CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the StudyLanguage is a device of communication which is used in human being inter...
In the broad point of view translation is a transition of one language to another languagewithout decreasing any informati...
Gibová (2012: 27) states in her dissertation, they are many translation procedures proposed bydifferent experts. Newmark p...
from Indonesian into English is rarely conducted by current researchers. This research willonly focus on Bahasa Indonesia ...
1.3.1 To find out and to analyze the forms of modulation in Sang Pencerah movie andits English subtitles The Enlightened O...
1.5.1 Theoretical UseTheoretically, the significance of this study is to give contribution to the development oflinguistic...
CHAPTER TWOTHEORETICAL FRAMEWORKBefore moving on to further investigations there are several concepts that need to be made...
act of replacing the meaning or message from SL to TL regarding with the equivalent essencein TL by using an appropriate w...
2.2.1 BorrowingBased on Vinay and Dalbernet in Lili (2009:1) borrowing is used when the SL word istransferred directly to ...
b. Structural calque: a calque which introduces a new construction into the language (TL).The example of structural calque...
nothing toward the meaning. Related to the prominence of meaning in TL, this paper willemploy modulation as a kind of tool...
b. Active for passive and vice versa.Example:SL: II ne trade pas apercevoir ses defaults.TL: Dia akan segera menyadari kek...
S + O + V + complementTL: Ada telepon untuk anda.Verbal + ComplementPrayoga in Eprida (2009:40)2.2.4.2 Lexical modulationa...
OrSL: Like father like son.TL: Buah jatuh tak jauh dari pohonnya.c. The connotation stated in SL being explained in TL, th...
TL: Hanya seorang kutu buku yang ingin tinggal di perpustakaan seharian.e. The changing of adjective stylistic form to ano...
g. Part for the whole.Example:SL: Iis se trouvent nez a nez.TL: Mereka berttemu muka.Prayoga in Eprida (2009:43)OrSL: Ive ...
TL: Kementrian Luar Negri Prancis telah menjawab pertanyaan itu.Prayoga in Eprida (2009:44)OrSL: Buckingham has prepared t...
ExampleSL: CompletionTL: He has achievedCatford (1965: 77)OrSL: They are singing(to be + Ving = Grammatical system)TL: Mer...
b. Class shift: these type comprise shift from one part of speech to anotherExample:SL: A medical student (adj)TL: Un etud...
Example:SL: des conseil (Plural)TL: advice (singular)Prasetyani (2009: 48)OrSL: A pair of glasses.TL: Sebuah kacamata.2.2....
2.2.7 AdaptationLili (2009) in her journal states that this procedure refers to a method used in the cases wherethe type o...
avoid them. In conclusion the focus of comparative study is to reveal the distinction withinthe both of research object wi...
Table 2.1 the measurement of level of accuracy according to Rahimi (Modified by thewriter).Category Scale IndicatorAccurat...
1. TL does not communicate with people who are to use it,2. TL does not use the form of understandable language for langua...
important role toward the audience. Gottlieb in Shakernia (2011) states that subtitle is therendering in a different langu...
translation. The object of the study was also different with the research that will be conductedby the writer, in Anari’s ...
direct translation procedures which are used more frequently in historical drama movies andmanifested in historical drama ...
CHAPTER THREEMETHODOLOGY3.1 Research DesignResearch design refers to the plan used to examine the question of interest whe...
3.3 Data and Data SourceThe data source of this research was taken from Sang Pencerah movie and its Englishsubtitles The E...
informant could guide interviews, explore issues, and proved as the situation requires,Dawson (2002:14). The informants we...
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Chapter 1 3

  1. 1. CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background of the StudyLanguage is a device of communication which is used in human being interaction. Theactivity of communication is fundamental in everyday life to keep the existence amonggroups. It requires both the producer and recipient of a language-based message to sharecommon understanding of language symbol. According to Berelson and Steiner in Croft(2004) communication is the transmission of information, ideas, emotions, and skills throughthe use of symbols, words, pictures, figures, and graphs. They are many ways that can beused to communicate, one of them is through audio visual means especially movie.Through movie people are able to depict the kind of society life, furthermore the civilizationof one society. Understanding foreign audio visual, moreover a movie is not as simple as wethought because the audience must have a high intelligence to concern to the subtitles whichcontains the language used in order to absorb the information from the movie. Based onGottlieb in Shakernia (2011) subtitle is the rendering in a different language of verbalmessages in filmic media in the shape of one or more line of written text presented on thescreen.In understanding the message contained in movie subtitles, audiovisual translation is the mostimportant discipline in transferring the audiovisual language in the movie in order to make itcomprehensible to a target audience. Audiovisual translation itself is the branch of translationdiscipline where it is used as a way to transfer written or spoken language from sourcelanguage (SL) to target language (TL).
