projects around the world do not
offer such advantages to China. This is
a shrewd global strategic move.
China’s global rivals will, of course,
factor this in their countermoves.