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Regulation of blood potassium


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Regulation of blood potassium

  1. 1. Prepared By : Muflih Dafer saifUniversity ID : 428812683E-mail : 12/16/12 1
  2. 2. Introduction Potassium is the principal electrolyte (cation) of intracellular fluid. Ninety percent of potassium is concentrated within the cell ; only small amounts are contained in bone and blood. Potassium balance is regulated through gastrointestinal tract absorption and kidneys excretion . Damaged cells release potassium into the blood. 12/16/12 2
  3. 3. Cont.. Potassium plays an important role in nerve conduction, muscle function, acid- base balance and osmotic pressure. Potassium controls the rate and force of contraction of the heart and, thus the cardiac output. Evidence of a Potassium deficit can be noted on an ECG by the presence of a U wave. 12/16/12 3
  4. 4. High sources of dietarypotassium are Bananas Carrots Tomatoes Oranges Potatoes and sweet potatoes Broccoli Nuts- etc. 12/16/12 4
  5. 5. Normal Serum Range ofPotassium Normal serum potassium levels are Adult: 3.5 – 5.2 mEq/LChildren (1 – 18 years): 3.4 – 4.7 mEq/LInfants (7 days –year): 4.1 – 5.3 mEq/LNeonates ( 0 – 7 days ): 3.7 – 5.9 mEq/L 12/16/12 5
  6. 6. Hypokalemia A low potassium blood level is referred to as hypokalemia. Hypokalemia is defined as a serum level of less than 3.5 mEq/L . Hypokalemia is common in the old people. The most frequent cause of potassium deficiency is GI loss. 12/16/12 6
  7. 7. Causes of hypokalemia Diarrhea, vomiting, sweating Starvation, malabsorption Cystic fibrosis Severe burns Alcoholism, chronic Osmotic hyperglycemia Respiratory alkalosis Renal tubular acidosis..- etc. 12/16/12 7
  8. 8. Symptoms & signs ofhypokalemia1. Constipation2. Respiratory depression.3. Cardiac arrhythmias4. Mild hypokalemia is often asymptomatic5. Moderate hypokalemia causes muscular weakness, myalgia, and muscle cramps6. More severe hypokalemia causes flaccid paralysis, hyporeflexia, and tetany.- etc. 12/16/12 8
  9. 9. Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum level of more than 5.0 mEq/L 12/16/12 9
  10. 10. Causes of hyperkalemia Drugs which block potassium excretion (angiotensin converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors and spironolactone). Renal failure, dehydration, obstruction, and trauma. Cell damage, as in burns, accidents, surgery, chemotherapy, DIC, Addison’s disease. Uncontrolled diabetes, decreased insulin. 12/16/12 10
  11. 11. Symptoms & signs ofhyperkalemia1. Hyperkalemia can be asymptomatic2. Nausea .3. Fatigue and muscle weakness.4. Tingling sensations.5. Slow heart beat and weak pulse.- etc. 12/16/12 11
  12. 12.  Hemolyzed blood may not be used. Leukocytosis, as occurs in leukemia, raisespotassium levels. A number of drugs raise potassium levels,especially potassium-sparing diuretics andnonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially inthe presence of renal disease. We Can Determine the K+ in Blood (serum orPlasma ) ,Stool , Urine, CSF and Saliva. 12/16/12 12
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