  2. 2. In the broad point of view translation is a transition of one language to another languagewithout decreasing any information from the source language (SL), it is strengthened byCatford in Leornardi (2000:1) who defines translation as the changing process of the onesource language (SL) to the other target language (TL). According to Thriveni (2010:2)translation is therefore not simply a matter of seeking other words with similar meaning butfinding appropriate ways of saying things in another language. Wrapping up all twoperspectives above, translation is obviously used as the connector of the meaning or the ideafrom the translator and the target reader.Regarding to the term of translation, evaluating system must be done by the translator toproduce a good quality translation in literary work by reaching two essential points; accuracy,and clarity. According to Larson in fadaee (2011), clarity is the translated piece that cancommunicate to the people (target reader) who are to use it. He further states that in cleartranslation the forms of the language used should be those which make the message of thesource text as easy to understand as the source text itself was to understand.The next point of a good translation is accuracy. According to Shuttleworth and Cowie inAnari (2009:80), accuracy is a term used in translation evaluation to refer to the degree ofcorrespondence between the translated and original text and using natural idiomaticexpressions in the receptor language are the primary goals of the translator. Nevertheless non-equivalence and the untranslatability regularly appears in the translating a text where in aform of text consists of structure and certain smallest unit. In measuring the essential points,there are certain categories known as translation procedure as implemented. Newmark inShakernia (2011) stated translation methods relate to whole text, translation procedures areused for sentences and smaller units of language.
  3. 3. Gibová (2012: 27) states in her dissertation, they are many translation procedures proposed bydifferent experts. Newmark proposed seventeen procedures, while Schreiber proposed sixteenprocedures and Vinay and Darbelnet proposed seven procedures in translation. Pertainingthrough this paper, the writer focuses on Vinay and Darbelnet proposal about two generaltranslation procedures i.e. direct and oblique which those two general procedures areseparated into seven sub-procedures i.e. borrowing, calque, and literal translation as directtranslation procedures and transposition, modulation, equivalence and adaptation as obliquetranslation procedures. The writer is eager to reveal two from seven procedures relating withgrammatical shifting and point of view shifting which being important in translating SL to TLand they are represented by modulation and transposition as procedures used.Regarding to the explanation above, it is challenging to investigate and conduct a researchclosely related to the accuracy and clarity between transposition and modulation contained inthe movie subtitle that will be investigated. The writer deals with the movie entitled SangPencerah and its English subtitles The Enlightened One. The movie was directed by HanungBramantyo and was released on September 8th2010. Sang Pencereah is based on a true storyof KH. Muhammad Dahlan, the founding father of Muhammadiah Organization, Hanungproduced this movie in order to commemorate Muhammadiyahs centenary, it also means toexhibit Moslem view point in 1867. He depicted KH Muhammad Dahlan as a figure ofnational hero who was not widely known and he gradually reformed the mindset of thesociety at that time about Islam from rigorous religion into flexible religion. Sang Pencerahis translated by the group of MVP Picture as the official producer of this movie.The reason why this movie is selected because it either contains the historical value or depictsthe Moslem view point in 1867. Furthermore research on movie subtitle which is translated
  4. 4. from Indonesian into English is rarely conducted by current researchers. This research willonly focus on Bahasa Indonesia translated into English instead of Javanese languagecontained in the movie, it is because not all the informants are able in comprehending theJavanese language and it is also to prevent problem expansion in this research. Thisobviously sustains the data for this research, because of this object; the writer is interested inanalyzing the transposition and modulation in term of accuracy and clarity in Sang Pencerahand its English subtitles The Enlightened One.1.2 Formulation of the ProblemsBased on the background of the study above, the problems of this research are formulated asfollows:1.2.1 What types of modulation are revealed in Sang Pencerah movie and itsEnglish subtitles The Enlightened One?1.2.2 What types of transposition are revealed in Sang Pencerah movie and itsEnglish subtitles The Enlightened One?1.2.3 How are the accuracy and clarity between modulation and transposition inSang Pencerah movie and its English subtitles The Enlightened One?1.2.4 What is the most frequently-applied procedure of translation in dealing withmodulation and transposition in Sang Pencerah movie and its English subtitlesThe Enlightened One?1.3 Objectives of the StudyReferring to the problems above, therefore this research will try to achieve general objectives,they are:
  5. 5. 1.3.1 To find out and to analyze the forms of modulation in Sang Pencerah movie andits English subtitles The Enlightened One.1.3.2 To find out and to analyze the forms of transposition in Sang Pencerah movie andits English subtitles The Enlightened One.1.3.3 To find out the accuracy and clarity between modulation and transposition.1.3.4 To identify the procedures, modulation and transposition, that is frequently usedbetween modulation and transposition in Sang Pencerah movie into its Englishsubtitles The Enlightened One.1.4 Scope of The StudyThis research covers identifying, analyzing and studying types of modulation andtransposition in Sang Pencerah movie script as SL and the accuracy and clarity found inEnglish subtitles The Enlightened One as TL. This research will determine what is the mostfrequently applied between transposition and modulation. This research will concern in thetransformation of the grammatical structure and the point of view in the English subtitles TheEnlightened One. To forbid the bias study, this research just focuses on the product oftranslation such as the sentence and other smallest unit (phrases, words, and so on) of subtitletext in Sang Pencerah movie and its English subtitles The Enlightened One. This researchwill delve the case which contains in chapter 13 until 14 since those chapters are reflectingthe turning point of KH. Ahmad Dahlan to develop Muhammadiah organization.1.5 Uses of the studyThis research is really expected to contribute these two main following uses, theoretical andpractical uses.
