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Hydroelectric power plant


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Hydroelectric power plant

  1. 1. HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT Presented to Mr. Rizwan zafar Lecturer Technology Dept.. University of Lahore
  2. 2. GROUP MEMBERS Muddassar Latif Awan Ali Raza shabbir Sajid ali MC-6
  3. 3. CONTENTS Sources of power Generation Concept hydroelectric power plant Hydroelectric power plant History of hydroelectric power plants Major hydroelectric power plants Hydroelectric power plants in Pakistan Maximum power output Working of hydroelectric power plants Sizes of hydroelectric power plants Major components of hydropower plants Advantages and disadvantages
  4. 4. SOURCES OF POWER GENERATION • Fuel • Geothermal • Biomass • Solar • Nuclear • HYDROPOWER
  6. 6. CONCEPT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT Electricity by water power
  7. 7. CONCEPT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT Earth is a watery place. But just how much water exists on, in, and above our planet? About 71 percent of the Earth's surface is water-covered, and the oceans hold about 96.5 percent of all Earth's water. Rest is in lakes, rivers, streams, water vapours glaciers, icecaps
  8. 8. HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy accounting for 16 percent of global electricity generation –3,427 terawatt- hours of electricity production in 2010 and is expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years
  9. 9. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 32 percent of global hydropower in 2010. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 721 terawatt-hours of production in 2010, representing around 17 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT
  10. 10. HISTORY Humans have been harnessing water to perform work for thousands of years. The Greeks used water wheels for grinding wheat into flour more than 2,000 years ago. Besides grinding flour, the power of the water was used to saw wood and power textile mills and manufacturing plants. For more than a century, the technology for using falling water to create hydroelectricity has existed. The evolution of the modern hydropower turbine began in the mid-1700s when a French hydraulic and military engineer, Bernard Forest de Bélidor wrote Architecture Hydraulique
  11. 11. HISTORY During the 1700s and 1800s, water turbine development continued. In 1880, a brush arc light dynamo driven by a water turbine was used to provide theatre and storefront lighting in Grand Rapids, Michigan; and in 1881, a brush dynamo connected to a turbine in a flour mill provided street lighting at Niagara Falls, New York. These two projects used direct-current technology. Alternating current is used today. That breakthrough came when the electric generator was coupled to the turbine, which resulted in the world's, and the United States', first hydroelectric plant located in Appleton, Wisconsin, in 1882.
  13. 13. HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT IN PAKISTAN Under construction : neelum Jhelum ,Dia meer dasu, kalabagh bunji Dam etc
  14. 14. TARBELAPOWER STATION According to the original plan, four (4) power units of 175 MW generating capacity each were to be installed on each of the tunnels 1, 2 and 3 located on the right bank with the ultimate installed capacity of 21,00 MW. Tunnel 1 4 power units of 175MW = 700 MW Tunnel 2 6 power units of 175MW =1000 MW Tunnel 3 4 power units of 432 MW =1728 MW After study installed six (6) units, instead of four (4) only on tunnel NO.2. Based on studies, four power units of 432 MW capacity each were installed on tunnel NO.3. Thus the total ultimate power potential of the project enhanced from 2100 MW as originally planned to 3478 MW. It provides nearly 30 percent of all the irrigation water available in dry season
  16. 16. • the maximum power output is entirely dependent on how much head and flow is available at the site P = m x g x Hnet x System efficiency P = Power, measured in Watts (W). m = Mass flow rate in kg/s (numerically the same as the flow rate in liters/second because 1 liter of water weighs 1 kg). g = the gravitational constant, which is 9.81 m/s2. Hnet = the net head This is the gross head physically measured at the site, less any head losses. System efficiency = the product of all of the component efficiencies, which are normally the turbine, drive system and generator. For a ‘typical’ small hydro system the turbine efficiency would be 85%, drive efficiency 95% and generator efficiency 93%, so the overall system efficiency would be 0.85 x 0.95 x 0.93 = 0.751 or 75.1%. MAXIMUM POWER OUTPUT
  17. 17. MAXIMUM POWER OUTPUT if you had a relatively low gross head of 2.5 meters, and a turbine that could take a maximum flow rate of 3 m3/s, the maximum power output of the system would be: Hnet = 2.5 x 0.9 = 2.25 metres. 3 m3/s = 3,000 litres/second.
  18. 18. What is interesting here is that for two entirely different sites, one with a net head of 2.25 meters and the other 45 meters, can generate exactly the same amount of power because the low-head site has much more flow (3,000 liters / second) compared to the high-head site with just 150 liters/second. This clearly shows how the two main variables when calculating power output from a hydropower system are the head and the flow, and the power output is proportional to the head multiplied by the flow MAXIMUM POWER OUTPUT
  20. 20. WORKING Hydropower plants capture the energy of falling water to generate electricity. A turbine converts the kinetic energy of falling water into mechanical energy. Then a generator converts the mechanical energy from the turbine into electrical energy.