  6. 6. 1.5.1 Theoretical UseTheoretically, the significance of this study is to give contribution to the development oflinguistic study especially in the field of translation about the understanding of the essentialpoints; accuracy and clarity in translation by using the procedures of translation; modulationand transposition, from the source language to target language. In additional, it provides thebenefits to those who want to elevate their knowledge of translation.1.5.2 Practical UsePractically, this research serves as a reference for students who are interested in conductingthe same research, furthermore, this research also provides translator and movie editor aninsight to pay attention to in terms of accuracy and clarity in grammatical point (theprocedure of transposition) and view point (the procedure of modulation) especially fromBahasa Indonesia into English translation.
  7. 7. CHAPTER TWOTHEORETICAL FRAMEWORKBefore moving on to further investigations there are several concepts that need to be madeobvious, they are the concept of translation, procedures in translation including modulationand transposition, comparative study, and concepts of accuracy and clarity. The conceptsrecited are based on several ideas from some experts in translation and linguistic fields tosupport this research.2.1 Concept of TranslationVarious definitions are proposed by the experts about translation yet basically they have asimilar notion. According to Newmark in Prasetyani (2009:28) translation is a craftconsisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language. It isstrengthened by Catford in Leornardi (2000) who defines translation as the changing processof one source language (SL) to the other target language (TL). Two definitions above seemsimpler if the translator only needs to translate the target text in arbitrary, but if it is so, thetarget reader will encounter by the bias meaning in the content revealed in TL, Bell (1991:6)states that translation is the replacement of representation of a text in one language byrepresentation of an equivalent text in a second language. Regarding to Bell’s statement it isabsolutely an obligation to replace SL with the equivalent text in TL, and still in the similarvein. Thriveni (2002:2) defines that translation is therefore not simply a matter of seekingother words with similar meaning but finding appropriate ways of saying things in anotherlanguage. As a complementary the translated text must be equivalent in terms of meaning andstyle. It is stated by Nida in Prasetyani (2009:29) that translation consists of reproducing inthe receptor language the closest natural equivalence of the source language message, first interm of meaning, second in the term of style. Binding all definitions above, translation is an
  8. 8. act of replacing the meaning or message from SL to TL regarding with the equivalent essencein TL by using an appropriate way.2.2 Translation ProcedureProcedures are the strategies (conscious or unconscious, verbal or nonverbal) used by thetranslator to solve problems that emerge when carrying out the translation process with aparticular objective in mind (Molina and Albir, 2002:508). According to MacquarieDictionary in Machali (2000:62) procedure in translation is the act or manner of proceedingin any action or process. Pozo, Gonzalo and Postigo in Molina and Albir (2002:507) recitethat the procedure engages with the action that implements in the smallest part of languagesuch as clause, phrase, word and so on.Procedures are an important part of procedural knowledge, they are related to knowing howto do something, the ability to organise actions to reach a specific goal. Procedures includethe use of simple techniques and skills, as well as expert use of strategies. Therefore Vinayand Darbelnet in Lili (2009:1) proposes seven procedures in translation in which those sevenprocedures compile into two general categories i.e. direct and oblique. It depends on thetiming to decide whether direct or oblique that will be used in translating a text. Thetranslator will use direct procedure when structural and conceptual elements of the SL can betranslated immediately into target language, while oblique is used when structural andconceptual elements of SL cannot directly translated without changing the meaning andstylistic elements to TL. Direct translation consists of three procedures (borrowing, calqueand literal translation), they are used when structural and conceptual elements of the sourcelanguage can be transposed into the target language, while oblique translation consists of fourprocedures (transposition, modulation, equivalence and adaptation).
  9. 9. 2.2.1 BorrowingBased on Vinay and Dalbernet in Lili (2009:1) borrowing is used when the SL word istransferred directly to the TL. This usually happens because (a) the SL term does not haveany equivalent in TL and/or (b) the SL term has been recognized in TL vocabulary. Theexamples of borrowing are as follows.SL (English) TL (Bahasa)Actor AktorTaxi TaksiApplication AplikasiDebora (2010:10)2.2.2 CalqueIt is a procedure to ‘borrow’ the SL expression or structure and then transfer it in a literaltranslation. In other words calque is a special kind of borrowing, so. as borrowing procedurementioned above, it has the same influence on the enhancement of cultural integration. Vinayand Darbelnet in Debora (2010:17) divides calque into two kinds, they are:a. Lexical calque: a calque which respects the syntactic structure of TL, whilst introducinga new mode of expression.SL TLfour-by-four (4x4) empat kali empat (4x4)table tennis tenis mejaclassic guitar gitar klasik
  10. 10. b. Structural calque: a calque which introduces a new construction into the language (TL).The example of structural calque is as follows.SL TLEquity financing Pemerataan keuangan.Debora (2010:15)2.2.3 Literal TranslationLiteral translation is briefly a procedure of word-for-word translation in translating the SL toTL. It is used the most common in translating between languages of the same family andculture. Vinay and Darbelnet in Debora (2010:17) states that literal translation is the directtransfer of SL text into a grammatically and idiomatically appropriate TL text in which thetranslator task is limited to observing the adherence to the linguistic servitudes of the TL. Theexamples of literal translation is as followsSL TLA glass of juice Segelas jusReading a novel Membaca sebuah novel2.2.4 ModulationTranslator will be encountered by many kinds of obstacles if they just translate a text basedon the literal meaning, as a result, the TL cannot be understood easily, even more TL willproduce bias meaning or it has no point of meanings that could be grabbed by the reader.Larson in Prasetyo (2011:2) argues a text that is translated as literal form (SL to TL) will give
  11. 11. nothing toward the meaning. Related to the prominence of meaning in TL, this paper willemploy modulation as a kind of tool used.Stated by Lili in her journal (2009:4) modulation can be adopted when, through literal ortransposition translation result considered as abnormal or awkward. For instance the words inSL “Be my guest” is transformed into bahasa Indonesia is “Silahkan” not “Jadilah tamu saya”and “don’t mention it” (on the reply of thank you) not “Jangan menyebutkannya” or “Jangansebutkan itu” but “Terimakasih kembali” or “Sama-sama” (Suryati 2006:3).An extending study about modulation proposed by Vinay and Dalbernet is done by Chuquetand Paillard. They basically have similar stand point toward this procedure; therefore thewriter employs Chuquet and Paillard modulation type in order to give clear explanation.Based on Chuquet and Paillard in Eprida (2009:39), modulation splits in to grammatical andlexical. Grammatical modulation usually occupies the sentence, aspect and modality, whereaslexical modulation occupies the words, phrases, and expressions. The example of two typesof modulation reveal as follows:2.2.4.1 Grammatical modulationa. The changing of interrogative to imperative sentence and vice versa.Example:SL: On y va?TL: Ayo, kita berangkat!Prayoga in Eprida (2009:39)
  12. 12. b. Active for passive and vice versa.Example:SL: II ne trade pas apercevoir ses defaults.TL: Dia akan segera menyadari kekurangannyaPrayoga in Eprida (2009:40)OrSL: That question is hard to answer.TL: Pertanyaan itu susah untuk di jawab.c. Double negative for positive.Example:SL: Sans etre impossible, la mise en valeur des forets marecageuses.TL: Meskipun dapat dilakukan pembudidayaan hutan berawa membutuhkan modalyang besar.Prayoga in Eprida (2009:40)OrSL: You should not be oblivious about the penalty given by your lecturer.TL: Kamu seharusnya menyadari tentang hukuman yang diberikan oleh dosenmu.d. Syntactical modulation.Example:SL: On vous demande au telephone.