  21. 21. WORKING
  22. 22. SIZES OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS Facilities range in size from large power plants that supply many consumers with electricity to small and micro plants that individuals operate for their own energy needs or to sell power to utilities. • LARGE HYDROPOWER Hydropower as facilities that have a capacity of more than 30 megawatts. • SMALL HYDROPOWER Small hydropower as facilities that have a capacity of 100 kilowatts to 30 megawatts. • MICRO HYDROPOWER A micro hydropower plant has a capacity of up to 100 kilowatts. A small or micro-hydroelectric power system can produce enough electricity for a home, farm or village.
  23. 23. MAJOR COMPONENTS There are six major components 1. Reservoir 2. Dam & spillways 3. Intake or control gates 4. Penstock 5. Turbines 6. Generators
  24. 24. Reservoir The water reservoir is the place behind the dam where water is stored. The water in the reservoir is located higher than the rest of the dam structure. The height of water in the reservoir decides how much potential energy the water possesses. The higher the height of water, the more its potential energy. The high position of water in the reservoir also enables it to move downwards effortlessly. MAJOR COMPONENTS
  25. 25. • Dam A Dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. The dam is the most important component of hydroelectric power plant. The dam is built on a large river that has abundant quantity of water throughout the year. It should be built at a location where the height of the river is sufficient to get the maximum possible potential energy from water. MAJOR COMPONENTS
  26. 26. Spillways A spillway is a structure used to provide the controlled release of flows from a dam into a downstream area, typically being the river that was dammed. In the UK they may be known as overflow channels. Spillways release floods so that the water does not overtop and damage or even destroy the dam. MAJOR COMPONENTS
  27. 27. Intake or control gates These are the gates built on the inside of the dam. The water from reservoir is released and controlled through these gates. These are called inlet gates because water enters the power generation unit through these gates. When the control gates are opened the water flows due to gravity through the penstock and towards the turbines. The water flowing through the gates possesses potential as well as kinetic energy. MAJOR COMPONENTS
  28. 28. The penstock is the long pipe or the shaft that carries the water flowing from the reservoir towards the power generation unit, The water in the penstock possesses kinetic energy due to its motion and potential energy due to its height. The total amount of power generated in the hydroelectric power plant depends on the height of the water reservoir and the amount of water flowing through the penstock. The amount of water flowing through the penstock is controlled by the control gates. MAJOR COMPONENTS
  29. 29. Turbine Water flowing from the penstock is allowed to enter the power generation unit, which houses the turbine and the generator. When water falls on the blades of the turbine the kinetic and potential energy of water is converted into the rotational motion of the blades of the turbine. The rotating blades causes the shaft of the turbine to also rotate. The turbine shaft is enclosed inside the generator. In most hydroelectric power plants there is more than one power generation unit. MAJOR COMPONENTS
  30. 30. Generators In the generator the electricity is produced. The shaft of the water turbine rotates in the generator, which produces alternating current in the coils of the generator. It is the rotation of the shaft inside the generator that produces magnetic field which is converted into electricity by electromagnetic field induction. in hydroelectricity power plants potential energy of water is converted into electricity. MAJOR COMPONENTS
  31. 31. Advantages are Hydropower is fueled by water, so it's a clean fuel source, meaning it won't pollute the air like power plants that burn fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas. Hydroelectric power is a domestic source of energy, allowing each state to produce their own energy without being reliant on international fuel sources. Some hydropower facilities can quickly go from zero power to maximum output. Because hydropower plants can generate power to the grid immediately, they provide essential back-up power during major electricity outages or disruptions. hydropower efforts produce a number of benefits, such as flood control, irrigation, and water supply. ADVANTAGES
  32. 32.  Hydroelectricity does not "use" water, all of the water is returned to its source of origin.  Cheep rate of electricity  Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a constant rate.  When in use, electricity produced by dam systems do not produce green house gases.  Hydropower creates reservoirs that offer a variety of recreational opportunities, notably fishing, swimming, and boating. Most water power installations are required to provide some public access to the reservoir to allow the public to take advantage of these opportunities. ADVANTAGES
  33. 33. Disadvantages are  Hydroelectric plants are very expensive to build, and must be built to a very high standard The creation of dams can also create flooding of land, which means natural environment and the natural habitat of animals, and even people, may be destroyed. Changing the river pathway and shortage of water can cause serious disputes between people. Making dams on rivers affect the amount, quality and temperature of water that flow in streams which has drastic effects on agriculture and drinking water. Hydropower plants can be impacted by drought. When water is not available, the hydropower plants can't produce electricity. DISADVANTAGES
  34. 34. • YOUR QUESTIONs
  35. 35. • • • • • • • components-of-hydroelectric-power-plants-part-one/ • • • REFERENCES
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