  13. 13. S + O + V + complementTL: Ada telepon untuk anda.Verbal + ComplementPrayoga in Eprida (2009:40)2.2.4.2 Lexical modulationa. Abstract for concrete.Example:SL: Nous dormirons a la belle etoile.TL: Kami akan tidur di alam terbuka pada malam hari.Prayoga in Eprida (2009:41)OrSL: I’m just religious pupil.TL: Saya hanya seorang santri.b. The changing of equal connotation from SL to TL.Example:SL: II n’y a pas de fume sans feu.TL: Tak ada asap tanpa api.Prayoga in Eprida (2009:41)
  14. 14. OrSL: Like father like son.TL: Buah jatuh tak jauh dari pohonnya.c. The connotation stated in SL being explained in TL, this type is usually used if the SLdoes not have the equal connotation in TL, therefore the connotation in SL isexplained in TL. According to Badudu (2008) the example is stated as bellow:Example:SL: Actuellement, I’hevea est considere comme la poule aux oeufs d’or.TL: Kini Karet dianggap sebagai sumber pendapatan.Prayoga in Eprida (2009:42)OrSL: Lebih baik berputih tulang dari pada menanggung malu seperti ini.TL: Death is better than I have to bear the shame like this.d. The changing of proverb or word because of cultural differentiation.Example:SL: II est bête comme une oie.TL: Dia bodoh seperti kerbau.Prayoga in Eprida (2009:42)OrSL: Just a book worm wants to stay at the library all day long.
  15. 15. TL: Hanya seorang kutu buku yang ingin tinggal di perpustakaan seharian.e. The changing of adjective stylistic form to another stylistic adjective form.Example:SL: II a achete du café soluble.TL: Dia membeli kopi instant.Prayoga in Eprida (2009:42)OrSL: She looked lovely in that dress.TL: Dia terlihat cantik dengan pakaian itu.f. Cause for effect and vice versa.Example:SL: La fille a pose une question epineuse a sa mere.TL: Gadis itu mengajukan pertanyaan yang menusuk hati ibunya.Prayoga in Eprida (2009:43)OrSL: Bagaimana penampilan bapak?TL: how do I look?
  16. 16. g. Part for the whole.Example:SL: Iis se trouvent nez a nez.TL: Mereka berttemu muka.Prayoga in Eprida (2009:43)OrSL: Ive got a new set of wheels.TL: Saya mempunyai mobil baru.h. One part to another.Example:SL: J’ai vu la sene par le trou de la serrure.TL: Saya melihat adegan itu melalui lubang kunci.Prayoga in Eprida (2009:43)OrSL: The little girl was wearing red from head to toe.TL: Pakaian anak perempuan itu bernuansa merah dari ujung rambut hingga ujungkaki.i.Place for function.Example:SL: Le Quai d’Orsay a repondu a cette question.
  17. 17. TL: Kementrian Luar Negri Prancis telah menjawab pertanyaan itu.Prayoga in Eprida (2009:44)OrSL: Buckingham has prepared the tea party to celebrate Kate and Will 1stanniversary.TL: Pihak kerajaan telah mempersiapkan pesta minum teh untuk merayakan hari jadiKate dan Will yang pertama.2.2.5 TranspositionRather than transposition, Catford uses the word ‘shift’ for this procedure while Vinay andDalbernet stick with ‘transposition’, however what they describe about this procedure are thesame. Transposition is obviously a kind of translation procedure which involves thegrammatical changing from SL to TL without changing the meaning of the message.According to Vinay and Darbelnet in Lili (2009) this procedure can also be found within alanguage, I give him a kiss is semantically no difference from I kiss him though the word kissis changed from a noun into a verb. Vinay and Darbelnet states that the first expression canbe called the base expression, while the converted form of kiss as a verb is called thetransposed expression. Intent to delve the deeper view about this procedure the writer decidesto employ Catford’s shift in order to support the transposition procedure proposed by Vinayand Dalbernet. According to Catford in Munday (2001: 60) shift or transposition splits intotwo types, i.e. shift of level and shift of category. This study has included both of them whichare defined as follows.1. Level shift. This type of shift would be something which is expressed by grammar in onelanguage and lexis in another.
  18. 18. ExampleSL: CompletionTL: He has achievedCatford (1965: 77)OrSL: They are singing(to be + Ving = Grammatical system)TL: Mereka sedang bernyanyi(Sedang = lexical adj.)2. Category shift. Catford subdivides this type into four kinds, they are:a. Structural shift: this type is the most common form of shift and to involve mostly ashift in grammatical structure. Catford (1965: 77) states that this type either containsdifferent elements or changes the sequence of the elements. It can be found at otherranks. For example at group rank, there is often a shift from MH (modifier + head) to(M) HQ ((modifier +) head + qualifier).Example:SL: Me gusta el jazz (Spain)Indirect object pronoun + V + Subject noun structureTL: I like Jazz (English)Subject pronoun + V + Direct object structurePrasetyani (2009: 47)OrSL: Buku itu harus kita bawaTL: We must bring the bookOrSL: A white house (MH)TL: Rumah (yang ) putih (HM)
  19. 19. b. Class shift: these type comprise shift from one part of speech to anotherExample:SL: A medical student (adj)TL: Un etudiant en medicine (adv)Prasetyani (2009: 48)OrSL: A sudden crash happened this morning (adj)TL: Kecelakaan secara tiba-tiba terjadi pagi ini (adv)c. Unit shift or rank shift: this type is employed when SL transposed to different rank inTL. ‘Rank’ here reverses to the hierarchical linguistic unit of sentence, clause, group,word and morpheme.Example:SL: Hari libur (phrase)TL: Holiday (word)OrSL: Prempuan bergaun merah. (Adj. P)TL: The girl who wears red gown. (Adj. C)d. Intra-system shift: this type of shift will occur internally when the SL and TL possessapproximately corresponding system but where the translation involves selection of anon-corresponding term in the TL system (2001: 61) example given between Englishand Bahasa are number and article systems, where, although similar systems operatein the two languages, they do not always correspond or in other word this typesinvolves the transposition of plural in SL to singular to TL and vice versa.
  20. 20. Example:SL: des conseil (Plural)TL: advice (singular)Prasetyani (2009: 48)OrSL: A pair of glasses.TL: Sebuah kacamata.2.2.6 EquivalenceVinay and Darbelnet in Lili (2009) states that equivalence is a procedure to describe the samesituation by using completely different stylistic or structural methods for producingequivalent texts. In other words, the procedure of equivalence can be used to translate fixedexpression in SL such as idioms, clichés, proverbs, nominal or adjectival phrases, animalonomatopoeia, etc. into the equal different form in TL. According to Debora (2010) theexample is tated as bellow:Example:SL: It’s raining cats and dogs.TL: Hujan turun dengan derasnya.OrSL: Birds of a feather flock together.TL: Rasam minyak dengan minyak, rasam air dengan air.Debora (2010:21)
  21. 21. 2.2.7 AdaptationLili (2009) in her journal states that this procedure refers to a method used in the cases wherethe type of situation being referred to by the SL message is unknown in the TL culture. Insuch cases translators have to create a new situation in SL that can be considered as beingequivalent in TL. Adaptation can, therefore, be described as a special kind of equivalence, asituational equivalence. Titles of books, movies, and characters fit into this category, Vinayand Darbelnet in Debora (2010).Example:SL: Baseball (English)TL: Futbol (Spanish)OrSL: After the Night (a novel by Linda Howard)TL: Menunggu FajarDebora (2010:22)2.3 Comparative StudyComparison is one of the most efficient methods for explanation of utilizing tacit knowledgeof tacit attitudes. This method can assist the writer to boost the cases from the initial level ofexploratory studies to a more advanced level of general theoretical models. In comparativestudy the writer are similar in some aspect, but they also have the differences in some aspect.Therefore the different aspects become the focus of examination. The purpose of the focus isobviously to find out why the cases are different and to reveal the general underlyingstructure which generates or allow such a variation, Routio (2007). He also states thatcomparative study aims at describing and perhaps also explaining the invariances of theobjects. It does not aim at generating changes in the objects; on the contrary, it usually tries to
  22. 22. avoid them. In conclusion the focus of comparative study is to reveal the distinction withinthe both of research object without producing the changing in each.2.4 Concept of AccuracyFadaee (2011) states that accuracy as well as clarity is one of the main features of evaluatingtranslation of literary books which acts as the crucial tendencies of translator to create a goodand natural piece of translation. It is no doubt that in transferring the idea from SL to TL thetranslator has to fulfill the essential aspects of translation; accuracy and clarity in order toavoid the ambiguity, and awkwardness in translation result. Defined by Suttleworth andCowie in Anari (2009) accuracy is a term used in translation evaluation to refer to the degreeof correspondence between the translated and original texts. While according to Larson inAnari (2009), accuracy in representing the meaning of the original text and using naturalidiomatic expressions in the receptor language are the primary goals of the translator.Supported by Rahimi (2004:55) a translated text will be considered accurate if it contains thefollowing things, they are:1. There is no information which is omitted.2. There is no additional information that exists in TL if it does not exist in SL.3. There is no mistake during the analysis of the source text resulting in differentmeaning.In order to measure the level of accuracy, some indicators are made by the writer based onthe concept of accuracy as stated by Rahimi above. It means that the writer modifies theindicators proposed by Rahimi above.
  23. 23. Table 2.1 the measurement of level of accuracy according to Rahimi (Modified by thewriter).Category Scale IndicatorAccurate 3The information in SL is suitably conveyed in TL.Information in SL is communicated without omitting andadding any info which are not contained in TL. Meaningin SL is conveyed in TL in a right way.Average 2The information in SL is quite suitably conveyed in TL.Information in SL is communicated with a small amountof addition and omission of info in TL.Less 1The information in SL insufficiently conveyed in TL.There are a lot of distortions of meaning.Inaccurate 0The information in SL is omitted in TL. No additionalinformation exists in SL but it does in TL. The meaningin SL conveyed in TL is not suitable.2.5 Concept of ClarityLarson in Fadaee (2011) states that clarity in translation means the translated piece cancommunicate to the people (target audience) who are to use it. He adds that in cleartranslation the forms of the language used should be those which make the message of thesource text as easy to understand as the source text itself. Rahimi (2004:56) recites that thetranslation will be considered lacks of clarity if it contains the following cases:
  24. 24. 1. TL does not communicate with people who are to use it,2. TL does not use the form of understandable language for language speakers.To measure the clarity of translation, the writer modifies the indicators proposed by Rahimias follows.Table 2.2 the measurement of level of clarity according to Rahimi (modified by thewriter).Category Scale IndicatorClear 3TL can be easily understood by the target readers sincethe TL uses the form of understandable language.Average 2TL is quite understandable to target readers. Targetreaders require special / little interpretation since TL doesnot use the form of easy-to-understand language in TL.Less 1TL is less understandable to target readers. Readersrequire frequent interpretation due to the frequent use ofuneasy to understand language in TL.Unclear 0TL does not communicate with the target readers. Targetreaders make a lot of interpretation efforts to understandthe TL due to the use of uneasy-to understand form oflanguage.2.6 SubtitleComprehending the sequence story spilled in a foreign movie is not absolutely adequate byjust seeing the picture and the verbal movement because that might create bias perception forthe audience in understanding a movie story, therefore the function of subtitle hands an
  25. 25. important role toward the audience. Gottlieb in Shakernia (2011) states that subtitle is therendering in a different language of verbal messages in filmic media in the shape of one ormore line of written text presented on the screen. Based on Shuttleworth and Cowie inJaskansen (1999) subtitle is the process of providing synchronized captions for film andtelevision dialogue. Basically subtitle not only changes language but it also switches from thespoken to the written mode and it presents a story in a real time as a dynamic text type,Szarkowska (2005). As the conclusion subtitle in a movie is able to synchronize foreigndialogs in a movie with the certain target dialog (different language).2.7 Previous StudyThis study tries to analyze the construction of modulation and transposition in terms ofaccuracy and clarity toward the translation as a product. To support this study some thesesand articles related to this paper especially transposition and modulation will be employed togive comparison and input to this writing.Anari (2009), in his journal entitled Naturalness and Accuracy in English Translation ofHafiz, discusses about accuracy and naturalness in English translation of Hāfiz ghazals(poetry) by English and Persian native speakers. Through his research he found thedifferences of translation result especially in the sense of naturalness and accuracy.Furthermore he found a great finding and concluded that in the samples studied thetranslation of Hāfiz ghazals by Persian translator was more accurate, whereas the translationby English translator was more natural. The study conducted by Anari was quite similar tothe research that will be done by the writer, which was about the point of accuracy intranslated text, yet Anari did not conduct the research about the clarity in the product of
  26. 26. translation. The object of the study was also different with the research that will be conductedby the writer, in Anari’s work the object of the study was a poetry while the writer willanalyze movie subtitles. He states through his journal that native and non-native translatorshave to cooperate each other in producing a pace of translation of literary work, especially inthis case, a poetry, it leads to a better translation which is both natural in its form andaccurate in its meaning.In addition, accuracy and clarity can also be measured by using procedures of translation. Aresearch closely related to the case was done by Prasetyo (2011). His research aims atdescribing transposition and modulation in a book entitled Teori Budaya and discussing theaccuracy, acceptability, and readability of the translated sentences containing transpositionand modulation. He took the data from a book entitled Culture Theory translated into TeoriBudaya. From the research he conducted he found that both modulation and transpositionhave their own advantages and disadvantages. In terms of accuracy, transposition is moreaccurate than modulation yet modulation has higher levels of acceptability and readabilitythan transposition does. The study conducted by Prasetyo has similarities to this study, but itdiffers from what Prasetyo did in the object researched. Furthermore Prasetyo did a researchto measure the accuracy, acceptability, and readability, whereas the writer is eager to measurethe accuracy and clarity in the text translated.To obtain a deeper insight for this research, the writer found a similar research which wasconducted by Shakernia (2011). Her study aimed at the investigation of the use of Vinay andDarbelnet’s direct and oblique translations procedures in the Persian subtitles of Americanhistorical drama and romantic comedy movies. Shakernia investigated the two maincategories of translation procedures (direct and oblique translation) in the main focus ofsubtitles in historical drama and romantic comedy movies. She discovered great findings that
  27. 27. direct translation procedures which are used more frequently in historical drama movies andmanifested in historical drama subtitle, while she also indicated that oblique translationstrategy was applied more in the Persian subtitles of romantic comedy movies. However thestudy conducted by Shakernia did not reveal the procedures of modulation and transpositionin details because she engaged with seven procedures that proposed by Vinay and Darbelnet.As the result of gaining three previous studies as stated above, the writer is able to behold thegeneral concept of certain seminal points in order to compose this research. The generalconcept of accuracy applied from Anari’s journal, and the concept of direct and oblique as ageneral procedure proposed by Vinay and Dalbernet obtained from the research conducted byShakernina (2011), while, the writer gets the concept of modulation and transposition fromthe research done by Prasetyo (2011).
  28. 28. CHAPTER THREEMETHODOLOGY3.1 Research DesignResearch design refers to the plan used to examine the question of interest whereasmethodology refers to the principles, procedures, and practices that govern research.Methodology should be thought of as encompassing the entire process of conducting research(i.e., planning and conducting the research study, drawing conclusions, and disseminating thefindings), Kazdin in Marczyk, DeMatteo and Festinger (2005:22). It means methodologycovers research design within composing a research study. This chapter deals with someaspects i.e. Data source, technique of collecting data, technique of analyzing data, andtechnique of presenting the analysis.This research applied the qualitative research, since qualitative is characterized by theobservation and description in forms of word and sentence, Bogdan and Biklen (2003:110).This research was conducted through the observation of modulation and transposition in SangPencerah movie subtitles and its English subtitles The Enlightened One. Afterward, thisresearch gave a complete description of the accuracy and clarity toward Sang Pencerahmovie and its English subtitles The Enlightened One by applying modulation andtransposition. The most important thing to be analyzed was the most frequently-appliedprocedure between modulation and transposition in Sang Pencerah movie subtitles and itsEnglish subtitles The Enlightened One.
  29. 29. 3.3 Data and Data SourceThe data source of this research was taken from Sang Pencerah movie and its Englishsubtitles The Enlightened One. Meanwhile the data, modulation and transposition was takenfrom the sentences, clauses, phrases, words or the smallest units in the subtitles contained inchapter 13-14 in Sang Pencerah movie and their translations in The Enlightened One.3.4 Data Collecting TechniqueThe collecting term was useful before anything could be done through the research in order tomake the writer easily analyze and interpret the data. Technique of data collecting that thewriter used for this research was observation. According to Sudaryanto in Putrawan(2011:33) observation applied by thoroughly observing the source language. In this case, thewriter observed the English subtitles of the Sang Pencerah movie and found out theoccurrences of modulation and transposition. Note-taking served to identify and classify thedata, i.e. the modulation and transposition procedures which contained in the Englishsubtitles of Sang Pencerah subtitles and its English subtitles The Enlightened One, thereforeit was easy for the writer to formulate the analysis. But before the implementation of notetaking, the writer was firstly do a close reading step toward Sang Pencerah subtitles and itsEnglish subtitles The Enlightened One. The procedures of modulation and transpositioncontained in the subtitles were be highlighted and noted down as the data for the analysis.Then, the phenomena of modulation and transposition procedures were classified based onCatford, Chuquet and Paillard as the experts who supported the notion in detail aboutmodulation and transposition procedures proposed by Vinay and Dalbernet.In addition personal interviewing was followed as the complement. Personal interviewingwas flexible way that could be used to collect large amounts of information. Furthermore the
  30. 30. informant could guide interviews, explore issues, and proved as the situation requires,Dawson (2002:14). The informants were offered some questions closely related to accuracyand clarity in Sang Pencerah subtitles and its English subtitles The Enlightened One. Theinformants either had to answer the direct question from the writer or wrote their commentobjectively toward the research object. There are five informants that were involved in thisresearch and to gain the reliable informant, the writer interviewed the student who alreadyfinished the translation class, in order to create deeper inquiry toward the accuracy and clarityin modulation and transposition procedures, the writer also employed one lecture, one sworntranslator and one native speaker.3.5 Data Analyzing TechniqueRegarding the qualitative research, the writer analyzed the data descriptively. After gatheringthe occurrences of modulation and transposition in the Sang Pencerah English subtitles, theywere classified based on the procedures of modulation and transposition proposed by Vinayand Dalbernet which were supported and strengthened by Chuquet and Pailard and Catford(2001:60). After indentifying the translation procedures the writer focused on the level ofaccuracy and clarity in the English subtitles of the Sang Pencerah movie based on theinformant’s objective information gained through the personal interviewing, and the lastsection that was conclusion was followed to reveal the result from what had been analyzed bythe writer.

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